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Full text of "Thoreau's fact book in the Harry Elkins Widener collection in the Harvard College Library"

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Thoreau Library 

of Walter Harding 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/thoreausfactbook02thor 



THOREAU'S FACT BOOK 

IN THE HARRY ELKINS WIDENER COLLECTION 

IN THE HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 
ANNOTATED AND INDEXED 

By 
KENNETH WALTER CAMERON 

Trinity College, Hartford 

VOLUME 
II 




TRANSCENDENTAL BOOKS DRAWER 1080 HARTFORD 1 



COPYRIGHT 1966 8Y 
KENNETH WALTER CAMERON 



FOREWORD 

Whereas Volume Three will provide a definitive edition of the Fact Book it- 
self together with an extensive index designed to assist those reading Thoreau's 
works in depth and those who will undertake vast editorial projects of the com- 
ing decade, the present volume may be considered (along with the Journal ) as 
Thoreau's workshop. It is a veritable library of his sources, the importance of 
which Prof. John Aldrich Christie ( Thoreau as World Traveler ) has recently demon- 
strated. They added levels of meaning to all that he wrote and provided some of 
his richest imagery „ 

Each of Thoreau's borrowings from his sources is here presented in context so 
that the student may see at a glance how he read, what he looked for, how he com- 
pressed his harvest, and how he carefully indicated exact quotation. Indeed, 
herein one may essentially read his one hundred and fifty sources in two hundred 
volumes as he read them, observe what he skimmed, and note what he probably car- 
ried in his memory. Since extracts from this same library were also copied in- 
to the Journal, this work must be considered an extension thereof and one of its 
important dimensions. 

I have placed in boxes or frames most of the passages Thoreau thought impor- 
tant so that the reader of the present volume will find a "Q" text — in some re- 
spects more useful than the transcript of the Fact Book itself. The following 
table of contents will provide students with a fresh bibliography of Thoreau's 

reading. 



Agassiz and Gould: Principles of Zoology (Revised ed.) Boston, 1851 ... 8 

American Association for the Advancement of Science: Proceedings , 

III (1850) 259 

Anderson: Lake N garni ; or , Explorations .. .Southwest Africa . N. Y., 1856 . . 11 

Annual of Scientific Discovery : or . Year-Book of Facts in Science and 



Art, II 



iuc mscoverv ; or . lear-nooK oi racts in ocience ana 

(Boston, 1851) 261 



Audubon and Bachman: The Vivaparous Quadrupeds of North America . 

Vol. I: New-York, 1846 15 

Baird: Catalogue of North American Mammals .. .Smithsonian Institution . 

Washington, D. C, July, 1857 44, 542 

Bard: Waikna ; or , Adventures on the Mosquito Shore . New York, 1855 .... 478 

Bartram: Observations .♦ .Travels from Pensilvania to Onondago .. .Canada . 

London, 1751 45 

Bartram: Travels Through North & South Carolina , Georgia. . .Florida . 

Philadelphia, 1791 50 

Bauer: Lives of the Brothers Humboldt, Alexander and William . Tr. from 

the German of Klencke & Schlesier. New York, 1853 588 

Beckwith: "Report of Explorations for a Route for the Pacific Rail- 
road... from the Mouth of the Kansas River, Mo., to the Sevier Lake". 521 

Beckwourth: The Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth . N. Y., 1856 . 52 

Beverley: The History of Virginia . In Four Parts . (2nd ed.) London, 1722 . 53 

Bewick: History of British Birds . The Figures Engraved on Wood . 

(2 vols.) Newcastle, 1797-1804 61 

iv 



V 

Boston Daily Evening Traveller , VII, no. 260, Wednesday, Feb. 4, 1852, 
page 1, cols. 4-5: B. A. Gould, Jr., "The Progress of Astronomy 
During the Last Half Century" 66 

Bradford: History of Plymouth Plantation. . .From the Original Manuscript . 

Boston, 1856 68 

Brewster: Letters on Natural Magic Addressed to Sir Walter Scott . 

New-York, 1836 71 

Broderip: Leaves from the Note Book of a Naturalist . Boston, 1852 .... 72 

Broderip: Zoological Recreations . London, 1847 . 77 

Brooks: Elements of Ornithology (Elementary Course in Natural History) . 

Boston, 1847 " 83 

Brooks: History of the Town of Medford , Middlesex County . Massachusetts * 

Boston, 1855 88 

Bryant: Letters of a Traveller ; Notes of Things Seen . (2nd ed.) N. Y., 

1850 93 

Burton: Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Mecca . 

New York, 1856 94 

Cellini: Memoirs of Benvenuto Cellini . Tr. Thomas Roscoe. (2 vols.) 

New-York, 1845 96 

Champlain: Les Voyages de la Nouvelle France Occidentale , Dicte Canada . 

Paris, 1632 99 

Clarke: Eleven Weeks in Europe : and What May Be Seen in That Time . 

Boston, 1852 . „ 101 

Cook: The Three Voyages of Captain James Cook Round the World . 

(7 vols.) London, 1821 . . . . . . . 7~ 102 

Culbertson: "Journal of An Expedition to the Mauvaises Terres and the 

Upper Missouri in 1850" 104 

Cuvier: The Animal Kingdom. . .with Additional Descriptions by Griffith . 

(16 vols.) London, 1827-1835 ..... . . 106 

De Kay: Zoology of New-York .. .Part III . Reptiles and Amphibia . 

Albany, 1842 107 

De Quincey: Historical and Critical Essays . (2 vols.) Boston, 1853 . . . 110 

Dickens: Household Words . A Weekly Journal . Vol. Ill: New-York, 1851 . 176 

Evelyn : Sylva . Or a Discourse of Forest-Trees. . .Terra. . .Pomona . 

London, 1679 114 

Forbes: Travels Through the Alps of Savoy and... the Pennine Chain . 

Edinburgh, 1843 134 

Forester: The Complete Manual for Young Sportsmen. . .for the Instruction 

and Use of the Youth of America . New York, 1856 589 

Franklin: Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea . 

Philadelphia, 1824 135 

Gilliss: Chile: Its Geography . Climate . Earthquakes . Government . Social 
Condition . Mineral and Agricultural Resources . Commerce , &c . 
Washington, D. C, 1855 518 



VI 

Gilpin: Observations on the Coasts of Hampshire , Sussex , and Kent . 

London, 1804 139 

Gilpin: Observations. . .Mountains , and Lakes of Cumberland , and West - 
moreland . (2nd ed., 2 volsT) London , 1788 '. '. T 140 

Gilpin: Observations on the River Wye , and. . .South Wales. . .1770 . 

(5th ed.) London, 1800 ". T\ 145 

Gilpin: Remarks on Forest Scenery and Other Woodland Views . (3rd ed., 

2 vols.) London, 1808 7~~. '. ". . 146 

Gilpin: Three Essays : On Picturesque Beauty ; on Picturesque Travel ; and 

on Sketching Landscape . (3rd ed.) London, 1808 147 

Giraud: The Birds of Long Island . New-York, 1844 148 

Gould: "The Progress of Astronomy During the Last Half Century" 66 

Gray: See John Torrey. 

Gunnison: "Report on Explorations for a Route for the Pacific Railroad" . 520 

Hammond: Hunting Adventures in the Northern Wilds . New York, 1856. . . . 152 

Harlan: Fauna Americana. . .Mammif erous Animals Inhabiting North America . 

Philadelphia, 1825 154 

Harvey: Nereis Boreali-Americana. . .Marine Algae of North America . 

(3 vols.) Washington & New York, 1851-1858 7~ 155 

Head: The Emigrant . (2nd ed.) London, 1846 161 

Heckewelder: A Narrative of the Mission of the United Brethren among the 

Delaware and Mohegan Indians . Philadelphia, 1820 165 

Herbert: The Complete Manual for Young Sportsmen . By Frank Forester 

f pseud . j. New York, 1856 590 

Herbert: Frank Forester's Field Sports of the United States . 

(2 vols.) New- York, 1849 168 

Holland: History of Western Massachusetts . (2 vols.) Springfield, 1855 172 

Holton: New Grenada: Twenty Months in the Andes . New York, 1857 .... 173 

Household Words . A Weekly Journal . Conducted by Charles Dickens . 

Vol. Ill: New-York, 1851 176 

Howitt: Land, Labor and Gold ; or . Two Years in Victoria . (2 vols.) 

Boston, 1855 178 

Hue: A Journey Through the Chinese Empire . (2 vols.) New York, 1855 . . 180 

Hue: Recollections of a Journey through Tartarv . Thibet, and China . 

[Condensed translation by Mrs. Percy Sinnett ] (2 vols . ) N .Y . , 1852 182 

Humboldt: Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of 

America . (3 vo 1 s . ) London, 1852 '. '. ". .. '. '. '. '. .. '. '. T . . 193 

Hunter: Manners and Customs of Several Indian Tribes Located West of the 

Mississippi . Philadelphia, 1823 194 

Hunter: Memoirs of a Captivity among the Indians of North America . 

(New ed. ) London, 1823 ~. .. ". '. '. '. !! '. '. '. '. '. '. '. ~. T .... 195 



vii 
Josselyn: An Account of Two Voyages to New-England . London, 1674 .... 198 

Kalm: Travels into North America ; containing its Natural History . (Tr. 

John Reinhold Forster) {z vols.) Warrington / London, 1770-1771 . 206 

Kane: Arctic Explorations in the Years 1855 . '54, '55 . (2 vols.) 

Philadelphia, 1856 213 

Kane: The U. S. Grinnell Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin . 

New York, 1854 217 

Kirby and Spence: An Introduction to Entomology .. .Natural History of 

Insects . (4 vols.) London, 1815-1826 . '. ". '. '. ". '. '. .. T~. . . 218 

Klencke : Alexander von Humboldt: A Biographical Monument . Tr. Juliette 

Bauer. New York, 1853 588 

Knapp: The Journal of a Naturalist . Philadelphia, 1831 ; . . . 231 

Kraitsir: Glossology: Being a Treatise on the Nature of Language and 

on the Language of Nature . New-York, 1852 233 

La Hontan: Memoires de L'Amerique Septentrionale . (2 vols.) Amsterdam, 

1705 236 

Lalemant: Relation de ce qui s'est Passe\..en la Nouvelle France , es 

Annees 1647. & 1648 . Paris, 1649 237 

Lawson : A New Voyage to Carolina. . .Exact Description and Natural His - 
tory . London, 1709 245 

Layard: Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon... A Second Ex - 
pedition . London, 1853 256 

Le Conte : "Observations on a Remarkable Exudation of Ice from the Stems 

of Vegetables" 259 

Lempriere : A Classical Dictionary .. .All the Proper Names Mentioned in An - 
cient Authors ! (2nd Am. from 8th London ed.) New-York, 1816 T~. 263 

Lincoln: Familiar Lectures on Botany . New York, 1849 264 

Lindley: A Natural System of Botany : or . A Systematic View. . .of the Whole 

Vegetable Kingdom . (2nd ed.) London, 1836 272 

Linne: Amoenitates Academicae ; seu Dissertationes Variae . Physicae , Medi - 

cae , Botanicae . (7 vols.") Holmiae, 1749-1769 277 

Linne: Philosophia Botanica in qua Explicantur Fundamenta Botanica . 

(Editio altera) Viennae, Austriae, 1763 288 

Loskiel: History of the Mission of the United Brethren among the Indians 

in North America . Tr. Christian Ignatius La Trobe. London, 1794. 291 

Loudon: Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum ; or . The Trees and Shrubs 

of Britain . (2nd ed. , 8 vols.) London, 1844 293 

Loudon: An Encyclopaedia of Plants .. .indigenous , cultivated in . or intro - 
duced to Britain . London, 1841 321 

Lowell: "Notices Communicated by Rev. Dr. [Charles] Lowell" 332 

Macgillivray : Descriptions of the Rapacious Birds of Great Britain . 

Edinburgh, London, Dublin, 1836 353 



viii 

Magazine of Zoology and Botany , ed. Sir W. Jardine and P. J. Selby, 

I (1837) and II (1838) 337 

Mallet: Northern Antiquities : An Historical Account. . .of the Ancient 
Scandinavians . Tr. Bishop Percy. Revised by I. A. Blackwell . 
An Abstract of the Eyrbyggja Saga by Sir Walter Scott. 
(New ed.) London, 1847 350 

Mantell: Petrifactions and their Teachings ; or , A Hand-Book to the 

Gallery of Organic Remains of the British Museum . London, 1851 . 353 

Marcy: Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana , in the Year 1852 . 

Washington, D. C, 1853 354 

Massachusetts Historical Society: Collections . I Ser. IX (1804) and 

IV Ser. I (1852) 332, 517 

Maury: "Address before the Geographical and Nautical Society" 369 

Maury: The Physical Geography of the Sea . New York, 1855 356 

Miller: The Testimony of the Rocks : or . Geology in its Bearings on the 

Two Theologies . Natural and Revealed . Boston, 1857 358 

Milner: The Gallery of Nature or Wonders of the Earth and the Heavens . 

Condensed and revised by Caleb Wright. (2 vols.) Boston, [1855 ] 359 

Montanus: "Description of New Netheriand. 1671" . 503 

Morton: Crania Americana : or . A Comparative View of the Skulls of Var - 
ious Aboriginal Nations . Philadelphia and London, 1839 362 

Morton: New English Canaan or New Canaan . Containing an Abstract of 

New England . Amsterdam, 1637 365 

New-York Daily Times . Ill, no. 755 (Feb. 17, 1854), page 8, cols. 1-3 . . 369 

New-York Historical Society: Collections . II Ser. I (N. Y. 1841) .... 544 

Nuttall: The North American Sylva : or . A Description of the Forest Trees 
of the United States , Canada , and Nova Scotia . (3 vols.) 
Philadelphia, 1842-1849 375 

O'Callaghan: The Documentary History of the State of New-York . Vol. IV: 

Albany, 1851 502 

Olmsted: A Journey Through Texas ; or, A Saddle-Trip on the Southwestern 

Frontier . New York, 1857 377 

Osborn: Stray Leaves from An Arctic Journal : or , Eighteen Months in the 
Polar Regions in Search of Sir John Franklin's Expedition . 
London, 1852 381 

Owen: Report of a Geological Survey of Wisconsin . Iowa , and Minnesota : 

and... of Nebraska Territory . Philadelphia, 1852 383 

Parrot: Journey to Ararat . New York, 1846 386 

Pfeiffer: A Lady's Voyage Round the World . Tr. Mrs. Percy Sinnett. 

New York, 1852 390 

Pickering: The Races of Man: and their Geographical Distribution . 

London, 1849 594 



ix 

Pope: "Report of Exploration of a Route for the Pacific Railroad... 

from the Red River to the Rio Grande" 529 

Pulteney: A General View of the Writings of Linnaeus . (2nd ed. with 
additions by William George Maton and the Diary of Linnaeus) . 
London, 1805 398 

Pursh: Flora Americae Septentrionalis : or .. .Description of the Plants 

of North America . (2nd ed., 2 vols.) London, 1816 . ". '. ! 7~. . 402 

Raffles: The History of Java . (2 vols.) London, 1817 405 

Reid: The Boy Hunters , or Adventures in Search of a White Buffalo . 

Boston, 1853 410 

Reid: The Desert Home , or the Adventures of a Lost Family in the 

Wilderness . Boston, 1853 412 

Reid: The Forest Exiles : or , the Perils of a Peruvian Family amid the 

Wilds of the Amazon . Boston, 1855 414 

Reid: The Hunters' Feast : or, Conversations Around the Camp-Fjre . 

New York, [1856] 420 

Reid: The Young Vovageurs . or The Boy Hunters in the North . Boston, 1854 426 



ii 



Reid: The Young Yagers , or A Narrative of Hunting Adventures in 

Southern Africa . Boston, 1857 436 

Richardson: Arctic Searching Expedition: A Journal of a Boat -Voyage .. . 

in Search of... Sir John Franklin . New York, 1852 437 

Richardson: Fauna Boreali-Americana : or the Zoology of the Northern 

Parts of British America" ! C2 vols.) London, 1829-1831 . . . . . 447 

Sabine: Report on the Principal Fisheries of the American Seas 455 

Sagard-Theodat : Le Grand Voyage du Pays Pes Hurons , situe" en l'Amer - 

iaue . Paris, 1632 456 

Sagard-Theodat: Histoire du Canada et Voyages que les Freres Mineurs 
Recollects y ont faicts pour la Conversion des Infidelles . 
Paris, 1636. 458 

Scott, Sir Walter: See Mallet. 

Sitgreaves: Report of an Expedition Down the Zuni and Colorado Rivers . 

Washington, D. C., 1854 460 

Sleeman: Rambles and Recollections of An Indian Official . (2 vols.) 

London, 1844 462 

Smithsonian Institution: Fifth Annual Report of the Board of Regents . 

Washington, D. C, 1851 467 

Snorri Sturleson: The Heimskringla ; or . Chronicle of the Kings of Nor - 
way . (3 vols.) London, 1844 468 

Springer: Forest Life and Forest Trees: Comprising Winter Camp-Life... 

Maine and New Brunswick . New York, 1851 475 

Squier: Waikna ; or, Adventures on the Mosquito Shore . New York, 1855 . 478 

Stanley: A Familiar History of Birds : Their Nature . Habits , and In - 

stincts. London, 1851 480 



X 

Stoever: The Life of Sir Charles Linnaeus . Knight of the Swedish Order 

of the Polar Star . London, 1794 490 

Talbot: Five Years' Residence in the Canadas ; Including a Tour . . .in» . . 

1823. London, 1824 496 

Tanner: A Narrative of the Captivity and Adventures of John Tanner dur - 
ing Thirty Years Residence Among the Indians . New York, 1830 . . . 498 

Tienhoven: "Information Relative to Taking up Land in New Nether- 
land" (1650) 502 

Torrey and Gray: "Report of the Botany of the Expedition" 522, 531 

Toussenel: L 'Esprit des Betes: Zoologie Passionnelle — Mammiferes 

de France . (2nd ed.) Paris, 1855 ". '. ". ". '. '. ". '. '. ". 7~ 504 

Trench: On the Study of Words . (From the 2nd London ed., revised and 

enlarged) Redfield, 1852 506 

Tuckerman: An Enumeration of North American Lichenes . Cambridge, [Mass.], 

1845 514 

Tufts: "Of the word Schooner : A Communication" 517 

United States Navy: The U. S. Naval Astronomical Expedition to the 

Southern Hemisphere during the Years 1849-1852: Vol. I: Chile 
(Washington, D. C, 1855) 518 



• * • 



United States War Department: Reports of Explorations and Surveys. 

for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean 
[1853-1856J. Vol. II— III (Washington, D. C, 1855-1857). . . 520, 542 

Van der Donck : A Description of the New Netherlands. . .Peculiar Customs 
of the Savages , or Natives of the Land .. .Habits of the Beaver... 
Advantages of the Country " (2nd ed.) Amsterdam, 1656 '. '. '. '. . . . 544 

Vincent: The Voyage of Nearchus from the Indus to the Euphrates .. .First 
Navigation Attempted by Europeans in the Indian Ocean . 
London, 1797 547 

Warren: Para : or, Scenes and Adventures on the Banks of the Amazon . 

New York, 1851 552 

Webster: The Private Correspondence of Daniel Webster . Ed. Fletcher 

Webster. (2 vols.) Boston, 1857 . 7~~. ". '. T" 553 

Wells: The Annual of Scientific Discovery: or , Year-Book of Facts in 

Science and Art " II (Boston, 1851) T" 261 

White: The Natural History of Selborne with Observations on Various 

Parts of Nature" London (Bonn) 1854 '. '. ". ". '. '. ". '. '. . . . . . . 555 

Wilkinson: The Human Body and its Connection with Man , Illustrated by 

the Principal Organs . Philadelphia, 1851 559 

Wilkinson: A Popular Account of the Ancient Egyptians . Revised and 

abridged from his larger work . ( 2 vols. ) London, 1854 562 

Wood: A Class-Book of Botany . Designed for Colleges . Academies , and 

other Seminaries . (23rd ed., rev. and enlarged) Boston, 1851 . . 565 

Wood: The Illustrated Natural History .. .with 450 Original Designs by 

William Harvey . New York, 1854 569 



xi 

Wood: New-England's Prospect . Being a True , Lively , and Experimental 
Description of... New England . (3rd ed.] London, Printed 1639. 
Boston, New-England, Re-printed, 1764 <, . 571 

Wordsworth: Memoirs of William Wordsworth , Poet-Laureate , D.C.L . 

(2 volsD London, 1851 5 84 

Wrangell: Narrative of an Expedition to the Polar Sea , in the Years 

1820, 1821, 1822, and 1823 . New-York, 1842 5 85 





IV. Modern Age. 
III. Tertiary Age. 

II. Secondary Age. 

I. Paleozoic Age. 
Metamorphic Rocks. 




Upper Tertiary Formation. 

Lower Tertiary " 

Cretaceous " 

Oolitic •• 

Trias " 

Carboniferous " 

Devonian " 

Upper Silurian " 

Lower Silurian " 



CRKST ©F THE EARTH AS REUNITE® T@ 

mUmo-v* 



PRINCIPLES OF ZOOLOGY: 

TOUCHING 

\ 

THE STRUCTURE, DEVELOPMENT, DISTRIBUTION, 
AND NATURAL ARRANGEMENT 



RACES OF ANIMALS, LIVING AND EXTINCT 

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS. 
PAHT I. 

COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY. 

FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES. 





BT 




LOUIS 


AGASS1Z and A. A. 

KHVISBD EDITION. 

BOSTON: 


GOULD. 


GOULD AND LINCOLN, 


it 


WASHINGTON STREET. 

1851. 





6 



PREFACE. 



E. Desor, for many years an a&sociato of Professor Agassiz, from Count 
Pourtal6i and E. C. Cabot, Esq., and also from Professor Asa Gray, 
by valuable suggestions in the revision of the letter-press. 

The first part is devoted to Comparative Anatomy, Physiology, 
and Embryology, as the basis of Classification, and also to the illus- 
tration of the geographical distribution and the geological succession 
of Animals ; the second to Systematic Zoology, in which the prin- 
ciples of Classification will be applied, and the principal groups of 
animals will be briefly characterized. 

Should our aim be attained, this work will produce more enlarged 
Ideas of man's relations to Nature, and more exalted conceptions of 
the Plan of Creation and its Great Author. 

Botox, /urn 1, 184& 



PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION. 

In revising the present work, the authors have endeavored to 
render more precise those passages which admitted of too broad a 
signification or of a double interpretation; and to correct such errors 
as had arisen from inadvertence, or such as the rapid progress of Sci- 
ence has disclosed. They are indebted for many suggestions on 
these points to several distinguished teachers who have used the work 
as a text book, and more especially to Professor Wyman, of Harvard 
University. Several entirely new paragraphs have also been added. 

A list of some of the principal authors who have made original 
researches, or of treatises which enter more into detail than was ad- 
missible in an elementary work, has been given at the close of the 
volume, for the use of those who would pursue the subject of 
Zoology in a more extended manner. 

The work having thus been revised and enlarged, the authors sub- 
mit it to the public with increased confidence in its accuracy and 
usefulness. 

Soaioir, February 1, 1861. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

INTRODUCTION 17 

CHAPTER FIRST. 

The Sphere and fundamental Principles of Zoology . 25 

CHAPTER SECOND. 

General Properties of Organized Bodies .... 35 

SECTION I. 

Organized and Unorganized Bodies 35 

SECTION II. 

Elementary Structure of Organized Bodies 36 

SECTION III. 

inferences between Animals and Plants 41 

CHAPTER THIRD. 

Functions and Organs of Animal Life .... 44 

SECTION I. 

Of the Nervous System and General Sensation .... 44 

SECTION II. Ple , 

Of the Special Senses 48 

1. Of Sight 48 

2. Of Hearing 65 

3. Of Smell 60 

4. OfTaste 62 

6. OfTouch 63 

6. Of the Voice 64 

CHAPTER FOURTH. 

Of Intelligence and Instinct ...... 67 

CHAPTER FIFTH. 

Of Motion 73 

SECTION I. 

Apparatus of Motion . ■ . .-...-. . • 73 

SECTION II. 

Of Locomotion 79 

1. Plan of the Organs of Locomotion ..... 82 

2. Of Standing, and the Modes of Progression ... 88 

"Walking 90 

Running 91 

Leaping . . • • 91 

Climbing 92 

Flying . 92 

Swimming 93 

CHAPTER SIXTH. 

Of Nutrition ■ 96 

SECTION I. 

Of Digestion 97 

Digestive Tube 97 

Chymification • 100 

Chylification 100 

Mastication 101 

In3alivation , . . 108 

Deglutition 108 

CHAPTER SEVENTH. 

Ftgt 

Of the Blood and Circulation Ill 



CHAPTER EIGHTH. 
Of Respiration 118 

CHAPTER NINTH. 

IOC 

Of the Secretions "" 

CHAPTER TENTH. 

isi 

Embryology " 

SECTION I. 

Of the Egg J» 

Form of the Egg 16i 

Formation of the Egg 133 

Ovulation 13 * 

Laying ]f, 

Composition of the Egg . .... 1<S7 

SECTION II. 
Development of the Young within the Egg 139 

SECTION III. 
Zoological Importance of Embryology - 153 

CHAPTER ELEVENTH. 
Peculiar Modes of Reproduction 166 

SECTION I. 
Gemmiparous and Fissiparous Reproduction .... 156 

SECTION II. 
Alternate and Equivocal Reproduction 168 

SECTION III. 

rage 

Consequences of Alternate Generation ...... 167 

CHAPTER TWELFTH. 
Metamorphoses of Animals 174 

CHAPTER THIRTEENTH. 

Geographical Distribution of Animals .... 186 

SECTION I. 
General Laws of Distribution 186 

SECTION II. 

Distribution of the Faunas . . . . 194- 

I. Arctic Fauna ■ 197 

II. Temperate Faunas 198 

III. Tropical Faunas . 204 

SECTION III. 
Conclusions 207 

CHAPTER FOURTEENTH. 

Geological Succession of Animals ; or, their Distribution 

in Time 214 

SECTION I. 
Structure of the Earth's Crust 214 

SECTION II. 

Ages of Nature 221 

Palaeozoic Age : . . 223 

Secondary Age . . 227 

Tertiary Age 233 

Modern Age 235 

Conclusions 237 



172 



10 



REPRODUCTION. 



contained several hundred eggs, which, on being freed from 
their envelop, float in the water. As these eggs are innu- 
merable, it is not astonishing that the Sculpins should occa- 
sionally swallow some of them with their prey. The eggs, 
being thus introduced into the stomach of the fish, find con- 
ditions favorable to their development ; and thus the species 
is propagated, and at the same time transmitted from one 
generation of the fish to another. The eggs which are not 
swallowed are probably lost. 

3G3. All animals swallow, in the same manner, with their 
food, and in the water they drink, numerous eggs of such 
parasites, any one of which, finding in the intestine of the 
animal favorable conditions, may be hatched. It is probable 
that each animal affords the proper conditions for some par- 
ticular species of worm ; and thus we may explain how it is 
that most animals have parasites peculiar to themselves. 

364. As respects the Infusoria, we also k now that most 
of them, the Rotifera especially, lay eggs^J These eggs, 
which are extremely minute, (some of them only iitu'otj of 
an inch in diameter,) are scattered every where in great 
profusion, in water, in the air, in mist, and even in snow. 



Assiduous observers have not only seen the eggs laid, but 
moreover, have followed their development, and have seen 
the young animal forming in the egg, then escaping from it, 
increasing in size, and, in its turn, laying eggs. They have 
been able, in some instances, to follow them even to the fifth 
and sixth generation. 

365. This being the case, it is much more natural to 
suppose that the Infusoria * are products of like germs, than 



SPONTANEOUS GENERATION. 



173 



to assign to them a spontaneous origin altogether incompati- 
ble with what we know of organic development. Their 
rapid appearance is not at all astonishing, when we reflect 
that some mushrooms attain a considerable size in a few 
hours, but yet pass through all the phases of regular growth ; 
and, indeed, since we have ascertained the different modes of 
generation among the lower animals, no substantial difficul- 
ties to the axiom, " omne vivum ex ovo" (275,) any longer 
exist. 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE FAUNAS. 



197 



a close analogy to those of the arctic region. It is another 
glacial fauna, namely, the antarctic. Having thus sketched 
the general divisions of the faunas, it remains to point out 
the principal features of each of them. 

420. I. Arctic Fauna. — The predominant feature of the 
Arctic Fauna is its uniformity. The species are few in num- 
ber ; but, on the other hand, the number of individuals is 
immense. We need only refer to the clouds of birds which 
hover upon the islands and shores of the North ; the shoals 
of fishes, the salmon among others, which thr ong the coasts 
of Greenland, Iceland, and Hudson's Bay. I There is great 

nn irr^rmitxr nlcr\ in tnr> fr»i-m nnn nnlnp rtr tnpep nmmniQ lNJr»t 



uniformity, also, in the form and color of these animals. Notl 
a single bird of brilliant plumage is found, and few fishes/ 
with varied hues. Their forms are regular, and their tints] 
as dusky as the northern heavens. / The most conspicuous 
animals are the white-bear, the moose, the reindeer, the 
musk-ox, the white-fox, the polar-hare, the lemming, and 



various Seals ; but the most important arc the Whales, which, 
it is to be remarked, rank lowest of all the Mammals. 
Among the Birds may be enumerated some sea-eagles and 
a few Waders, while the great majority are aquatic species, 
such as gulls, cormorants, divers, petrels, ducks, geese, gan- 
nets, &c, all belonging to the lowest orders of Birds. Rep- 
tiles are altogether wanting. The Articulata are represented 
by numerous marine worms, and by minute crustaceans of 
the orders Isopoda and Amphipoda. Insects are rare, and 
of inferior types. Of the type of Mollusks, there are 

Acephala, particularly Tunicata, fewer Gasteropods, and 
very few Cephalopods. Among the Radiata are a great 
number of jelly-fishes, particularly the Beroe ; and to con- 
clude with the Echinoderms, there are several star-fishes 
and Echini, but few Holothuria?. The class of Polypi is 
very scantily represented, and those producing stony corals 
are entirely wanting. 



202 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. 



The Canadian elk is confined to the northern portion of the 
fauna ; while the prairie wolf, the fox-squirrel, the Bassan3, 
and numerous birds, never leave the southern portion.* 

430. In America, as in the Old World, the temperate 
fauna is further subdivided into several districts, which may 
be regarded as so many zoological provinces, in each of 
which there is a certain number of animals differing from 
those in the others, though very closely allied. Temperate 
America presents us with a striking example in this respect. 
We have, on the one hand : 

1st. The fauna of the United States properly so called, on 
this side of the Rocky Mountains. 

2d. The fauna of Oregon and California, beyond those 
mountains. 

Though there are some animals which traverse the chain 
of the Rocky Mountains, and are found in the prairies of 
the Missouri as well as on the banks of the Columbia, as, 
for example, the Rocky Mountain deer, (Antilope furcifer,) 
yet, if we regard the whole assemblage of animals, they are 
found to differ entirely. Thus, the rodents, part of the 
ruminants, the insects, and all the mollusks, belong to dis- 
tinct species. 

431. The faunas or zoological provinces of the Old World 
which correspond to these are : 



* The types which are peculiar to temperate America, and are not foundl 
in Europe, are the Opossum, several genera of Inscctivora, among them 1 
the shrew-mole (Scalops aquaticim) and the star-nose mole, ( Condylura] 
cristata,) which replaces the Mygale of the Old "World ; several genera 
of rodents, especially the muskrat. Among the types characteristic of I 
America must also be reckoned the snapping-turtle among the tortoises ;[ 
the Menobranchus and Menopoma, among the Salamanders; the Gar-1 
pike and Amia among the fishes ; and finally, among the Crustacea, the/ 
Limulus. Among the types which are wanting in temperate America,! 
and which are found in Europe, may be cited the horse, the wild boar, and J 
the true mouse. All the species of domestic mice which live in America I 
have been brought from the Old World. , ^ 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE FAUNAS. 



205 



and variety elsewhere unknown ; and lastly, the Polyps there 
display an activity of which the other zones present no ex- 
ample. Whole groups of islands are surrounded with coral 
reefs formed by those little animals. 

435. The variety of the tropical fauna is further enriched 



11 



by the circumstance that each continent furnishes new and 
peculiar forms. Sometimes whole types are limited to one 
oontinent, as the sloth, the toucans, and the humming-birds to 
America, the giraffe and hippopotamus to Africa ; and again 
animals of the same group have different characterist ics, ac^ 
cording as they are found on different continents, f Thus, 



, the monkeys of America have flat and widely separated 
nostrils, thirty-six teeth, and generally a long, prehensile tail. 
The monkeys of the Old World, on the contrary, have nostrils 
close together, only thirty-two teeth, and not one of th em has/ 
a prehensile tail. )" 




X 






\ 









LAO NGAII; 



OB, 



EXPLOKATIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



FOUR TEARS' WANDERINGS IN THE WILDS 



SOUTHWESTERN AFRICA. 



CHARLES JOHN ANDERSSON. 



WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS, 

RErBESEHTIKO SFORTINO ADVEMTORES, SUBJECTS OF KATVR1L HISTOBV, 
DEVICES rOR DESTROTIKO WILD ANIMALS, &C. 



NEW YORK: 

HARPER * BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 

FRANKLIN SQUARE. 

1856. 



EFFECTS OF EXCESSIVE HEAT. 



101 



miles as tho crow flies from the sea, and where there is al- 
most always a refreshing breeze, the thermometer, at noon, 
in an airy situation, and in the shade, rises, for many days 
together, to 110 degrees of Fahrenheit ! 

In consequence of the fiery state of the atmosphere, every 
article of horn or wood shrank and contracted most surpris- 
ingly- S Even the gun-stocks, made of the best English wal-J 
rnui, lost an eighth of an inch of their original solidity. JThe 
ink dried in the pen almost the instant it left the stand.* 

Our wagons, moreover, which on leaving Schcppninnsdorf 
were in excellent order, were now quite infirm. The spokes 
and the tires became loose, and the felloes and naves exhib- 
ited large gaps and fissures. To save them, however, as 
much as possible, we set about making a shed of reeds and 
rushes, strongly bound together by cords and light wooden 
sticks. ' • 

As soon as this was finished, I began my preparations for 



visiting Galton at Barmen ; and as Mr. Schonebcrg was also 
anxious to make the acquaintance of Mr. Halm, his intended 
colleague, it was agreed that we should travel together. On 
the day appointed we set out, mounted on oxen, and accom- 
panied by a Hottentot as guide and interpreter. Besides his 
native tongue, this man spoke Dutch and Dainara fluently. 

* Captain Sturt, who in his explorations in Australia seems to have 
experienced the same heat in even a greater degree, says, 

"The mean of the thermometer for the mouths of December, Janu- 
ary, and Fe bruary had been 101, 104, and 105 degrees respectively, in_ 
_sha<ie »i Under its effects, every screw in cur boxes had ticeut 
'drawn, and the horn handles of our instruments, as well as our combs,! 
were split into fine lamints. The lead dropped out of our pencils, nndi 
I onr signal rockets were entirely spoiled; our hair, as well as the wool 1 
on the sheep, ceased to grow, and o ur nails had become brittle as glass, 
bo floor lost more than eight per cent, ot its original weight, ami 
the other provisions in still greater proportion." In another part of 
his narrative, this enterprising explorer mentions tho quicksilver once 
to have risen to 182 degrees in the shade, tho thermometer being 
placed in the fork of a tree, five feet from the ground ! 



12 



104 



THE KAMKEL-DOOKN. 



previously traversed. In the course of the day we crossed 
the dry beds of several large, sandy, and periodical streams, 
which were all tributaries to the Swakop. The country near 
these streams was thickly studded with splendid forests of 
the gigantic and park-like acacia, known to the Dutch as the 
" kamcel-doorn," or giraffe thorn (acacia gira fa). This tree 
derives its name from its constituting the favorite and prin- 
cipal food of the beautiful camclopard. On account of its 
immense size and peculiar growth, having the foliage dis- 
posed from the top downward in umbrella-shaped masses, it 
is a great ornament to the country ; but, strange to say, it is 

i nvari ably found only in arid districts. 

(The " kamecl-doorn" is evidently of very slow growth, i 
"requires, probably, many hundred years to arrive at maturi- 
ty. The grain is therefore very close ; and the wood is so 
heavy that, after being dried for years, it will sink when 
throw n into the w ater. f Om northern oak can in, no wise 
be compared with it as regards hardness and solidity. The 



, and 



<rain is, however, rather short, and the wood consequently 
brittle. Notwithstanding this defect, it is very strong, and 
is extensively used for building purposes and implements of 
husbandry. It is, moreover, almost the only wood strong 
enough for the axle-trees of wagons. Tools of the best ma- 
terials, however, are indispensable in working it. I have 
seen many a well-tempered axe and adze blunted and spoil- 
ed when brought in contact with it. The outer part of the 
tree is of a whitish color, but the heart is reddish-brown, not 
unlike mahogany, and capable of a high polish. 

It is in the branches of this acacia, mentioned by several 
South African travelers, that the social grossbeak (loxia so- 
da) chiefly constructs its interesting and singular nest. 



OTJ1KOTO FOUNTAIN. 



180 

—/After a day and a half travel we suddenly found ourselves 
on the brink of Otjikoto, the most extraordinary chasm it 
was ever my fortune to sec. It is scooped, so to say, out of 
the solid limestone rock, and, though on a thousand times 
larger scale, not unlike the Elv-gryta one so commonly meets 
in Scandinavia. The form of Otjikoto is cylindrical ; its di- 
ameter upward of four hundred feet, and its depth, as we as- 
certained by the lead-line, two hundred and fifteen — that is, 



OTJIKOTO KEMAIIKABLE CAVERN. 



181 






m^S^, 






-.V- ; '?Hn?. ---:.^'- v 



^"^m^^^ 



OTJIKOTO FOU.NTAI.N. 



at the sides, for wo had no means of plumbing the middle, 
but had reason to believe the depth to be pretty uniform 
throughout. To about thirty feet of the brink it is filled 
with water.* 

* Shortly before reaching "Baboon Fountain" I should remark that, 
at a place called Orujo, wo saw a cavity of a similar shape, though on 
an infinitely smaller scale. It consisted of a circular-shaped basin in 
the limestone rock ninety feet in diameter by thirty in depth. As it 



Otjikoto, "one of the most wonderful of Nature's freaks," 
is situated at the northern extremity of those broken hills 
which take their rise in the neighborhood of Okamabuti, and 
in the midst of a dense coppice. So effectually is it hidden 
from view, that a person might pass within fifty paces of it 
without being aware of its existence. Owing to its steep and 
rugged sides, cattle have not access t£ the water ; and even 
a man can only approach this enormous well by means of a 
steep and slippery footpath. No perceptible difference could 
be observed in the height of the water ; and the Ovambo 
informed us that, as long as they and their fathers remem- 
bered, it had always been the same. It is difficult to imag- 
ine how or whence Otjikoto receives its supplies. A spa- 
cious cavern, only visible and accessible from the water, may 
possibly be the grand reservoir. 

•After gratifying our curiosity, Galton and myself, standing 
in need of a bath, plunged head foremost into the profound 
abyss. The natives were utterly astounded. Before reach- 
ing Otjikoto, they had told us that if a man or beast was 
so unfortunate as to fall into the pool, he would inevitably 
perish. We attributed this to superstitious notions ; but the 
mystery was now explained. The art of swimming was 
totally unknown in these regions. The water was very cold, 
and, from its great depth, the temperature is likely to be the 
same throughout the year. 

We swam into tho cavern to which allusion has just been 
made. The transparency of the water, which was of the 
deepest sea-green, was remarkable ; and the effect produced 
in tho watery mirror by the reflection of tho crystallized 
walls and roof of the cavern appeared very striking and 
beautiful. In this mysterious spot, two owls and a great 
number of bats had taken up their abode. On approaching 



was dry at the time, we ascertained that the bottom was flat, or near- 
ly bo. In various other places wo also met with similar basins, bat on 
a still smaller scalo than Orujo. 



13 



DEPART FROM ONDONGA — ARRIVAL AT OKAMABUTI. 207 

The nights had now become bitterly cold. In crossing the 
Otjihako-tja-Muteya we were obliged to bivouac on this 
bleak and exposed plain without a particle of fuel. What 
with the piercing wind and low temperature, it was one of 
the most trying nights I remember to have spent in Africa. 
Indeed, I hardly ever felt the cold more during the most se- 
vere Scandinavian winter. Even the cattle were so exceed- 
ingly distressed that several of our best draft-oxen never 
thoroughly recovered. Our poor Damaras suffered fearful- 
ly; and it was only by huddling themselves together at the 
bottom of a dried-up well that they were enabled to keep the 
least warmth in their bodies. Timbo, however, appeared to 
be the greatest sufferer. One morning we were amazed at 
finding his dark, shiny skin suddenly changed into a pale 

a shy g ray. 

JOwing to the scarcity of water at this time of the year, | 
game was rare. Indeed, we only met with animals, such as 
the giraffe, the koodoo, the gemsbok, the eland, &c., that ei- / 
[ther wholly or in great part can do without water. C 



On the 1st of July, after about a fortnight's steady travel, 
we reached our encampment in safety. The two hundred 
miles of country wc had crossed presented, perhaps, as dreary 
and uninteresting a prospect as can well be imagined. 



212 



EXTRAORDINARY VISITATION. 



One morning, as we were about to yoke the oxen, we were 
amused to see them suddenly start off in every direction in 
t he wildes t confusion, and cutting the mo st ridiculous capers. 
The cause of this commotion was the arrival of a large flock] 
of the buphaga Africana, which alighted on the backs of the 
cattle for the purpose of feeding on the. ticks with which their 
hides are covered. By means of their long claws and elastic 
tails, these birds are enabled to cling to and search every part 
of the beast. It was evident, however, that our oxen had 
never experienced a similar visitation ; no wonder, there- 
fore, that they were taken somewhat aback at being thus 
unceremoniously assailed. 

The hipliaga Africana is also a frequent companion of the 
rhinoceros, to which, besides being of service in ridding him 
of many of the insects that infest his hide, it performs the 
important part of sentinel. On many occasions has this 
watchful bird prevented me from getting a shot at that beast. 
The moment it suspects danger, it flies almost perpendicu- 
larly up into the air, uttering sharp, shrill notes, that nev- 



J We also made acquaintance with a small, sparrow-looking 
bird, the amadina squamifrons, which deserves notice on ac- 
count of its peculiar and interesting nest. According to Dr. 
Andrew Smith, this is placed on a small shrub, and is con- 
structed of grass. But in Damara-land and parts adjacent, 
the materials are of a beautifully soft texture, not unlike 
sheep's wool. I never could discover the plant from wliich 
it was procured. The Hottentots use it as a substitute for 
gun-wadding, and it is by no means a bad makeshift. The 
nest is so strongly put together that one has difficulty in 
separating it. "When the old bird absents itself, it effectually 
conceals the opening of the nest from view. Even long after 
I was acquainted with this peculiarity, I was puzzled to find 
it out. Just above the entrance is a small hollow, which has 
no communication with the interior of the nest, but which, 

J by the uninitiated, is often mistaken for it. In this tube the 

(male bird sits at night. "* 



240 



TOWER OF ANIMALS TO SCENT HERBAGK. 



The animals, which during the dry season are compelled 
to gather round the springs and other permanent waters, were 
enabled, by the late rains, to scatter themselves over a large 
extent of country, and were now difficult to find 



over a large 
• TThere can J 



1 be little doubt that the instinctive power of animals — domes 
ticated as well as wild — is capable of catching the scent of 
1 humid winds and green herbage at a very great distance. 
Thus I have often seen oxen turn their heads toward the 
quarter where distant lightning indicated that rain had fall- 
en, and sniff with evident pleasure the breeze produced by 
colder air. Mr. Moffat, the missionary, mentions an instance 
where a great number of cattle were entirely lost, solely, as 
he supposes, from this cause. 

"Many years previous to my sojourn in Namaqua-land," 
says the reverend gentleman, " Afrikaner thus lost the great- [ 
cr part of his cattle. One evening a strong wind commenced 
blowing from the north ; it smelt of green grass, as the na- 
tives expressed it. The cattle, not being in folds, started off 
after dark. The circumstance being unprecedented, it was 
supposed they had merely wandered out to the common, 
where they were accustomed to graze ; but it was found, aft 
er much search, that some thousands of cattle had directed 
their course to the north. A few were recovered, but the 
majority escaped to the Damara country, after having been 
pursued hundreds of miles." 



248 



OSTRICHES MANOEUVRES OF THE OLD BIRD. 



BIRDS NESTS USED FOR WADDING. 



213 



er fail to attract the attention of the rhinoceros, who, with- ' 
out waiting to ascertain the cause, almost instantly seeks J 
safety in a precipitate flight. According to Mr. Cumming, 
these birds also attend upon the hippopotamus, / ' 



Another bird (textor erythrorhynchus) is also in the habit 
of feeding upon parasitical insects, but is said to restrict its 
visits to the buffalo. In the part of Damara-land of which 1 
am now speaking, that animal is unknown, yet the bird was 
in very great numbers. It appeared to be very social in its 
habits, living in colonies, and building its nest, which consists 
of dry sticks, on lofty trees. 



The moment the parent birds became aware of our inten- 
tion, they set off at full speed, the female leading the way, 
the young following in her wake, and the cock, though at 
some little distance, bringing up the rear of the family party. 
It was very touching to observe the anxiety the old birds 



evinced for the safety of their progeny, f Finding that we 



were quickly gaining upon them, the male at once slackened 
his pace, and diverged somewhat from his course ; but, see- 
ing that wc were not to be diverted from our purpose, he 
again increased his speed, and, with wings drooping so as al- 
most to touch the ground, he hovered round us, now in wide 
circles, and then decreasing the circumference till he came 
almost within pistol-shot, when he abruptly threw himself on 



14 



the ground, and struggled desperately to regain his legs, as it 
appeared, like a bird that has been badly wounded. Having 
previously fired at him, I really thought he was disabled, and 
made quickly toward him. But this was only a 1-use on his. 
part ; for, on my nearer approach, he slowly rose and began 
to run in an opposite direction to that of the female, who by 
this time was considerably ahead with her charge. /"* 

After about an hour's severe chase, we secured nine of the 
brood ; and, though it consisted of about double that number, 

250 THE OSTRICH WHERE FOUND SIZE AND WEIGHT. 

we found it necessary to be contented with what we had 
bagged.* 

On returning to the Hay, however, the next morning in a- 
mule-cart, Mr. Gallon again encountered the same birds with 
the remainder of the family, and, after a short race, cap- 
tured six more of the chicks. ^ 

_jThe ostrich (which, from possessing the rudiments of a] 
gall-bladder, and the absence offings fit for flight, seems to 
form a kind of connecting link between the two great fam- 
ilies of mammalia and arcs) is an inhabitant of a large portion 
of Africa, but rarely extends farther east than the deserts of 
Arabia. Throughout the Indian Archipelago, the family of 
birds (of which the ostrich is the leading type) is represented 
by the cassowary ; in Australia by the emeu ; in the south 
crn extremity of the western hemisphere by the rhea 
even in Europe, though somewhat departing from the 
it has its representative in the stately bustard.^ 



south- 
, ; and! 
! _type,\ 



AGE CRY STRENGTH SPKEIV 



251 



I could never obtain any data that would enable me to 
form a correct estimate of the age of the ostrich, but it may 
fairly be concluded that he lives between twenty and thirty 
yeaiafc__ 

The cry of the ostrich so greatly resembles that of a lion) 
as occasionally to deceive even the natives. It is usually 
heard early in the morning, and at times also at night. 



The strength of the ostrich is enormous. A single blow 
from its gigantic foot (it always strikes forward) is sufficient 
to prostrate, nay, to kill many beasts of prey, such as 
hysena, the panther, the wild dog, the jackal, and others 



? 



the! 



The ostrich is exceedingly swift of foot, under ordinary 
circumstances outrunning a fleet horse: "What time she 
lifteth up herself on high, she scorneth the horse and its 
rider." On special occasions and for a short distance, its 
speed is truly marvelous, perhaps not much less than a mile 
in half a minute. Its feet appear hardly to touch the ground, 
and the length between each stride is not unfrcquently twelve 
to fourteen feet. Indeed, if we are to credit the testimony 
of Mr. Adanson, who says he witnessed the fact in Senegal, 
such is the rapidity and muscular power of the ostrich, that, 
even with two men mounted on his back, he will outstrip an 
English horse in speed ! The ostrich, moreover, is long- 
winded, if I may use the expression, so that it is a work of 
time to exhaust the bird. 



254 



STONES FOUND IN EGGS THE CHICKS. 



s~JA pcci 
/ far as 1 i 



uliarity in regard to the eggs of the ostrich 
am aware, confined to the eggs of this bird 



ich, and, so ) 
ird alone, is ] 



mentioned by several African travelers. For example: 
"The farmer here likewise informed me," says the author 
just quoted, " that a stone or two is sometimes found in the 
ostrich's eggs, which is hard, white, rather flat and smooth, 
and about the size of a bean. These stones are cut and 
made into buttons, but I never had the good fortune to see 
any of them." 

Again: "In these eggs," writes Barrow, "are frequently 
discovered a number of small oval-shaped pebbles, about the 
size of a marrowfat pea, of a pale yellow color, and exceed- 
ingly hard. In one egg we found nine, and in another twelve / 
of su ch stones." f"* ' *" 

.Notwithstanding the number of eggs laid,- seldom more 
than thirty to thirty-five arc hatched. Almost as soon as the 
chicks (which are about the size of pullets) have escaped from 
the shell, they are able to walk about and to follow the 
mother, on whom they are dependent for a considerable 
period. And Nature, with her usual care, has provided the 
young with a color and a covering admirably suited to the 
localities they frequent. The color is a kind of pepper-and- 
salt, harmonizing wonderfully with the variegated sand and 
gravel of the plains which they are in the habit of travers- 
ing. Indeed, when crouching under my very eyes, I have 
had the greatest difficulty in discerning the chicks. The 
covering is neither down nor feathers, but a kind of " prickly 
external," which, no doubt, is an excellent protection against 
injury from the coarse gravel and the stunted vegetation 
among wjiich they. dwell. 



25G 



EGG-SHELLS FEATHERS. 



Even the egg-shell is of considerable value, and is an ex- 
cellent vessel for holding liquids of any kind. The Bushmen 
have hardly any other. By covering it with a light net-work, 
it may be aimed slung across the saddle. Grass, wood, &c., 
serve as substitutes for corks. 



scry. 



By the monks of Dayr Antonios, we arc informed that the 
Copts (by whom the eggs are looked upon as the emblem of 
watchfulness, and who suspend them in their churches) pass 
the cords of their lamps through the shell in order to prevent 
the rats from coming down and drinking the oil, f 



The shell of the egg is used medicinally. The Boers, after 
reducing it to powder and mixing it with vinegar, give it to 
cattle afflicted with strangury, for which disease it is consid- 
ered a sovereign remedy. The powder itself is said to be an 
excellent preservative against blindness. 



OSTRICH FARASOLS SKIN. 



257 



Some of the tribes of Southern Africa are said to employ 
ostrich parasols while hunting wild animals, with a similar 
purpose to that of a Spanish bull-fighter who uses a red cloth. 
Thus, in case of a wounded beast charging a man, the latter, 
just at the moment lie is about to be seized, suddenly thrusts 
the supports of the nodding plumes into the ground, and, while 
the infuriated animal is venting its rage on its supposed vic- 
tim, the native slips unperccived on one side and transfixes 

hJ3 antagonist. _ 

^3Tho skin of the ostrich is also said to be held in great 

I request, and forma no inconsiderable article of commerce. 

["The whole defensive armor of the Nasamoncs, inhabitants 

of Libya, was manufactured of the birds' thick skin, which, 



15 



j even at the present day, is used as a cuirass by some of the J 
(^Arab troops.''^ ~~~~~ """"""" 



AN EPICURE SIMILARITY TO THE CAMEL. 



259 



" Nothing," says Methucn, in bis " Life in tbc "Wilderness," 
when speaking of a female ostrich that came under his im- 
mediate notice, " disturbed the ostrich's digestion : dyspepsia 
was a thing ' undreamt of in its philosophy.' One day, a 
Muscovy duck brought a promising brood of ducklings into 
the world, and with maternal pride conducted them forth 
into the yard. Up, with solemn and measured stride, walk- 
ed the ostrich, and, wearing the most mild, benignant cast of 
face, swallowed them all, one after the other, like so many 
oysters, regarding the indignant hissings and bristling plu- 
mage of the hapless mother with stoical indifference." 

The ostrich is gregarious, and is met with in troops vary- 
ing from a few individuals to as many as fifty. Singularly 
enough, it is never known to associate with other birds, but, 
preferring quadrupeds, is often found in company with the 
zebra, the springbok, the gnoo, &c. j Indeed, in many re- 
( spects it bears a striking resemblance to four-footed animals, 
such as in its strong, jointed legs and cloven hoofs, its long, 
muscular neck, its gruff voice, the absence of the elevated 
central ridge of the breast bone, so generally characteristic 
of birds, besides other similarities already mentioned. But, 
perhaps, when compared with the camel, the affinity becomes 
still more striking. Both are "furnished with callous pro- 
tuberances on the chest and on the abdomen, on which they 
support themselves when at rest, and they both lie down in 
the same manner." In both, the feet and stomach are some- 
what similarly constructed; and if we add to this their 
capabilities of subsisting on a scanty and stunted vegetation, 
their endurance of thirst, and their formation in general, 



260 EASILY DOMESTICATED CHASE ON HORSEBACK. 



which enables ostrich and camel to inhabit and traverse arid 
and desert regions, the resemblance is by no means so im- 
aginary as one might at first suppose. Indeed, to many of 
the nations of the East,* as well as to the ltomans and the 
Greeks, the ostrich was known by the name of the cainel- 



Tho ostrich is easily domesticated, but is sometimes of a 
vicious disposition. The Rev. Mr. Hahn, if I remember 
rightly, told me that some of these birds, which he kept in 
confinement for a considerable period, became so mischievous 
that, lest they might injure any of the people on the station, 
he was obliged to kill them. 



TROOPS OF LIONS — FLIGHTS OF EITES. 



26* 



These were glorious times for the lions, who were exceed- 
ingly numerous. On passing Tineas and Onanis, both fa- 
mous strongholds for tin's animal, we started troops of them 
among the broken ground, but they invariably ran away, 
and all my efforts to get a shot at them were unavailing. 

One day, while refreshing ourselves and cattle in the midst 
of a scene like that just described, the men being busy cut- 
ting up, or " dressing," as butchers would say, two fine 
oryxes, the produce of the morning hunt, we were suddenly 
surrounded by a cloud of kites. The actions of these birds 



were most strange. Hovering within a few feet of our heads, 
they eyed us steadily for a while, and then took themselves 
off as if satisfied. Another batch would now approach so 
near that, in order to avoid coming in contact with us, they 
threw themselves on their backs, spreading out their wings 
and talons, and opening their beaks, while one or two actu- 
ally, with a swoop, snatched the food out of the hands of the 
natives. It was only after having brought down several with 
the rifle that the rest thought best to keep at a more respect- 
ful d istance.* ; 

)This day, and during the whole of the following, we en- J 

\ countered myriads of lemon-colored butterflies. Their num-| 



* Several well-known Australian explorers make mention of similar 
occurrences with this identical bird. I have also heard that in India 
it is no unusual thing to see hawks snatch the food from a person as 
lie travels along. 



268 



SINGULAR ATTACHMENT MRS. RATH. 



bers were so great that the sound caused by their wings re- 
sembled the distant murmuring of waves on the sea-shore. 
They always passed in the same direction as the wind blew, 
and, as numbers were constantly alighting on the flowers, 
their appearance at such times was not unlike the falling of 
^ leaves before a gentle autumnal breeze. ( 

Every day, at the nal ting-place, wc were in the habit of 
training some oxen to the "pack" or the saddle. One of 
the animals particularly captivated my fancy, and I was de- 
sirous of having him well broken-in. After a little time, 
however, I learned that no person dared any longer to ap- 
proach the beast. On inquiring the cause, I found that a 
large ox had taken it under his protection, so to speak, and 
would allow no one to go near it. Whenever the servants 
attempted to catch the protege, his protector would rush at 
them furiously ; and my favorite was so well aware of this, 
that as soon as he saw any one approaching, he would run di- 
rectly to his " father," as the natives not inaptly styled the 
big ox. After having personally convinced myself of this 
singular attachment, and dreading that some serious mischief 
might ensue, 1 deemed it prudent to kill my poor pet. For 
many days the "father" appeared inconsolable at his loss. 



384 



MR. OSWELL WOUNDED A CKOTCHET. 



We are fond of the marvelous, fit is generally received as 
a fact that the hide of the rhinoceros is impenetrable to a 
bullet, or even to an " iron ingot," as a certain writer quaint- 
ly expresses it. But this is just as idle a notion, as regards 
the African species at least, as that entertained respecting 
the softness and pliability of the animal's horns, for a com- 
mon leaden ball will find its way through the hide with the 
greatest facility. It is true, .one should be near the brute; 
for, though I have known a rhinoceros killed at the distance 
of a hundred yards, it is an exception to the rule. Indeed, 
beyond thirty or forty paces one can not make sure of the 
shot. Under all c ircumstances, a double charge of powder 
is desirable. \ 



THE PART TO AIM AT SELDOM BLEEDS EXTENSA LLY. 385 

Though a common leaden ball may do the work well 
enough, I would not recommend it. The best metal is spcl- 



16 



tcr, which lias almost the hardness of iron, with all the weight 
of lead ; but it is often diflicult to procure. For want of a 
better, two thirds lead and one third solder answers the pur- 
pose very well. 

The most deadly part to aim at is just behind the shoul- 
der; a ball through the centre of the lobes of the lungs is 
certain to cause almost instantaneous death. From the veiy 
solid structure of the head, the great thickness of the hide 
on that part, the position of the horns, the smallness of the 
brain,* a shot in the head rarely or never proves fatal. The 
same may be said of the breast. 



424 



THE NGAMI WHEN DISCOVERED NAMES. 



The cause of all these failures was chiefly to be found in 
the desert and inhospitable regions which lie between the 
explorers . and the supposed lake, commonly known as the 
Kalahari desert. Toward the close of 18-19, however, and 
when the hope of our being able to overcome this apparently 
insurmountable barrier was almost extinguished, the great, 
object was accomplished by the persevering exertions of 
Messrs. Oswell, Livingstone, and Murray, and the existence 
was made known of a fine fresh-Water lake in the centre of 
South Africa. 



The Lake goes with the natives by different names — all of 
which arc more or less appropriate — such as Inghabe (the gi- 
raffe) ; Noka ea BotlHle (lake of the hotletle) ; Noka ea Mo- 
korbn (lake of boats) ; and Ngami, or The AVaters. As the 
last designation is the one by which the Lake is best known 
to Europeans, I will retain it throughout the remainder of 
this narrative. 



S1ZK AND FORM OF THE LAKE. 



425 



jThe whole circumference is probably about sixty or seven- 
ty geographical miles ; its average breadth is seven miles, and 
not exceeding nine at its widest parts. Its shape, moreover, 
is narrow in the middle and bulging out at the two ends ; 
and I may add, that the first reports received many years 
ago from the natives about the Lake, and which concurred in 
representing it of the shape of a pair of spectacles, are correct. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Lynx Rufus, . . 
Arctomys Monax, 



Lepus Townscndii 

Neotoma Floridana, . . . . 
Sciurus Richardsonii, .... 
Vulpes Fulvus (var. Dccussatus), 
Sciurus Caroliucnsis, .... 

Tamias Lysteri, 

Sperniophilus Parryi, .... 



Scalops Aquaticus, . 
Lepus Aracricanus, 
Fiber Zibcthieus, 
Sciurus Hudsonius, 



Pteromys Orcgoncnsis, 
Lynx Canadensis, . . 
Scinrus Cincieus, . . 
Lepus Palustris, . . 
Sciurus Mollipilusus, . 
Tamias Townscndii, 
A r ulpes Virginianus, . 
Lepus Sylvaticus, . 
Mus Rattus, .... 
Tamias Quadiivittatus, 
Sciurus Lanuginosus, . 
Gulo Luseus, . . . 
Sciurus Lanigerus, . . 
Pteromys Volucclla, 
Neotoma Drummondii, . 
Sigmodon Hispidum, 



P.gC 

Common American Wild Cat. — Bay Lynx, 2 
Wood-Chick. — Maryland Marmot. — 

Ground Hog, . 16 

Townsend's Rocky Mountain Hare, ... 25 

Florida Rat, 32 

Richardson's Columbian Squirrel, ... 41 

American Cross Fox, 45 

Carolina Gray Squirrel, 55 

Chipping Squirrel. — Hackee, Sft., ... 65 
Parry's Marmot Squirrel. — Parry's Sper- 

mophile, 77 

Common American Shrew-Mole, .... 81 

Northern Hare, 98 

Musk-Rat. — Musquash, 108 

Hudson's Bay Squirrel. — Chickaree. — Red 

Squirrel, 125 

Oregon Flying Squirrel, 132 

Canada Lynx 136 

Cat Squirrel, 145 

Marsh-Hare, . . . \ 151 

Soft-haired Squirrel, 157 

Townsend's Ground Squirrel, 159 

Gray Fox, .' . . 162 

Gray Rabbit, 173 

Black Rat 189 

Four-striped Ground Squirrel, .... 195 

Downy Squirrel, 199 

Wolverene, or Glutton, 202 

Woolly Squirrel, 214 

Common Flying Squirrel 216 

Rocky Mountain Neotoma, 5223 

Cotton Rat, 22£ 






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1,'J.n- <i|.n iri!i«, . . . . . 

1'ut'jri'H Viw,n 

S lurtiH Ni/<r, 

■S'iurui Migratorius, . . 

Hystrix Dorsafa 

Lepus Aquations, 

Sciurus Fcrruginivcntris, . . 
Sperniophilus Tridccenilineatus, . 

Mus Lcucopus 

Mustela Canadensis, . . . . 

Mephitis Chinga 

Sciurus Leporinus 

Pseudostoma Bursarius, . . . 

Arvicola Pennsylvanica, 

Castor Fiber (var. Americanus), 

Meles Labradoria 

Sciurus Douglassii 

Spennophilus Douglassii, . 
Spcrmophilus Richardsonii, . 



TABI.K OK CONTENTS. 

P»g« 

. Collared Peccary, 233 

. . Polar Hare 242 

. . Mink 250 

. . Black Squirrel, 261 

. . Migratory Gray Squirrel. — Northern Gray 

Squirrel, 265 

Canada Porcupine, 277 

. Swamp-Hare, 287 

. . Red-bellied Squirrel, 292 

Leopard Spermophile ....... 294 

American While-footed Mouse, .... 300 

Pennant's Marten, or Fisher, 307 

Common American Skunk 317 

Hare-Squirrel, 329 

Canada Pouched Rat, 332 

Wilson's Meadow Mouse, 341 

American Beaver, 347 

American Badger, 860 

Douglass' Squirrel 370 

Douglass' Spermophile, 373 

Richardson's Spermophile 377 



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CATALOGUE 



CHIEFLY IN THE MUSEUM OF THE 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



SPENCER P. BAIRD, 



ASSSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



ORTH AMERICAN MAMMALS, 



y 



WASHINGTON: 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 

JULY, 1857. 



[See also : 
U. S. War Department: 
Reports of Explorations 
and Surveys... for a Rail- 
road from the Mississippi 
to the Pacific Ocean 
(1855-1856) 
Vol. VIII, Washington 
1857. J 




[ 'O 

we punifhed his rage by ftriking him dead ori 
the fpot: he had been highly irritated by 
an Indian dog that barked eagerly at him, but 
was cunning enough to keep out of his reach, 
or nimble enough, to avoid the fnake when he 
fprung at him. \We took notice that While 



provoked, he contra&ed the mufcles of his 
fcales fo as to appeaf very bright and finning, 
but after the mortal ftroke, his lplendor be- 
came much diminifhed, this is likewiie the 
cafe of many of our fnakes.f 



"The north fide of the Hill is not fo ftony as 
the fbuth, but yet very poor. Thence we 
traveled 7 miles over ieveral hollows, fwamps 
and lmall ridges, full of Icrubby bumes, 
and ftill poor and ftoney to the laft great 
ridge, which is compoied chiefly of large 
gravel, as big as pidgcons or pullets eggs, and 
even the rocks feemed but heaps of the lame 
materials j the defcent on the north fide is very 
fteepand rocky, large craggy rocks are difpofed 
on all fides, moft part of the way down, which 
brought us to a fine vale, where we lodged by 
a creek called Saurel> and were grievoufly 
ftung all night with fmall gnats, fo that I flept 
very little. 

The j th> we let out weft from Sattrel creek 
and traveled down the vale, which is pretty 
good land : and leaving the creek, fooh crofTed 
another runing along the north fide of the vale, 
by the bank of which we rode through a grove 



of white Pine, very lofty aud Co clofe, that 
the Sun could hardly fhine through ; at the 
end of this the two branches joined. Riding a 
little farther, we paffed through a gap of a 
moderate hill, north by the creek fide, where 
we found a fifhing place, moftly a deep hole 
near a rock ; there we went weft on the north 
fide of the creek, and dined at what is called 
the Double Eagle. The land hereabouts is 
middling white oak and huckleberry land, 
and by the creek fide pretty good wild grafs, 
2nd the 3d branch enters about 30 rood below ; 
having crofled this, we went up a vale of 
middling foil, covered with high oak Timber, 
nearly weft to the top of the hill, (moft of 
the way being a white clay under a lhallow 
furface), where we firft obferved the impref- 
fion of fhells in ibme of the loole ftones, and 
from whence we had a fair profpect of the 
river Sttfquehanab. 

■ The defcent from hence loon brought us to 
Molmiy, our lodging for this night. Here the 
foil is very good throughout the neck, formed 
by the river and the creek, which is about 3 
poles wide. It rained this night through our 
old, tho' newly erecled lodging, which was 
an Indian Cabin that we took the liberty to 
remove, knowing they ufually leave behind 
them a good ftock of fleas on the ground they 
inhabit j however, the wet deprived me of my 



46 



I 66-] 
were in a canoe, and our horles at Sbamokin y 
f or wc dreaded the difmal wildernefs betvveei 



We obferved here an old log, which the! 
bears had cunningly turned to pick up the/ 
fnails, beetles, and grubbs, that had crept under) 
jt for flielter.f 

j thy We rod over middling land, producing 
oak, pine, and great magnolia, to the Tobicon 
town on the Cayugo branch ; this place we ar- 
rived at by noon but ftayed there all night, 
frighted by feveral fhovvers that pafled over the 
mountains in fight : indeed it rained a little 
here, I walked to the branch after dinner, 
and found abundance of fbflils on the banks, 
but the diftance of the way, and heavy load 
of our baggage, were an infurmountable bar 
to my bringing any home. This day the 
Anticoque interpreter that travelled with us from 
Onondago, who left the path a little to hunt, 
misd our tract and hit upon an Indian town, 
3 miles up the branch, and there picking up a 
Squaw brought her with him. The chief 
man of the town came to vifit us in a very 
friendly manner, and our interpreter telling 
him where we had been, what about, and how 
well we had fucceeded ; he teftified abundance 
of fatisfa&ion that peace was not like to be 
interrupted, he added, when he came home 
his people told him, we had pafTed through 
their town, but that we. had not informed 
them of our bufinefs. 

This furnifhes us with an inftance of the 
'PunCiilio the Indians conftantly treat travellers 
with, the people though earneftly defiring to 
know our commiffion, would not take the 
liberty to ask us. This night our fellow 
traveller lodged with his occafional wife in a 
corner of our cabin, and in the morning 
would have taken her with him at our ex- 
pence, to the great vexation of Mr Wetfar, who 
thought it intolerable that an intruder fhould 
gratific his private inclinations to the fhort- 
ning of -our neceffary provifions, already in- 
-fufficient ; as we did not take much pains to 
conceal this refentment, he had determined to 
part with her, though with much regret, and 
accordingly left her when we crofled the 
branch, giving her a farewell fhout; we 
heard this with much joy, and I believe it 
was as well for the parties. 

8/£,Wc continued our journey withoutmeet- 
ing any thing worth remarking, the ground we 
had pafled rode over in our way out, and had 
lodged at the very creek we fpentthis night at. 



yth. We travelled to a fine creek big enough 
to drive two mills, we ftoped for this night at 
the foot of a great hill, cloathed with large 
Magnolia, i feet diameter and ioo feet high j 
perlediy ftraight, fhagbark-hickery, chefnut 
and chefnut oak. This is like a bridge be- 
tween the N.E. and N.W. branches of $uf r 
quehanah : here is alfo a fpring from whence 
the water runs to both branches. 

[ 68 ] 



\oth Jugufiy] We fct out, the fun half an. 
otirhigh, travelled along a rich hill fide, where 
weobfcrv'd a pretty many rocks, then down to a 
Lickhtg-place by 8, where our intruder who was 
a good waybeforeusfhotatan Elk, and having 
wounded him, purfued him feveral hours. We 
waited his return till % o'clock, Lewis Evans 
took an obfervation here, and found the lat. 
41. a half Set out again at 3, and travelled 
over fine rich ground by a creek where we 
lodged. I took a fancy to afcend 2 thirds of 
the height of a neighbouring hill, in the way I 
came toaburidanceofIoofeftones,andver3 crag.- 
gy rocks, which teemed to threaten impending 
ruin , the foil was black and very rich, full 
of great wild flinging nettles, as far as I went 
I rolled down feveral looie ftones to make a 
path for my more expeditious return. . This 
I found the Indians much difturbed at, for 
they faid it would infallibly produce rain the 
next day, I told them I had fufficient experi- 
ence, it fignified nothing, for it was my com- 
mon practice to roll down ftones from the top 
.of every fteep hill, and could not recoiled that 
it ever rained the next day, and that I was al- 
mp ft fur e tomorrow would be a very fair day. 
[YiflQ Wc got out bpfofe fun rife, and rode 
over very good bottoms of Linden, Poplar and 
Elm, we killed a rattle fnake, and loon after 
found a patch of ' Cbamerododendron, at 8 we 
came to a creek winding from between the 

C *j> J 

mountains on the left, then along a level to 
another from the right, which we crofled to 
our former cabin. Quickly after we reached 
a bad hill, where I firft found the Ginfeng in 
tlvs journey, the foil was black and light, with 
flat ftones facing the eaft, there we pafled by 
0, then over a bottom of laurel and pine to a 
creek we had feveral times crofled, when ob- 
ftrufted as frequently we were by hills, keep 
ing clofe to the water on the fide we were ri- 
ding. At 10 we left this creek for the fake 
o"t fhortcr way than we came, for this pur- 
pofe we kept a S. courfe to* the top of a high 
but very poor hill, which we reached about a qr. 



after eleven, and had a profpecT: ftill to a gap 
we were to pafs to the river ; the northfide of 
this hill was cloathed with tall fpruce, while 
pine and beech, the top with chefnut, fcrubby 
oak, and hucklc berries, the S. fide with fhrub, 
honeyfuckles &c. Our way was now over a 
poor pebble ftoney vale of laurel, fpruce firr, 
pine, chefnut, and huckle berries, to a Run of 
water; where we dined on parched meal 
mixed with water. We left that place at half 
an hour after one, and foon found ourfelves 
much diftreffed by the broad flat Hones on the 
fide of the hill, our way lay over. Our horfes. 
could hardly (land, but even flipt on their^fides 
on our left a rivulet rufhed from a precipice, 
and the mountains were fo fteep and clofe to 
its fides, that we were oblidged to climb to the 

[70] 

top of that on the weft ; here we fuffered our 

horfes to reft while we gathered huckle berrie3 

to eat, we travelled on the top a good way all 

ftony to the point, which was very narrow, and 

the flat ftoncs on each fide turned uplike the ridge 

of a houfe, this reminded me of Dr. Burnet s 

Theory, and his ingenious Hjpothejis, to account 

for the formation of mountains. The defeent 

was moderate, the land middling, oak, chefnut 

and huckle-berries : we found a Run here and 

ippofed ourfelves for this night, having fupped 

on venifon, fhot by our Jiidians who left us l 

.c ntjhe hill that evening. Jit was fair and plea- 

(fant, and the "great green grafs- hopper began 

1 to fing (Catedidift ) jhefe were the fir ft I ob- 

jierved this year. / Before day break it began 

to rain, it lalted about an hour- and then ceaf- 

ed. The Indians infilled that was caufed by 

theftones I rolled down a days ago, I told the 

Antecoque Indians if their obfervations had 

any truth it fhould have been the day before, 

which was remarkably fair. To this he cuningly 

replyed, that our Almanacks often prognofti- 

•cated on a day, and yet the rain did not come 

within two days. 

i lth, This day, the land produced middling 
oak, pitch, pine, and huckleberries, fbmetimes 
pebbles and a mallow foil. Wedined on venifon 
(partly our own, and partly given us by the 
Indians) at a deferred town about 7 miles off: 
jliis :s called the French town, from a Frencfy 

woman who married a Delawar Indian, and 
conformed to their manners; fhe left feveral 
children behind her, who were now come to 
look after their horfes and break the young 
ones. It rained very faft for an hour, and in 
the midft of it about half a fcore of the 



47 



5 Nations, who had been on the back of 6*. 
Carolina to fight the Catawba's, paffed very 
faft through the town with one poor female 
prifbner, they fhouted couragioufly, but we 
lcafnt no particulars of this great enterprize: 
about 3 it cleared up, we crofted the creek and 
travelled about 10 miles, moft of the way 
good rich land, extenfive bottoms and high 
grafs : I law one lovely white Ljchnus 5 feet 
high. Near night it began to rain, and we 
■ made a bark cabin, which kept us pretty dry, 
the rain continued all night with thunder. 

[84] 

When all this water comes to the very 
Fall, there it throws itfelf down perpen- 
dicular ! It is beyond all belief the furprizc 
when you fee this! I cannot with words, 
cxprefs how amazing it is ! You cannot fee 
it without/ being 'quite terrified; to behold 
fo vaft a quantity of water falling headlong 
from a furprifing' n height ! I : doubt not 
but- you have' a' : defire to learn the exad 
height of this great Fall. Father Hennepin, 
fuppofes it 60b ! Feet perpendicular ; but 
he has gained little credit m Canada ; the 
name of honour they give him there, is an 
grand Menteur, or The great Liar \ he writes 
of what he faw in places where he never was. 
'tis true he' law this Fall .- but as it is the way 
of fome travellers to magnify every thing, fo 
has he done with regard to the fall of Nia- 
gara. This humour of travellers, has occa- 
fioned me many difappointments in my tra- 
vels, having feldom been fo happy as to find 
the wonderful things that had been related by 
others. For my part, who am not fond of 
the Marvellous, I like to fee things juft as 
they are, and fo to relate them. Since Father 
Henwpn'i time, this Fall by all the accounts 
that have been given of it, has grown lefs and 
iefs; J J(nd thofe who have meafur'd it with 
mathematical inftiuments find the perpendi- 
cular fall of the water to be exadly 1 37 feet. 
Monir. Morandrier, the king's engineer in 

[85] 

Canada, affured me, and gave it me alfb under 
his hand, that 137 Feet was precifely the 
height of it; and all the French Gentlemen 
that were prefent with me at the Fall, did 
agree with him, without the leaft contradiction : 
it is true, thofe who have try'd to meafure it 
with a line, find it fbmetimes 140, fometimes 
j 50 feet, land fbmetimes more ; but the reafon 
is, it cannot that way be meafured with any 
certainty, the ; water carrying .away the 
Line. — -~ .When the water is come down to 



the bottom of the rock of the Fall, it jumps 
back to a very great heighth in the air; in 
other places it is white as milk or fnow; and 

all in motion like a boiling chaldron. You 

may remember, to what a great diftance He- 
nepn fa ys, the noife of this great Fall may be 
Jieard^JlAll the gentlemen who were with! 
me, agreed, that the fartheft one can hear ir,| 
is 15 leagues, and that very fcldom. When 
the air is quite calm, you can hear it to Nia- 
gara Fort; but fcldom at other times, becaufe 
when the wind blows, the waves of Lake 
Ontario make too much noife there againft 
the Shore. — —They inform'd me, that when 
they hear at the Fort the noife of the Fall, 
louder, than ordinary, they arc fure a North 
Eaft Wind will follow, which never fails: 
this feems wonderful, as the Fall is South Weft 
from the Fort : and one would imagine it to 
be rather a fign of a contrary wind. Some- 



46 



[MJ 



Times, 'tis laid, the Fall makes a much greaterl 
noife than at other times ; and this is look'd up- 
on as a certain mark of approaching bad wea- 
ther, or rain ; the Indians here hold it always 
for a fure fign. ) When 1 was there, it did not 
make an extraordinary great noife : juft by 
the Fall, we could cafily hear what each other 
faid, without fpeaking much louder than com- 
mon , when converting in other places. I do 
not know how others have found fb great a 
noife _ here, perhaps it was at certain times, 
as aboyementioned. From the Place where 
the water falls, there rife abundance of vapours, 
like the greateft and thickeft fmoak, fbme- 
times . more^ . fometimes lefs: thefe vapours 
rife high in the air when it is calm, but are 
difpers'd by the wind when it blows hard. 
If you go nigh to this vapour or fog, or if 
the wind blows it, on you, it is fb penetrat- 
ing, that in a few minutes you will be as wet 
as if you had been under water. J got, .two 
young Frenchmen to go down, to bring me 
frpm fhe fide of the Fall at the bottom, fome 
ofjeach of the feveral kinds of herbs, ftones. 
and ihells they fhould find therc^ they re-, 
turned in, a , few minutes, and I really thought 
they had fallen: into the water : .they .were 
obliged foj^rip th em felycs quite naked, and 
hang ,their clothespin the fun to dry.,. ,WhcrV 
you^are^.on the , other Eaft fide pf,;the Xake 
Ontario, a^ great, many leagvKjS; fi"om (j thp ,Fall, 

C 87] 

you may, every clear and calm morning fee 
the vapours of the Fall riling in the air ; you 



would think all the woods thereabouts were fet 
on fire by the' Indians, To frreat is the apparent 
fmoak. In the fame manner you may fee it on 
the Weft fide of the lake Erie, a great many 

le a g ues off? 

{ Several of J the Frehih gentlemen told me,] 

that when birds come" flying into this fog or 
fmoak of the! fall, 1 they fall down and perifhin 
the Watef^ either becaufe their wings are be- 
come Wet, drthat'the noife of the fall aftonifh- 
es them, and they know not were to go in the 
Dark: but others were of opinion, that 
fcldom or never any bird perifhes there in that 
manner ; becaufe, as they all agreed, among 
the abundance of birds found dead below the 
fall, there are no other forts then fuc h as live, 
id fwim frequently in the water ;( as fwans,) 
1 geele, ducks, water-hens, teal, and the like. | 
I And very often great flocks of them are feen 
going to deftrucrion in this manner : they fwim 
in the river above the fall, and fo are carried 
down lower and lower by the water, and as 
water-fowl commonly take great delight in 
being carry'd with the ftrcam, fb here they in-, 
dulge themfelves in enjoying this pleafure fb 
long, till the fwiftnefs of the water becomes fb 
great, 'that 'tis no' longer pofiible for them to 
rile, but' they are driven down the precipice, 
and perifh. They are obferv'd when they 



[ 88 J 



draw nigh the fall, to endeavour with all their 
might, to take wing and leave the water, but 
they cannot. In the months of September and 
October, fuch abundant quantities of dead wa- 
terfowl are found every morning below the 
Fall, on the fhore, that the garrifon of the fort* 
for along time live chiefly upon them ; befides 
, the fowl, they find alfo feveral forts of dead I 
fifh, alfb deer, bears, aud other animals which' 
I have tried to crofs the water above the fall ; 
Ithe larger animals are generally found broken 
[to pieces. Juft below the fall the water is not 
Itapid, but goes all in circles and whirls like a 
[boiling pot ; which however doth not hinder the 
Indians going upon it in fmall canoes a timing; 
but a little lower. begins the fmaller fall. 
When you are above the fall, and look down, 
your head begins to turn: the French who have 
been here 100 times, will feldom venture to 
look down, without at the fame time keeping^ 
faft hold of fome tree with one hand./*"" 



/It was formerly thought impollible for any 
body living to come at the Ifland that is in 
the middle of the fall : but an accident that 
happen'd 1 2. years ago, or thereabouts, made it 
appear otherwife. The hiftory is this. Two 
Indians of the Six Nations went out from 



49 



■Niagara fort, to hunt upon an ifland that is 
in the middle of the river, or flrait, above the 
great fall, on which there ufed to be abundance 
of deer. They took fonie French brandy, with 

[8P] 

them, from the fort, which they tafted feveral 
times as they were going over the carrying 
place; and when they were in the canoe, 
they took now and then a dram, and fo went 
along up the ftrait towards the Ifland where 
they propos'd to hunt ; but growing fleepy, 
they laid themfelves down in the canoe, which 
getting loofe drove back with the ftream, far- 
ther and farther down till it came nigh that 
ifland that is in the middle of the fall. . Here 
one of them, awakened by the noife of the fall, 
cries out to the other, that they were gone ! 
yet they try'd if poffible tofavelife. This ifland 
was nigheft, and with much working they got 
on fhore there. At firft they were glad; but 
when they had confidcr'd every thing, they 
thought themfelves hardly in a better ftate 
than if they had gone down the fall, fince they 
had now no other choice, than ei her to throw 
themfelves down the fame, or to perifh with 
hunger. But hard neceffity put them on in- 
vention. At the lower end of the ifland the 
rock is perpendicular, and no water is running 
there. This ifland has plenty ofwood;they 
went to work directly and made a ladder or 
fhrouds of the bark of lindentrce, ( which is 
very tough and ftrong, ) fo long 'till they 
could with it reach the water belpw ; one end 
of this bark ladder they tied fait, to a great 
tree that grew at the fide of the rock a- 
bove the fall, and let the other end down 

[ 90] 
to the water. So they went down along 
their new-invented flairs, and when they came 
to the bottom in the middle of the fall, 
they refted a little ; and as the water next 
below the fall is not rapid, as beforementi- 
oned, they threw themfelves out into it, 
thinking to fwirii on fhore. I have faid be- 
fore, that one part of the fall is on one fide 
of the ifland, the other on the other fide. 
Hence it is, that the waters of the two ca- 
taracts running againft each other, turn back 
a g ainft the rock that is juft under the ifland. 
Therefore, hardly had the Indians began to 
fwim, before the waves of the eddy threw 
[.them with violence againft the rock from 
whence they came. They tried it feveral 
times, but at laft grew weary; and being 
often thrown againft the rock they were 
.much bruis'd, and the skin of their bodies 



torn in many places. So they were oblig'd 
to climb up their flairs again to the ifland, not 
knowing what to do. After fome time they 
perceived Indians on the fhore, to whom they 
cried out. Thefe faw and pity'd them, but 
gave them little hopes of help: yet they made 
hafte down to the fort, and told the comman- 
der where two of their brethren were. He 
pcrfuaded them to try all poffible means of 
relieving the two poor Indians ; and it was 
done in this manner. The water that runs on 
the eaft fide ofchis ifland is (hallow, efpcciall 



[ 5>i 1 



a little above the ifland towards the eaftern 
fhore. The commandant caufed poles to be 
made and pointed with iron : two Indians 
determined to walk to this ifland by the 
help of thefe poles, to fave the other poor 
creatures, or perifh themfelves. They took 
leave of all their friends as if they were going 
to death. Each had two fuch poles in his 
hands, to fet againft the bottom of the ftream, 
to keep them fteady. So they went and got 
to the ifland, and having given poles to the 
two poor Indians there, they all returned fafely 
to the main. Thofe two Indians who in the 
above mentioned manner were firft brought to 
this ifland, are yet alive. They were nine 
days on the ifland,and almoftftarved to death.* 

Now fince the way to this ifland has been 

found, the Indians go there' often to kill deer, 
which having tried to crofs the river above the 
fall, we re driven upon the ifland by the 
ftream jjbut if the King ot trance would give 



me 2f Canada, I would not venture- to go 
to this ifland ; and were you to fee it, Sir, I 
am furcNOU would have the fame fentiment. 
On the weft fide of this ifland are fome fmall 
iflands or rocks of no confluence. The eaft 

• Thefe Indians had better fortune than 10 or 12 Vttrxtnxas 
who attempting to efcape here the purfuit of their Enemies 
of the Six Nations, were carried down the Cataraft, by the 

violence of the ftream and every one perifhed No pare 

even of their Canoe being ever feen again. 

[9*1 

fide of the river is nearly perpendicular, the 
weft fide more Hoping. In former times a 
part of the rock at the Fall which is on the 
weft fide of the ifland, hung over in fuch a 
manner, that the water which fell perpendi- 
cularly from it, left a vacancy below, fo that 
people could go under between the rock and 
the water ; but the prominent part fome years 
fince broke off and fell down; fo that there 
is now no poflibility of going between the 
falline water and the rock, as the water now 



50 



runs dole to it all the way down. The 

breadth of the Fall, as it runs into a femicircle, 
is reckon'd to be about 6 Arpents. The ifland 
is in the middle of the Fall, and from it to 
each fide is almoft the fame breadth : the 
breadth of the ifland at its lower end is_ two 



thirds of an Arpent, or thereabouts. — --( Below I 
(the Fall in trie holes of the rocks, a"re great 
Wenty of Eels, which the Indians and French 

catch with their hands without, ether means ; 

I lent down two Indian boys, who dire&ly 

came up with about twenty fine ones 



_>ery day, when the Sun lhines, you lee here 
from 10 o'clock in the morning to z in the 
afternoon, below the Fall, and under you, 
when you Hand at the fide over the Fall, a 
glorious rainbow and fometimes two rainbows, 
one within the other. 



. [»] 

I was (b happy to be at the Fall, on a fine 
clear day, and it was with great delight I 
view'd this rainbow, which had almoft all 
the colours you fee in a rainbow in the air. 
The more vapours, the brighter and clearer 
is the rainbow. I faw it on the Eaft fide of 
the Fall in the bottom under the place where 
I flood, but above the water. When the 
wind, carries the vapours from that place, the 
rainbow is gone, but appears again as loon as 
new vapours come. From the Fall to the 
landing above the Fall, where the canoes from 
Lake Erie put on Ihore, (or from the Fall to 
the upper end of the carrying-place) is half a 
mile. Lower the canoes dare not come, left 
they Ihould be obliged to try the fate of the 
two Indians, and perhaps with lefs fuccels. — t — 
They have often found below the Fall pieces 
of human bodies, perhaps of drunken Indians. 
that have unhappily came down the Fall. / i 
was told at Ujiuego y that in Udto&er y or there- 
abouts, luch plenty of feathers are to be found 
here below the Fall, that a man in a days 
time can gather enough of them for leveral 
beds, which feathers they faid came off the 
birds kill'd at the Fall. I ask'd the French^ 
if this was true ? They told me they had never 
feen any fuch thing ; but that if the feathers 
were pick'd off the dead birds, there might 
be fuch a quantity 



9^ 






•I'sX'f'S* 






'A »'-»-ti 



y , 



:/•••• 



9- 



to 












% -it ;u' 






TRAVELS 



THROUGH 



NORTH &' SOUTH CAROLINA, 



GEORGIA, 
EAST & WEST FLORIDA, 

THE CHEROKEE COUNTRY, THE EXTENSIVE 

TERRITORIES OF THE MUSCOGULGES, 

ORCREEKCQNFEDERACY, AND THE 

COUNTRY OETHE CHACTAWS; 



CONTAINING 

AN ACCOUNT OF THE SOIL AND NATURAL 

PRODUCTIONS OF THOSE REGIONS, TOG E. 

THER WITH OBSERVATIONS ON THE 

MANNERS OF THE INDIANS. 

T.MBILL1SHED WIT H CO P PER-P LATES. 



By WILLIAM BART R A M. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

Printid »y JAMIS « JOHNSON^ 

M, DCC, XCI. 



51 



36 



B A R T R A M's 



TRAVELS. 



37 



the eftablifhment of the fettlement. Mr. Mattock, 
who is now about fevcnty years of age, healthy and 
active, and prefides as chief magiftrate of the fet- 
tlement, received us with great hofpitality. The 
diftance from Augufta to this place is about thirty 
miles ; the face cf the country is chiefly a plain of 
high forefts favannas, and cane fwamps, until we 
approach Little River, when the landscape varies, 
prefenting to view high hills and rich vales. The 
foil is a deep, rich, dark mould, on a deep ftratum 
of redifh brown tenacious clay, and that on a foun- 
dation of- rocks, which often break through both 
ftrata, lifting their backs above the furface. The 
foreft trees are chiefly of the deciduous order, as, 
Qiiercus tinctoria, Q. lafciniata, Q. alba, Q. rubra, 
Qi prinus, with many other fpecies ; Celtis, Fagus 
fylvatica, and, on the rocky hills, Fagus caftania, 
Fag. pumila, Qiiercus caftania ; in the" rich vales, 
Juglans nigra, Jug- cinerea, Gleditfia triacanthos, 
Magnolia acuminata, Liriodendron, Platanus, Frax- 
inus excelfior, Cercea, Juglans exaltata, Carpinus, 
Moms rubra, Calycanthus, Halefia, Aefcuhis pa- 
vja, Aefc. arborea. 



JLeaving the pleafant town of Wrightfborough, 
[we continued eight or nine miles through a fertile 
[plain and high foreft, to the ncrth branch of Little 
River, being the largeft of the two, < r jffing which, 
we entered an exteniive fertile plain, bordering on 
the river, and /haded by trees of vaft growth, which 
at once fpoke its fertility. Continuing l'orae time 
through thefe fiiady groves, the fcene opens, and 
difclofes to view the moft magnificent foreft I had 
ever f'een. We rile gradually a Hoping bank of 
twenty or thirty feet elevation, and immediately 
entered this fubjime fore ft ; the ground is perfeftlyj 



a level green plain, thinly planted by-nature with 
the moft ftately foreft trees, fuch as the gigantic 
Black * Oak (Q. tinctoria) Liriodendron, Juglans 
.nigra, Platanus, Juglans exaltata, Fagus fylvatica, 
Ulmus fylvatica, Liquid-amber ftyraciflua, whofe 
mighty trunks, fcemingly of an equal height, ap- 
peared like fuperb columns. To keep within the 
bounds of truth and reality, in defcribing the mag- 
nitude and grandeur of thefe trees, would, I fear, 
fail of credibility ; yet, I think I can afTert, that 
many of the black oaks meafured eight, nine, ten, 
and eleven feet diameter five feet above the ground, 
as we meafured feveral that were above thirty feet 
girt, and from hence they afcend perfectly ftrait, 
with a gradual taper, forty or fifty feet to the 
limbs ; but, below five or fix feet, thefe trunks 
would meafure a third more in circumference, on 
account of the projecting jambs, or fupports, which 
are more or lefs, according to the number of hori- 
zontal roots that they arife from : the Tulip tree, 
Liquid-amber, and Beech, were equally ftately. 



Not far diftant from the terrace, or eminence, 
overlooking the low grounds of the river, many very 
magnificent monuments of the power and induftry of 
the ancient inhabitants of thefe lands are vifible. I 
obferved a ftupendous conical pyramid, or artificial 
mount of earth, vaft tetragon terraces, and a large 
funken area, of a cubical form, encompafied with 
banks of earth; and certain traces of a large Indi- 
an town, the work of a powerful nation, whofe pe- 
riod of grandeur perhaps long preceded the difco- 
very of this continent. 

• Gigantic Black Oak. Querc. tinfloria ; the bark of thii fpecies of oak 
is found to afford a valuable yellow dye. This tree is known bv the name 
of Slack- Oak in fennfylvanja, New-Jcrfev, New-York, and New.England. 



T RAVE L S. 



39 



f! 



After four days moderate and pleafant travel* 
ling, we arrived in the evening at the Buffalo Lick. 
This extraordinary place occupies feveral acre3 of 
ground, at the foot of the S. E. promontory of the 
Great Ridge, which, as before obferved, divides 
the rivers Savanna and Alatamaha. A large cane 
{wamp and meadows, forming an immenfe plain, 
lies S. E. from it; in thisfwampl believe the head 
branches of the great Ogeeche river take their rife. 
The place called the lack contains three or four 
acres, is nearly level, and lies between the he ad of 
the cane fwa,mp and the afcept of the Ridge. f The 
earth, from the fuperficies to an unknown "depth, 
is an aim oft white or cinerious coloured tenacious 
fattifh clay, which all kinds of cattle lick into great 
caves, purfuing the delicious vein. It is the com- 
mon opinion of the inhabitants, that this clay is im- 
pregnated with faline vapours, ariiing from foffile 



falts deep in the earth ; but I could difcover nothing 
faline in its tafte, but I imagined an infipid fweet- 1 
nefs. Horned cattle, horfes, and deer, are immo- 
derately fond of it, infoniucb, that their excrement, 
which almoft totally covers, the earth to fome dif- 
tance round this place,, appears to be perfect clay;' 
which, when dried by the fun and air, is almoft as^ 
hard as brick. J"*" 



We were detained at this place one day, in ad- 
justing and planning the feveral branches of the 
furvey. A circumftance occurred during this time, 
.which was a remarkable inftance of Indian fagaci- 
ty» and had nearly diiconcerted all our plans, and 
put an end to the buiineft. The furveyor having 
fixed his compafs on the ftaff, and about to afcer- 
tain the courle from, our place of departure, which 
was to. ftrike Savanna river at the confluence of a 



52 




68 



JAMFS P. Iirr.IVOUBm IH l-UNTKHS OOUTbMP. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY Or 



The night was wpent in general rejoicing, in relating 
our adventures, and recounting our various successes 
and reverses. There is as much heartfelt joy experi 
enced in falling in with a parly of fiJloyMrapperfa in 
the mountains as is felt at sea when, aftei a long \ov- 
age, a friendly vessel just from port is spoken and 
boarded. In both cases a thousand questions are ask- 
ed ; all have wives, sweethearts, or friends to inquire 
after, and then the general news from the States is 
taken up and discussed. 

The party we had fallen in with consisted of sixteen 
men. They had been two years out ; had feft Fort 
Yellow Stone only a short time previously, and were 
provided with every necessary for a long excursion. 
They had not seen the general, and did not know he 
was in the mountains. They had lost some of their 
men, who had fallen victims to the Indians, but in 
trapping had been generally successful. Our little 
party also had done extremely well, and we felt great 
satisfaction in displaying to them seven or eight pack- 
ets of sixty skins each. We related to them the mur- 
der of Le Brache, and every trapper boiled with indig- 
nation at the recital. All wanted instantly to start in 
pursuit, and revenge upon the Indians the perpetration 
of their treachery ; but there was no probability of 
overtaking them, and they suffered their anger to cool 
down. 

The second day after our meeting, I proposed that 
the most experienced mountaineers of their party should 
return with Baptiste and myself to perform the burial 



THE 



LIFE AND ADVENTURES 



JAMES P. BECKWOURTH, 



MOUNTAINEER, SCOUT, AND PIONEER, 



CHIEF OF THE CROW NATION OF INDIANS. 



KL'ftS KUustratfons. 



WBITTIW FKOM HIS OWN DICTATION, 



BY T. D. BONNER. 



UET YORK: 

HARPS fc « BROTHERS, I U ft X, I S B E ft : 
FRANKLIN 8IJ1A, E. 

1856. 



JAMES P. BECKWOU3TH. 



69 



rites of our friend. I proposed three men, with our- 
selves, as sufficient for the sixteen Indians, in case we 
should fall in with them, and they would certainly be 
enough for the errand if we met no one. My former 
comrades were too tired to return. 

We started, and arrived at our unfortunate camp, 
but the body of our late friend was not to be found, 
though we discovered some of his long black hair clot- 
ted .with blood 



On raising the traps which we had set before our 
precipitate departure, we found a beaver in every one 
except four, which contained each a leg, t he beavers 
having amputate d them with their teetlulvVe then 
returned to our companions, and moved on to Willow 
Creek, where we were handy to the caches of our ren- 
dezvous at the " Suck." It was now about June 1st, 
1822. 

Here we spent our time very pleasantly, occupying 
ourselves with hunting, fishing, target-shooting, foot- 
racing, gymnastic, and sundry other exercises. The 
other detachments now came in, bringing with them 
quantities of peltry, all having met with very great 
success. 



53 



510 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY OP 



witness the sport. By-and-by Grizzly came in siglil, 
walking along as independently as an alderman elect. 
I allowed him to approach till he was within twenty 
paces, when I called out to him ; he stopped sudden- 
ly, and looked around to ascertain whence the sound 
proceeded. As he arrested himself, I fired, and the 
ball entered his heart. He advanced ten or fifteen 
paces v before he fell; the observers shouted to me 
to run, they forgetting in their excitement that I had 
not strength to move. The bear never stirred from 
where he fell, and he expired without a groan. When 
dre s s ed, he weighed over fourteen hundred poinds. 
i'The grizzly bear is a formidable animal, and has 
acted a prominent part among the settlers of Califor- 
nia. They are seldom known to attack a man unless 
wounded ; in that case, if a tr ee is by, the hunter had 
better commence climbing, p l'liey are very plenty 
from the Sierra Nevada to the coast range of mount- 
ains. I have, in the course of my sojourn in the 
country, killed a great many of them, and met with 
some singular adventures. 

On one occasion, while I was with the Crow Indians, 
there was a man of the name of Coe who was trapping 
in one of the neighboring streams, and I became alarm- 
ed for his safety, as Black Foot parties were skulking 
about in all directions, and were sure to kill him if 
they should find his camp. I found Coe, and told him 
my fears. He instantly gathered up his traps, and, 
mounting his horse, started toward me. When with- 
in fair gun-shot, an old bear sprang from a thicket, 
and landed upon the flanks of his horse, applying his 
teeth to the roots of the poor animal's tail, and hold- 
ing him as if in a vice. Coe leaned over his horse's 
neck, and cried out, 



^^'j.**"*^ 




W" 




ATTACK Or A 0B1Z2LT BEAR. 



THE 



HISTORY 

VIRGINIA, 

In Four Parts. 

I. The History of the Firfl Settlement 

of Virginia, and the Government thereof, 
to the Year 1706. 

II. The natural Productions and Convenien- 

cies of the Country, fuited to Trade and 
Improvement. 

III. The Native Indians, their Religion, Laws, 
and Cuftoms, in War and Peace. 

IV. The prefent State of the Country, as to 
the Polity of the Government, and the 
Improvements of the Land, the 10 th of 

' June 1710. 

Robert Q&\/erl€y 



By a Native and Inhabitant of the F l a c e. 



The Second Edition revis'dandenlarg'd by the Author. 

LONDON; 

Printed for F. Fayram and J. Clarkf. at the Royal- 
Excbangt, and T. B I c K E R t o n in Pater-Nojler-Row, 1721 



116 The natural ProduB, and 

$. 1 f , Grapes grow wild there in an incredible 
Plenty, and Variety} fome of which are very 
'fweet and pleafant to the tafte, others rough' and 
harm, and, perhaps, fitter for Wine or Brandy. I 
have feen great Trees covered with llngle Vines, 
and thole Vines almoir. hid with the Grapes. Of 
thefe wild grapes, befides thofe large ones in the 
fountains, mention'd by Ban in his Difcovery, 
I have obferved four very different Kinds, viz. 
, 1. One of thefe Sorts grows among the Sand- 
banks, upon the Edges of the low Grounds , and 
Iflands next the Bay, and Sea , and ajfo in the 
fjwamps and Breaches of the Up-4ands. They 
grow ?.hin in fmall Bunches, and upon very low 
vjnes. Thefe are noble Grapes j and tho' they are 
VJJd in the Woods, are as large as the Dutch 
Goofeberry. One Species of them is white, others 
purple,; ,b'ue, and black, but all much alike in 
flavour, and fomejong, fome round. 



54 



iJ t. A fecond Kind is produced throughout the 
whole Country, in the Swamps and Sides of Hills. 
Thefe alfo grow upon fmall Vines, and in fmall 
Bunches j but are themfclves the largeft Grapes as 
big as the EngliJJj Bullace, and of a rank Tafte 
When ripe, refcmbling the fmell of a Fox, from 
whence they are called Fox-Grapes. Both thefe 
Sorts make admirable Tarts, being of a flefhly Sub- 
ftance, and perhaps, if rightly managed, might 
make good Raifins. f ■ 

120 

no Hoe natural ProduB, and 

The Melting of thefe Berries is faid to have 
been firft found out by a Surgeon in New- England, 
who performed wonderful Things, with a Salve 
made of them. This Difcovery is very modern, 
notwithstanding thefe Countries have been fo long 
fettled. 

The Method of managing thefe Berries is by 
boiling them in Water, till they come to be in- 
tirely diflblv'd, except the Stone, or Seed, in the 
Middle, which amounts in Quantity to about half 
the Bulk of the Berry ; the biggeft of which is 
fom ething lefs than a Corn of Pepper. 



Thefe are alio in the Plains, and rich low 
Grounds of the Frefhes, abundance of Hops, 
Which yield their Product Without any Labour of 
the Husbandman, in W eeding, Hilling, or Poling. 

§.i8. All over the Country, is interfper'd here 
and there, a furprifing Variety of curious Plants 
arid Flowers. They have a Sort of Briar, growing 
fomething like the Sarfapaiillu. The Berry of this 
is as big as a Pea, and as round, the Seed being of 
a blight Crimfori Colour. It is very hard, and fine- 
ly polifh'd by Nature ; fo that it might be put to 
diverfe ornamental Ufes, as Necklaces are, &c. 

There are feveral Woods, Plants and Earths, 
■which have been fit for the Dying of curious Co* 
lours. They have the Puccoon and Mufquafpen, 
tW6 Roots, with which the Indians ufe to paint 
themfclves red. And a Berry, which grows upon a 
wild Briar, dyes a handfome blue. There's the Shu- 
:mack and the Saflafras, which make a deep Yel- 
low. Mr. Heriot tells 1 us of feveral others, which 
he found at Pamtego, and gives the Indian Names 
of them: But that Language being not underftood 
-by the Virginians, I am not able to diftinguifh 
which he means. Particularly he takes notice of 



121 



Conveniencies of Virginia, in 

IVafehur, an Herb ; Cbapacour, a Root ; and Tan- 
gomockonominge, a Bark. 

-There's the Snake-Root, fo much admired in 
England for a Cordial, and for being a great Anti- 
dote in all Peftilential Diftempers. 



There's the Rattle- Snake-Root, to which no Re- 
medy was ever yet found comparable-, for it effec- 
tually cures the Bite of a Rattle-Snake, which 
fometimes has been mortal in two Minutes. If 
this Medicine be early applied, it presently removes 
the Infection, and in two or three Hours, reflores 
the Patient to as perfect Health, as if he had never 
b egn hurt. 



The James Town Weed (which refembles the 
thorny Apple of Peru, and I take to be the Plant 
fo call'd) is fuppofed to be one of the greateft 
Coolers in the World. This being an early Plant, 
was gathcr'd very young for a boil'd Salad, by 
fomc of the Soldiers fent thither, to quell the Re- 
bellion of Bacon ; and fome of them eat plentifully 
of it, the Effect of which was a very pleafant Co- 
medy j for they turn'd natural Fools upon it for fe- 
veral Days: One would blow up a Feather in the 
Air; another would dart Straws at it with much 
Fury ; and another dark naked was fitting up in a 
Corner, like a Monkey, grinning and making Mows 
at them ; a Fourth would fondly kifs, and paw 
his Companions, and fnear in their Faces, with a 
Countenance more antick, than any in a Dutch 
Droll. In this frantick Condition they were con- 
fined, left they ihould in their Folly deftroy them- 
felves j though it was obferved, that all their Ac- 
tions were full of Innocence and good Nature. In* 
deed they were not very cleanly; for they would 
have wallow'd in their own Excrements, if they had 
not been prevented. A thoufand fuch fimplc Tricks 
they play'd, and after eleven Days, return' d to them 
felyes again,not remembring any thing that had pa(s 



128 



KS 

i 



"A 



CHAR V 

Of the Fish. 

S forFifh, both of Frefhand Salt- Wa- 
ter, of Shell-Fifh, and others, no 
Country can boaft of more Variety, greater Plenty, 
or of better in their feveral Kinds. 

fin the Spring of the Year, Herrings come up in' 
fuch abundance into their Brooks and Fords , to 
fpawn, that it is almoft impoflibleto ride through, 
without treading on them. Thus do thofe poor 
Creatures expofe their own Lives to fome Hazard, 
out of their Care to find a more convenient Recep- 
tion for their Young, which are not yet alive. 
Thence it is, that at this Time of the Year, the 
Frefhes of the Rivers, like that of the Broadrucky 
ftinkofFifhJ ■ 



Beiides thefe Herrings, ther e come up likewife in ^, 
th e Frefhes from the Sea ? ( Multitudes of ShadsJ 
cs, Sturgeon, and fome few Lampreys, which! 
faften themfelves to the Shad, as the Remora ojlm-) 
peratus is faid to do to the Shark of Tiburone. j TJncy 
continue their ltay thereabout Three Months.J The 
/Shads at their firft coming up are tat and Hcfhy > 
| but they waftefo extrcamly in Milting and Spawn- 



55 



I jng, that at their going down they arc poor, andl r. 
( jeem fuller of Bones, only becaufe they have lefsj j . 



129 



Flefh. It is upon this Account, (Tfuppofc) that thofe ; 
in the Severn, which in Gloucefte r they call TwaitsA 
are faid at firft to wantthofc intermu fculary Bon es, J 
which afterwards they abound with. J As thele are 
in the Frefhcs, lo the baits afford at certain Times 
of the Year, many other Kinds of Fifth in infinite 
Shoals, fuch as the Old- Wife, a Fiili not much 
unlike an Herring, and the Sheep's-Head, a Sort of 
Fifth, which they efteem in the Number of their 
belt. 

$. ii. There is likewife great Plenty of other Fifth 
all the Summer long j and almoft in every Part of the 
Rivers, and Brooks, there are found of different 
Kinds: Wherefore I fthall not pretend to give a Detail 
of themj but venture to mention the Names only 
of fuch as I have eaten and feen my felf, and k> 
leave the reft to thofe, that are better fkill'd in Na- 
tural Hiftory. However, I mav add, that befides 
all thofe that I have met with my felf, I have heard of 
a great many very good forts, both in the Salts and 
Frefhes j and fuch People too, as have not always 
fpent their Time in that Country have commended 
them to me, beyond any they had ever eat before. 

Thofe which I know of my felf, I remember by 
the Names, of Herrings, Rocks, Sturgeons, Shads, 
Old-Wives, Sheep 's-Heads, Black and red Drums, 
Trouts, Taylors, Green-Fifth, Sun-Fifth, Bats, Chub, 
Place, Flounders, Whitings, Fatbacks, Maids, 
Wives, Small-Turtle, Crabs, Oifters, Muflels, 
Cockles, Shrimps, Needle-Fifth, Breme, Carp, 
Pike, Jack, Mullets, Eels, Conger- Eels, Perch, 
and Cats, &c. 

132 

The following Print, I may juftly affirm to be 
a very true Representation of the Indian Fifthery. 

Tab. I. Reprcfents the Indians in a Canoe 'with 
a Tire in the Middle, attended by a Boy and a Girl. 
In one End is a Net made of Silk Grafs, which they 
ufe in Fifhing their Weirs. Above is the Shape of 
their Weirs, and the Manner of fetting a Weir- Wedg?, 
a-crofs the Mouth of a Creek. 

Note, That in Fifhing their Weirs, they Jay the 
Side of the Canoe to the Cods of the Weir, for the 
more convenient coming at them, and not with the 
End going into the Cods, as is fet down in the Print: 
But we could not otherwife reprefent it here, left we 
Jhould have confounded the Shape of the Weir, with 
the. 



In the Air you fee a Fijhing-Hawk flying away 
with a Fifb, and a Bald-Eagle purfuing, to take it 
from t him ; the Bald-Eagle has always his Head and 
Tail white, and they carry fuch a Lujlre with them, 
that the white thereof may be difcern'd as far as you 
can fee the Shape of the Bird, and feems, as if it were 



ithottt Feathers, and thence i t has its Name Bald'} 
Eagle. ) ~~~ 



§. 24. 'Tis a good Diverfion to obferve , the 
Manner of the Fifhing- Hawk's preying upon Fifth, 
which may be feen every fair Day all the Summer 
long, and efpecially in a Morning. At the firft 
coming of the Fifth in the Spring, thefe Birds of 
Prey are furprizingly eager. I believe, in the Dead 
of Winter, they fifth farther off at Sea, or remain 
among the craggy uninhabited Iflands, upon the 
Sea Coaft. I have often been plcafantly entcrtain'd, 
by feeing thefe Hawks take the Fifth out of the 

133 

Water, and as they were flying away with their 
" uarry, the Bald-Eagles take it from them again. 



ft 



I have oiten oblerv'd the firft of thefe hover over 
the Water, and reft upon the Wing fome Minutes 
together, without the leaft Change of Place, and 
then from a vaft Height dart directly into the Wa- 
ter, and there plunge down for the Space of half a 
Minute, or more, and at laft bring up with him 
a Fifth, which he could hardly rife with 5 then, 
having got upon the Wing again, he would fthake 
himfelf io powerfully, that he threw the Water 
like a Mift about him ; afterwards away he'd fly 
to the Woods with his Game, if he were not 
overlook'd by the Bald-Eagle, and robb'd by the 
Way, which very frequently happens. For the 
Bald- Eagle no fooner perceives a Hawk that has 
taken his Prey, but he immediately purfues, and 
drives to get above him in the Air, which if he 
can once attain^ the Hawk for Fear of being torn 
by him, lets the Fifth drop, and fo by the Lofs of 
his Dinner compounds for his own Safety. The 
poor Fifth is no fooner loofed from the Hawk's 
Talons, but the Eagle fthoots himfelf, with won- 
derful Swiftnefs, after it, and catches it in the Air, 
leaving all further Purfuit of the Hawk, which 
has no other Remedy, b ut to go and fifth for a- 
no ther. r "" 



2_JWalkingonce with a Gentleman in an Orchard > 
Hjy the River-fide, early in the Springs before the 
Fifth were by us perceiv'd to appear in Shoal-Wa- 
ter, or near the Shores, and before any had been 
caught by the People -, we heard a great Noife 
in the Air juft over our Heads, and looking up, 
we faw an Eagle in clofe Purfuit of a Hawk, that 
had a great Fifth in his Pounces. The Hawk was 
as low as the Apple-trees, before he would let go 
his Fifth, thinking to recover the Wood, which 
was juft by, where the Ea gles dare never follow, 



134 



for Fear of bruifing themfelvcs. But, notwitli-, 
(landing the Fifth was drop'd fo low, and tho' it 
did not fall above thirty Yards from us, yet we ' 
with our Hollowing, Running, and calling up 
our HatSj could hardly fave the Fifth from the 
■ Eagle, and if it had been let go two Yards higher,. 



56 



he would have got it : But we at lad took Poflef- 
lion of it alive, carried it Home, and had it drcfled 
forthwith. It ferv'd five of us very plentifully for 
a Breakfaft, and fome to the Servants. This Fifh 
"was a Rock near two Foot long, very fat, and a 
great Rarity for the Time of Year 4 as well as for 
the manner of its being taken. 

Thefe Fifhing-Hawks, in more plentiful Seafons, 
Ivill catch a Fifh, and loiter about with it in the 

I' Air, on purpofe to have Chace with an Eagle j 
and when he does not appear foon enough , the 
Hawk will make a fawcy Noifbj and infolently 
defie him. This has been frequently feen, by Per 
fons who have obferv'd their Fifhings./ 

OOQ QQCQOQQOG ^ QOCQOCQOC GQQ 

CHAP. VI. 

Of wild Fowl, and hunted Game. 

§. if. A S in Summer, the Rivers and Creeks 
ji\ are fill'd with Fifh, fo in Winter they 
are in many Places cover' d with Fowl. There 
are fuch a Multitude of Swans, Geefc, Brants, Shel- 
drakes, Ducks of fevcral Sorts, Mallard, Teal, 
Blewings, and many other Kinds of Water- Fowl, 
that the Plenty of them is incredible. I am but a 
fmall Sports-man, yet with a Fowling-Piece, have 
JciU'd above twenty of them at a Shot. In like 
manner are the Mill-ponds, and great Runs in the 

135 

Woods ftor'd with thefe Wild-Fowl, at certain 
Seafons of the Year. 

§. 16. The Shores, Marfhy Grounds, Swamps, 
and Savanna's, are alfo ltor'd with the like Plenty 
pf other Game, of all Sorts, as Cranes, Curlews, 
Herons, Snipes, Woodcocks, Saurers, Ox-eyes, 
Plover, Larks} and many other good Birds for the 
Table that they have not yet found a Name for. 
Not to mention Beavers, Otters, Musk- Rats, 
Minxes, and an infinite Number of other wild 
Creatures. 

§. 17. Altho' the inner Lands want thefe Bene- 
fits, (which, however, no Pond or Plafh is with- 
out) yet even they have the Advantage of Wild 
Turkeys, of an incredible Bignefs, Pheafants, Par- 
tridges, Pigeons, and an Infinity of fmall Birds, as 
■well as Deer, Hairs, Foxes, Raccoons, Squirfels, 
Poflums. And upon the Frontier Plantations, they 
meet with Bears, Panthers, Wild-Cats, Elks, 
Buffaloes, and Wild Hogs, which yield Pleafiire, 
as well as Profit to the Sports-man. And tho* 
fome of thefe Names may feem frightful to the 
Englijbf who hear not of them i n their own Coun- 
try ; yet they are not 'fo there j ffo r n ^ thefe Crea-^ 
/turesever fly from the Face of Man, doing no\ 



<- — \ 

I Damage but to the Cattle and Hogs, w hich the.} 
Indians never troubled thcmfelves about, j 

Here i cannot omit a ltrange Rarity in the Fe- 
male Poffim, which I my fclf have feen. They 
have a falfe Belly, orloole Skin quite over the Bel- 
ly j this never flicks to the Flcfh of the Belly, but 
may be look'd into at all Times, after they have 
been concern'd in Procreation. In the Hinder- 
part of this, is an Overture big enough for a fmall 
Hand to pafs into : Hither the young one.';, after 
they are full hair'dj and ftrong enough to run 

[Opposite page 140] 




266 

CHAP. XIX, 

Of the Temperature of the Climate, and the 
Inconveniencies attending it. 

$.77. HT H E Natural Temperature of the Inha- 

J- bited part of the Country, is hot and 

moifr.: tho' this Moifture I take to be occa-t 



57 



fion'dby the Abundance of low Grounds, Marflies, 
Creeks and Rivers, which are every where among 
their lower Settlements ; but more backward in 
the Woods, where they are now fearing , and 
making new Plantations, they have abundance of 
high and dry Land, where there are only Cryftal 
Sri cams of Warcr, which flow gently from their 
Springs, in innumerable Branches , to moiften 
and enrich the adjacent Lands, and where a Fog 
is rarely fcen, 

§. 78. The Country is in a very happy Situa- 
tion, between the extremes of Heat and Cold, but 
inclining rather to the firft. Certainly it muftb,e 
a happy Climate, fince it is very near of the fame? 
Latitude with the Land of Promife. Befides, as 
the Land of Promife was full of Rivers , and, 
Branches of Rivers ; fo is Virginia : As that was 
feated upon a great Bay and Sea, wherein were, 
all the Conveniencies for Shipping and Trade; 
fo is Virginia. Had that Fertility of Soil? So has, 
Virginia^ equal to any Land in the known. World,- 

257 

In fine, if any one impartially confiders all the Ad- 
vantages of this Country, as Nature made it ; he 
muft allow it to be as fine a Place, as any in the 
Univerfe ; but I confefs I am afham'd to fay any 
thing of its Improvements, becaufe I muft at the 
fame time reproach my Countrymen with unpardo- 
nable Sloth, If there be any Excufe for them in 
this Matter, 'tis the exceeding* Plenty of good 
things, with which Nature has bleft them; for 
where God Almighry is fo merciful as to give 
Plenty and Eafe, People eafily forget their Duty, 
All the Countries in the World, feated in or 
near the Latitude of Virginia, are cfteem'd the 
fruitfulleft and pleafanreft of all Climares. As for 
Example, Canaan, Syria, Perfta, great part of In-* 
dia, CbinaznA Japan, the Morca, Spain, Portugal, 
and the Coaft of Barbary, none of which differ 
many Degrees of Latirude from Virginia. Thefe 
are reckon'd rhe Gardens of rhe World, while Vir- 
ginia is unjuftly neglected by its own Inhabitants, 
and abus'd by other People. 

. §. 7P. That which makes this Country moft un- 
fortunate, is, that ir muft fubmit to receive its 
Character from the Mouths not only of unfit, but 
very unequal Judges; for all its Reproaches hap- 
pen after this manner. 

Many of the Merchants and others, that go thi- 
ther from England, make no Diftinction between a 
cold and a hot Country ; but wifely go fwelter- 
ing abour in rheir rhick Cloarhs all rhe Summer, 
becaufe forfpoth they ufed to do fo in their Nor-t 
them .Climate; and then unfairly complain of the 
Heat of the Country. They greedily furfcit with 
their delicious Fruits, and are guilty of great In-- 
temperance therein, through the exceeding Plenty 
thereof, and Liberty given by the Inhabitants; by 
\vhich means they fall fick, and then unjuftly comr 



268 

plain of the Unhcalrhinefs of the Country. In the 
nett place, the Sailers^ for want of Towns there, 
■were put to the Hardfhip of rowling moft of the 
Tobacco, a Mile or more, to the Water-fide ; this 
fplinters their Hands fometimes, and provokes them 
to cuvfe the Country. Such Exercife and abright 
Sun made them hot, and then they imprudently 
fell to drinking cold Water, or perhaps new Cyder, 
which, in its Seafon they found in every Planter's 
Houfe ; or elfe they greedily devour'd the green 
Fruit, and unripe Train, they met with, and to fell 
into Fluxes, Fevers, and the Belly- Ach; and 
then, to fpare their own Indifcretion, they in their 
Tarpawlin Language, cry, God D m the Coun- 
try. This is the true State of the Cafe, as to the 
Complaints of its being fickly; for, 'by the moft 
impartial (pbfervation 1 can make, if People will 
be perfuaded to be temperate, and take due Care 
of themftlves, I believe it is as healthy a Country, 
as any under Heaven : But the extraordinary Plea- 
fantnefs of the Wearher, and Plenry of the Fruit, 
lead People into many Temptations. The Clear- 
nefs and Brightnefs of the Sky, add new Vigor to 
their Spirits, and perfectly remove all fplenerick 
and fullen Thoughts. Here they enjoy all the Be- 
nefits of a warm Sun, and by their fhady Trees 
are protected from its Inconvenience. Here all 
their Senfes are entertain'd wirh an endlefs Suc- 
ceffion of Narive Pleafures. Their Eyes a re ra- 
vithed with the Beauties of naked Nature, f Their) 
I Ears are ferenaded with the perpetual Murmur of 
Brooks, and the thorough-bafe which the Wind 
plays, when it wantons through the Trees ; tho 
merry Birds too, join their pleafing Notes to this 
rural Confort, efpecially the Mock-birds, who love 
Society fo well, that often when they fee Man- 
kind, they will perch upon a Twig very near^ 1 



259 



them, and fing the fweeteft wild Airs in the Worlds 
But what is moft remarkable in thefe melodious 
Animals, if they fee a Man takes Notice of them* 
they will frequently flie at fmall Diftances, warbling 
our rheir Nores from Perch to Perch, be it Houfe 
or Tree convenient, and fometimes too fly up, to 
light on the fame again, and by their Mufic k,make 
a Man forget the Fatigues of his Mind.f Men's 
Tafte is regaled wirh rhe moft delicious Fruirs, 
which without Arr, rhey have in great Variety 
and Perfection. And then their Smell is refreihed 
with an eternal Fragrancy of Flowers and Sweers, 
with which Nature perfumes and adorns the Wood? 
and Branches almoft the whole Year round. 

Have you Pleafure in a Garden ? All things 
thrive in it moft fur prifingly ; you can't walk by 
a Bed of Flowers, but befides rhe Enrertainmenr, 
of their Beauty, your Eyes will be faluted with the. 
charming Colours and Curiofity of the humming 
Bird, which revels among the Flowers, and licks 



58 



off the Dew and Honey from their tender Leaves, 
on which it only feeds. Its Size is not half fo large 
as an Englifi Wren, and its Colour is a glorious 
fhining Mixture of Scarlet, Green and Gold. 

§. 80. On the other fide, all the Annoyances 
and Inconveniencies of the Country, may fairly 
be fumrhed up, under thefe three Heads, Thunder, 
Heat, and troublefome Vermine. 

I confefs, in the hotteft part pf the Summer, 
they have fometimes very loud and furprizing Thun- 
der, but rarely any Damage happens by it, On 
the contrary, it is of fuch Advantage to the cool- 
ing and refining of the Air, that it is oftner wifhed 
for, than fear'd. But they have no Earthquakes, 
which the Caribbee Iflands are fo much troubled 

260 

Their Heat is veryfeldom troublefome, and then 
only by the Accident of a perfect Calm, which hap- 
pens perhaps two or three times in a Year, and kits 
but a few Hours at a time; 'and even that Incon- 
venience is made eafic by cool Shades, open airy 
Rooms, Sufnmcr-houfes, Arbors, and Grottos: 
But the Spring and Fall afford as pleafant Wea- 
ther, as Mahomet promis'd in his Paradife. 

All the troublefome Vermine, that ever I heard 
any Body complain of, arc either Frogs, Snakes, 
JVlufketae's, Chinches, Seed-ticks, or Red- worms, 
by fome call'd Potato-lice. Of all which I fhall 
give an Account in their Order. 

Some People have been fo ill inform'd, as to fay, 
that Virginia is full of Toads, though there never 
yet was feen one Toad in it. The Marfhes, Fens, 
and watery Grounds, are indeed full of harmlefs 
Frogs which do no Hurt, except by the Noife of 
their croaking Notes: But in the upper parts 
of the Country, wh ere the Land is high and dry, 
they are very fcarce. J In thefe Swamps and run- 
ning Streams, they have Frogs of an incredible 
Bignefs, which are called Bull-frogs, from the 
Roaring they make. Laft Year 1 found one of 
thefe near a Stream of frefh Water s of fo prodi- 

fious a Magnitude, that when I extended its Legs, 
found the diftance betwixt them, to be feventeen 

Inches and an half. If any are good to eat, thefe 

muft be the Kind. ] 



borne People in England, are ftartlcd at the very 
Name of the Rattle-Snake, and fancy every Cor- 
ner of that Province fo much pefter'd with them, 
that a Man goes in conftant Danger of his Life, 
that walks abroad in the Woods. But this is as 
grofs a Miftake, as moft of the other ill Reports 
of this Country. For in the firft place, this 
Snake is very rarely feen j and when that happens, 
it never does the lead Mifchicf, unlefs you offer 

261 

to difturb it, and thereby provoke it to bite in 
its own Defence. But it never fails to give you 
fair Warning, by making a Noife with its Rat- 
tle, which may be heard at a convenient diftancel 



For my own part I have travelled the Country as 
much as any Man in it of my Age, by Night and 
by Day, above the Inhabitants, as well as among; 
them > and yet before the firft Impreffion of this 
Book I had never feen a Rattle-Snake alive, and 
at liberty, in all my Life. I had feen them indeed after 
they had been killed, or pent up in Boxes to be 
fent to England. The Bite of this Viper without 
fome immediate Application is certainly Death j' but 
Remedies are fo well known, that none of their 
Servants are ignorant of them. I never knew 
any kill'd by thefe, or any other of their Snakes, 
although I had a general Knowledge all over the 
Country, and had been in every part of it. They 
have feveral other Snakes which are feen more fre- 
quently, and have very little or no Hurt in them, 
*viz. fuch as they call Black-Snakes, Water-Snakes, 
and Corn-Snakes. The black Viper-Snake, and 
the Copper-bellied Snake, are faid to be as ve- 
nemous as the Rattle- Snake, but they are as fel- 
dom feen j thefe three poifonous Snakes bring forth 
their young alive, whereas the other three forts 
lay Eggs, which are hatched afterwards j and 
that is the Diftinftion they make, efteeming only 
thofe to be venemous, which are viviparous. They 
have likewife the Horn-Snake, fo called from a 
fharp Horn it carries in its Tail, with which ic 
affaults any thing that offends it, with that Force, 
that as it is faid it will ftrike its Tail into the But- 
end of a Mufquet, from whence it is not able to 
difengage it felf. 

All forts of Snakes will charm both Birds and 
Squirrels, and the Indians pretend to charm them. 
Several Perfons have feen Squirrels run down a 
262 

Tree directly into a Snaked Mouth j they have 
likewife feen Birds fluttering up and down, and 
chattering at thefe Snakes, till at laft they have 
dro gt down juft before them. 



("in the End of May, 171 f, flopping at an Or-'; 
♦chard by the Road-fide to get fome Cherries, being 
three of us in Company, we wereentertaih'd with 
the whole Procefs of a Charm between a Rattle- 
Snake and a Hare, the Hare being better than half 
grown. It happened thus > One of the Company 
in his Search for the beft Cherries efpied the Hare 
fitting, and altho' he went clofe by her fhc did not 
move, till he (not fufpe&ing the occafion of her 
Gentlcnefs) gave her a Lafh with his Whip -, this 
made her run about ten Foot, and there fit down 
again. The Gentleman not finding the Cherries ripe 
immediately retum'd the fame Way, and near the 
place where he (truck the Hare, he (pied a Rat- 
tle Snake > ftill not fufbecting the Charm, he goes 
back about twenty Yards to a Hedge to get a 
Stick to kill the Snake, and at his Return found 
the Snake removed, and coild in the fame Place from 
whence he had moved the Hare. This put him in- 
to immediate Thoughts of, looking for the Hare 
again, and he foonfpied her about ten Foot off the 
Snake, in the fame Place to which fhe had ftarted 



59 



when he whipt her. She was now lying down, 
but would fomctim'es raife her felf on her Fore-feec 
ftrugling as it were for Life or to get away, but 
eould never raife her hinder parts from the Ground, 
and then would fall flat on her fide again, panting 
vehemently, ilnthis condition the Hafe and Snake 
were when he called me: and though we all three 
came up within fifteen Foot of the Snake to have 
a full View of the whole, he took no notice at 
all of us, nor fo much as gave a Glance towards 
us. There we flood at lead half an Hour, the 



U 



Snake 'not altering a Jot, but the Hare often/ 



263 



ftrugling and falling on its fide again, till at laft 
the Hare lay ftill as dead for fome time. ,Then the 
Snake mov'd out of his Coil, and flid gently and 
fmoothlyon towards the Hare, his Colours at thaC 
inftant being ten times more glorious and Alining 
than at other times. As the Snake rnov'd along, the 
Hare happen'd to fetch another Struggle, upon: 
which the Snake made a flop lying at his Length, 
till the Hare had lain quiet again for a fhort Spate} 
and then he advanced again till he came up to the 
hinder parts of the Hare, which in all this Opc^ 
ration had been towards the Snake } there he made 
a Survey all over the Hare, raifing part of his Boi 
dy above it, then turn'd off and went to the Head 
and Nofe of the Have, after that to the Ears, 
took the Ears in his Mouth one after the others 
working each apart in his Mouth as a Man doe* 
a Wafer to moiften it, then return'd to the Nofe 
again, and took the Face into his Mouth, ftrain* 
ing and gathering his Lips fometimes by one 
fide of his Mouth, fometimes by the other: ac 
the Shoulders he was a long time puzled, ofteri 
haling and ftretching the Hare out at length, arid 
ftraining forward firft one fide of his Mouth 
then the other, till at laft he got the whole Body 
into his Throat. Then we went to himj and tak- 
ing theTwift-Band off from my Hat, I made a Noof$ 
and put it about his Neck. This made him at 
kngth very furious, but we having fecured hira, 
put him into one End of a Wallet, and carried him. 
on Horfe-back five Miles to Mr. John Baylor's 
Houfe where we lodged that Night, withaDefign 
to have fent him to ■Doctor Cock ax.fVilliamJburghi 
but Mr. Baylor was fo careful of his Slaves that he 
would not let him be put into his Boat for fear he 
fhould getloofe and mifchief them; therefore the 
nt-xt Morning we killed him, and took the Hare 
out of his Belly, the Head of the Hair began to 



~J 



264 



be digeftcd and the Hair falling off, having lain 
about eighteen Hours in the Snake's Belly. 

I thought this Account of fuch a Cm iofity would 
be acceptable, and the rather becaufe tho'Ilive irf 
a Country where fuch things are faid frequently ta 
happen, yet I never could have any fatisfattory Ac- 1 



count of a Charm, tho' I have met with feveral 
Perfons who have pretended to have feen 'em. Some 
alfo pretend that thofe fort of Snakes influence 
Children, and even Men and Women, by their 
Charms. / But this that I have related of my ownO 
View, I aver (for the Satisfaction of the learned) 
to be punctually true, without inlarging or waver- 
~ :>ect, upon the Faith of a Chriftian.. 

in my Y outn 1 was a Bear-hunting in the Woods 
above the Inhabitants, and having ltraggled from 
my Companions, I was entertained at my Return, 
with the Relation of a pleafant Rencounter, be- 
tween a Dog and a Rattle Snake, about a Squirrel* 
The Snake had got the Head and Shoulders of the 
Squirrel into his Mouth, which being fomething 
too large for his Throat, it took him up fome time 
to moiften the Fur of the Squirrel with his Spawl, 
to make it flip down. The Dog took this Ad- 
vantage, feiz'd the hinder parts of the Squirrel, 
and tug'd with all his Might. The Snake on 
the other fide would not. let go his Hold for a 
long time, till at laft, fearing he might be bruifed 
by the Dog's running away with him, he gave up 
his Prey to the Dog, the Dog eat the Squirel, 
and felt no Harm. 

Another Curiofity concerning this Viper, which 
I never met with in print, I will alfo relate from 
my own Obfcrvation. 

. Some time after my Obfervation of the Charm, 
my waiting Boy being fent abroad on an Errand 
alfo, took upon himfelf to bring home a Rattle- 
Snake in a Noofe. I cut off the Head of this 

265 

Snake, leaving about an Inch of the Neck with 
it > this I laid upon the Head of a Tobacco Hog* 
fhead, one Stephen Lankford a Carpenter, now alive, 
being with me. Now you muft note, that thefe 
Snakes have but two Teeth, by which they Convey 
their Poifon, and they are placed in the upper Jaw, 
pretty forward in the Mouth, one on each fide j 
thefe Teeth are hollow and crooked like a Cock's 
Spur > they arc alfo loofe or fpringing in the Mouth, 
and not faftned in the Jaw-bone as all the other Teeth 
arej the hollow has a vent alfo through by a fmall 
Hole a little below the Point of the Tooth j thefe 
two Teeth are kept lying down along the Jaw, of 
fhut like a Spring-knife, and dont fhrink up as 
the Talons of a Cat or Panther j they have alfo 
over them a lofe thin Film or Skin of a Flefh-Colour, 
which rifes over them when they are raifed, which 
I take to be only at the Will of the Snake to do 
Injury ; this Skin does not break by the rifing of* 
the Tooth only, but keeps whole till the Bite is 
given, and then is pierced by the Tooth, by 
which the Poifon is let out. The Head being laid 
upon the Hogfhead, I took two little Twigs or 
Splinters of Sticks, and having turn'd the Head 
upon its Crown, open'd the Mouth, and lifted up 
the Fang or fpringing Tooth on one fide feveral 
times, in doing of which I at laft broke the Skinj 
the Head gave a fudden Champ with its Mouth, 



breaking from my Sticks, in which I obfervcd that 
the Poifon ran down in a Lump like OyV round 
the Root of the Tooth. Then I turn'd the other 
fide of the Head, and refolved to be more careful 
to keep the Mouth open on the like occafion, and 
obfcrve more narrowly the Confequence ; for it is 
obferved, that tho' the Heads of Snakes, Terrapins 
and fuch like Vermine be cut off, yet the Body 
will not die in a long ti m e after ; the gcneralSay - 
ing, is till the Sun fets. (After opening the Mouth ) 

266 

'onthe other lide, and lifting up that Fang alfo fe- 
veral times, he endeavoured to give another Bite 
or Cham p j but I kept his Mouth open, and the 
Tooth pierced the Film and emitted a Stream like 
one full of Blood in Blood-letting, and caft fome 
Drops upon the Sleeve of the Carpenter's Shirt, 
who had no Waftcoat on. I advifed him to pull 
off his Shirt, but he would, not, and received no 
Harm; and tho' nothing could then be feen of it 
upon the Shirt, yet in warning there appeared five 
green Specks, wh'ich every warning appeared plain- 
er and plainer, and laftcd fo long as the Shirt did, 
which the Carpenter told me was about three 
[ Years after. [ The Head we threw afterwards down 
upon the Ground, and a Sow came and eat it be- 
fore our Faces; and received no Harm. Now I 
believe, had this Poifon lighted upon any Place of the 
Carpenter's Skin, that was fcratched or hurt, it 
might have poifoned him. I take the Poifon to 
reft in a fmall Bag or Receptacle in the hollow at 
the. Root of thele Teeth; but I never had the 
Opportunity afterwards to make a farther Difco- 
very of that. 

275 

§. 93. The admirable CEconomy of t he Beavers 
deferves to becparticularly remembred. ( They co- 



60 



276 



habit in one' Houfe, are incorporated in a regular 
Form of Government, fomething like Monarchy, 
and have over them a Superintendent, which the 
Indians call Pericu. He leads them out to their fe» 
veral Employments, which confift in felling of 
Trees, biting off the Branches, and cutting them 
into certain Lengths, fuitable to the Bufinefc they 
defign them for, all which they perform with their 
Teeth. When this is done, the Pericu orders fe- 
veral of his Subjects to join together, andtakeup 
one of thofe Logs, which they muft carry to their 
Houfe or Damm, as Occafion requires. He walks 
in State by them all the while, and fees that every 
one bears his equal Share of the Burthen; while he 
bites with his Teeth, andlaihes with his Tail, thole 
that lag behind, and do not lend all their Strength; 
their way of Carriage is upon their Tail. They 
commonly build thsir Houfcs in Swamps, and then 
to raifc the Water to a convenient Height, they 
make a Damm with Log^ v and a binding fort otV 



Clay fo firm, that though the Water runscon- 
tinually over, it cannot wafh it away. Within 
thefe Damms they'l inclofe Water enough to make 
a Pool like a Mill-pond ; and if a Mill happen 
to be'built on the fame Stream, below their Damm, 
the Miller, in a dry Seafon, finds it worth his while 
to cut it, to fupply his Mill with Water. Upon 
which Difafter the Beavers are fo expert at their 
Work, that in one or two Nights time they will 
repair the Breach, and make it perfectly whole 
again. Sometimes they build their Houfes in a 
broad Marih, where the Tide ebbs and flows^ 
and then they make no Damm at all. The Doors 
into their Houfes are under Water. I have been 
at the Demolishing of one of thefe Houfes, that 
was found in a Marfh, and was furprized to find 
it fortified with Logs, that were fix Foot long, 
and ten Inches through, and had been carried at 
\_leaft one hundred and fifty Yards.f TTKis Houfe 
:was three btones high, ana contain d five Rooms, 
that is to fay, two in the lower, two in the mid- 
dle Storie, and but one at the Top. Thefe Crea- 
tures have a great deal of Policy, and know how 
to defeat all the Subtilty and Stratagems of the Hun- 
ter, who feldom can meet with them, tho' they 
we in great Numbers all over the Country. 

279 

Peaches and Nectarines I believe to be fpon^ 
taneous, fomewhere or other on that Continent j 
for the Indians have, and ever had greater Va- 
riety, and finer forts of them than the Englijb. 
The beft fort of thefe cling to the Stone, and will 
not come off" clear, which they call Plum-Necta^ 
rines, and Plum-Peaches, or Cling-Stones. 
af thefe are 12, or \\ Inches in the Girt^ jThele.j 
Torts of Fruits are railed lb eafily there, that fomcj 
good Hufbands plant g reat Orchards of them, 
j?urpofely for their Hogs >/ and others make a Drink 
of them, which they call Mobby, and either 
drink it as Cyder, ordiftill it off for Brandy. This 
makes the beft Spirit next to Grapes. 

Grape-Vines of the Englijh Stock, as well as 
thofe of their own Production, bear mod abun- 
dantly, if they are luffered to run near the Ground, 
and increafe very kindly by flipping; yet very few 
have them at all in their Gardens, much lets en- 
deavour to improve them by cutting or laying. 
But fince the fir ft Impreflion of this Book, fome 
Vineyards have been attempted, and one is brought 
to perfection, of 7f o Gallons a Year. The Wine 
drinks at prefent grcenifh, but the Owner doubts 
not of good Wine, in a Year or two more, and 
takes great Delight that Way. 



61 



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63 



BRITISH BIRDS. 



>3 



jSSvii-ii '"' 



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THE OSPREY. 

BALD BUZZARD, SEA EAGLE, OR FISHING HAWK. 
[Falco Haliatits, Lin. — Le Balbuzanl t Buff.) 

The length of this bird is two feet ; its breadth, 
from tip to tip, above five ; its bill is black, with 
a blue cere, and its eye is yellow ; the crown of 
its head is white, marked with oblong dufky fpots ; 
its cheeks, and all the under parts of its body, are- 
white, flightly fpotted with brown on its breaft; 
from the corner of each eye a ftreak of brown ex? 



224 



BRITISH BIRDS* 




m& 







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BRITISH BIRDS. 



tends down the fides of the neck toward the wing ; 
the upper part of the body is brown ; the two 
middle feathers of the tail are brown, the others 
are marked on the inner webs with alternate bars 
of brown and white ; the legs are very fhort and 
thick, being only two inches and a quarter long, 
and two inches in circumference ; they are of a 
pale blue colour ; the claws black ; the outer toe 
is larger than the inner one, and turns eafily back- 
ward, by which means this bird can more readily 
fecure its flippery prey. 

Buffon obferves that the Ofprey is the molt nu- 
merous of the large birds of prey, and is fcattered 
over the extent of Europe, from Sweden to Greece, 
and that it is found even in Egypt and Nigritia. 
Its haunts are on the fea fhore, and on the bor- 
ders of rivers and lakes ; its principal food is fifh ; 
it darts upon its pre y with great rapidity, and with 
indeviating ainu — > The Italians compare its de- 
fcent upon the water to a piece of lead falling up- 
on that element, and diftinguifh it by the nameof 
Auguifta Piumbina, or the Leaden EagleA It 



builds its neft on the ground, among reeds, and 
lays three or four eggs, of an elliptical form, ra- 
ther lefs than thofe of a hen. The Carolina and 
Cayenne Ofpreys are varieties of this fpecies. 



THE GOLDEN-CRESTED WREN. 

(Motacilla regulus, Lin. — Le Roitelet, Buff.) 



J This is fuppofed to be the lead: of all the Euro-^ 
pean birds j it is certainly the fmalleft of the Bri- 
tifh kinds, being in length not quite three inches 
and a half,* and weighs only feventy-fix grains : 



Its bill is very flender and dark ; eyes hazel ; on 
the top of its head the feathers are of a bright orange 
colour, bordered on each fide with black, which 
forms an arch above its eyes, and with which it 
fometimes conceals the crown, by contracting the 
mufcles of the head ; the upper part of the body 
is of a yellowifh green or olive colour ; all the un- 



[ * The body, when ftripped of its feathers, is not quite an ) 
1 inch long. — Buff. J 



66 



BRITISH BIRDS. 






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pencil. A feather of a fimilar kind is found in 
the whole of this tribe, and alfo in every one of the 
Tringas and Plovers which the author has exa- 
mined, j The annexed figure reprefents a fcapular 
feather of the Woodcock. 




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272 

WILD SWAN. 

ELK, HOOPER, OR WHISTLING SWAN. 
(Anas Cygnus ferus, Lin. — Le Cygne fau-oage, Buff.) 

The Wild Swan meafiires five feet in length, 
and above feven in breadth, and weighs from thir- 
teen to fixteen pounds. The bill is three inches 
long, of a yellowifh white from the bafe to the 
middle, and thence to the tip, black : the bare 
fpace from the bill over the eye and eye-lids is 
yellow : the whole plumage in adult birds is of a 
pure white, and, next to the (kin, they are cloathed 
with a thick fine down : the legs are black. 

This fpecies generally keeps together in fmall 
flocks, or families, except in the pairing feafon, and 
at the fetting in of winter. At the latter period 
they afTemble in immenfe multitudes, particularly 
on the large rivers and lakes of the thinly inhabit- 
ed northern parts of Europe, Afia, and America : 
but when the extremity of the weather threatens to 
become infupportable, in order to fhun the gather- 
ing dorm, they fhape their courfe high in air, in 
divided and diminifhed numbers, in fearch of mild- 
er climates. In fuch feafons they are mod com- 
monly feen in various parts of the Britifh ifles, and 
in other more fouthern countries of Europe. The 
fame is obferved of them in the North American 
ftates. They do not, however, remain longer than 

273 

till the approaching of the fpring, when they again 
retire northward to the arftic regions to breed. A. 
few, indeed, drop fhort, and perforin that office by 
the way, for they are known to breed in fome of 
the Hebrides, the Orkney, Shetland, and other 
folitary ifles ; but thefe are hardly worth notice : 
the great bodies of them are met with in the large 
rivers ;tnd lakes near Hudfon's Bay, and thofe of 
Kamtfchatka, Lapland, and Iceland. They are faid 
to return to the latter place in flocks of about a 
hundred at a time in the fpring, and alfo to pour in 
upon that ifland from the north, in nearly the fame 
manner, on their way fouthward in the autumn. 

274 

Buffon is of opinion that the Tame Swan has been 



derived originally from the wild fpecies ; other natu- 
ralifts entertain a contrary opinion, which they form 
chiefly on the difference between them in the Angular 
conformation of the windpipe. Willoughby fays, 
" The windpipe of the Wild Swan, after a ftrange 
and wonderful manner enters the breaft-bone in a 
cavity prepared for it, and is therein reflected, and 
after its egrefs at the divarication is contracted into 
a narrow compafs by a broad and bony cartilage, 
then being divided into two branches, goes on to 
the lungs : thefe branches before they enter the 
lungs, are dilated, and as it were fWollen out into 
two cavities." Dr Heyfham corroborates the above, 
and adds, that the Wild Swan, in this particular, 
differs not only from the Tame Swan, but alfo 
from every other bird. The only obfervable ex- 
ternal difference between the two fpecies is in the 
markings of the bill, (which are figured in the fub- 
joined head) and in the Wild Swan's being of lefs 
bulk than the mute or tame kind. 

Much has been faid, in ancient times, of the Ting- 
ing of the Swan, and many beautiful and poetical 
defcriptions have been given of its dying fong.— 
" No fi&ion of natural hiflory, no fable of anti- 

278 

quity, was ever more celebrated, oftener repeated, 
or better received: it. occupied the foft and lively 
imagination of the Greeks; poets, orators, and 
even philofophers, adopted it as a truth too pleafing 
to be doubted." " The dull infipid truth," how- 
ever, is very different from fuch amiable and af- 
fecting fables, for the voice of the Swan, fingly, 
is flirill, piercing, and harfli, not unlike the found 
of a clarionet when blown by a novice in mufic. It' 
is, however, aflerted by thofe who have heard the 
united and varied voices of a numerous aflemblage 
of them, that they produce a more harmonious ef- 
fecl:, particularly when foftened by the murmur of 

the waters. 

-— <— — — , • 

^JAt the fetting in of frofty weather, the Wild 
Swans are faid to affociate in prodigious multitudes*, 
and thus united, to ufe every effort to prevent the 
water from freezing : this they accomplifli by the 
continual ftir kept up ainongll them ; and by con- 
ftantly dafhing it with their extended wings, they 
are enabled to remain as long as it fuits their con- i 
venience, in fome favourite part of a lake or river ) 
V which abounds with their food. P 



66 

B. JL. Gould, Jr., "The Progress of Astronomy 
During tho Last Half Century" [Lacture VII in 
the Third Series of Lowell Lectures, for the 
1851-1852 season* Reported in the Bej|ej 
Dailr Evening Traveller. TO, no, 360, Wednes- 
day, Feb* 4, 1852, p. 1, cols* 4-5 l 



LOWELL, LKCTl/KES. 

THIRD COL'RBI. 

Uoiimi nitron* tm I-owkj. Ivstitotb, Bt A. 
Uould, Jr., P.l>. 
Kcportod br lb* Traveller. 

B«uiOT—THlt PfeOGrtKHH OK ARTTtoNOMr DUlO 
THE LAST HALF Cl.N'TUUY. 

Lbctcbh VII.— TUI3HAY, Fi:o 3. 

In tho half of the course whioli remained, \ 
Oruld stated, he intended to consider tho re>- 
of the advances in meunp of itstroiiomiual io«- 
tigation. For the sake ol c^.-nvemeuce be shot 
give, in the first place some account of the mt 
brilliant result of the advances in ''ach oft 
threo departments of astronomy. Tho hlght 
achievements of iheoreticRl sclcnco were m» 
evident by the hi.-tory of those investigate 
which were connect* d with tho discovery of N? 
tune. The group of asteroids ealled into beii 
the new methods < 1 numerical computation, at 
had most severely tested their el'ioioney. Tl 
determination of the parallax of some of tl 
fixod stars had been the immediate result of tl 
highest refinement in inbtrurnents anil inetho 
of observation. This knowledge was due to tl 
last half century, and almost to the last qa»rt 
century, and would, therefore, form approprls 
subjects for three leotures, and illustrate prln> 
pies already laid down. 

The ditcovcry of the parallax of lorne of tl 
fixed stars was one of the greatest astronomio 
triumphs of this period. If one man shoul 
look at V lker Hill from Fort Hill, and an»thr 
at it fro -i tho Stato House, they would bath ee 
the same object, but from diifcrent directionv- 
the one on his left, the other on his right, le 
difference of direoiicn of any object thus sit 
from two different points was its parallax, ta 
the consideration of dlstanous between plana, 
reckoning wss modo from the centre of le 
earth ; but, In considering the distances of ay 
terns, from the sun. Vet we were forced t« j- 
scrvc from the earth, and the oorreotion whm 
would necessarily arise hence was callod the v 
nual parallax. 

The word. j\xtd was used in connootlon wit 
ttar only in a relative sense. There was nothloj 
fixed in all the unit-wee. The stars of hoava 
moved ceaselessly and restlessly on. The} 
were apparent motions of the Stars, which we» 
dne only to motions of tho earth. But then 
were other real motions, of different start, ef- 
fecting their position, which peculiar, tnUvlt- 
ual motion was called their proper motion. 

When two bodies were changing their rebv 
tire position, it was impossible for an observer 
on one to decide, merely by observation, In 
whioh the motion really was. This was evldont 
to all in every-day travelling, whan the vehiole 
or boat scem"d4o stand still, and the ground or 
the water to move, where tho opposite was the 
caee It was evidently impossible to deoide. 



eolcly from observation of the proper motion of 
any star, whether the real motion observed was 
that of the star itself, or of our solar system 
through space. It was but natural to eupp>ae 
that, as satellites revolved around their planets, 
and the planets abont tho sun, so the sua might 
probably fill the relation of a planet to some 
vast colossal centre tcund which, with many 
others, it was moving. It had been demonstrat- 
ed within the last i half century that our sua, 
carrying with him Lis attendant planets, ins., 
was moving through space with great velocity, 
and the dircotion of this motion had recently 
been determined with very considerable preci- 
sion. This might account somewhat for the 
change" in the relative positions of the fixed 
stars. Thus three important problems were 
snguested by the , proper motion of the fixed 
stsrp, the solution of eaoh of whioh was inti- 
mately connected with that of the other. 

The determination of the parallaxes of tho 
fixed stars would lead to a knowledge of their 
distance. The largest proper motion yet de- 
tected in a fixed star of yearly change of posi- 
tion, was 7j seconds, an amount inappreciabh 
to the eye except where assisted by po werfal 
telescopes. Arcturut, which had the great- 
est motion, had changed its position but 15 sec- 
onds since the earliest observation of it on re- 
cord — that of Hipparohoe in 130, B. 0. a distance 
somewhat approximating to the breadth of th» 
full moon. This extrvmolv »>y^' - L . -rum ««,. 
' xjinn. in tau Mme ttlreclion from us oiten »p 
pcored to move in different directions from oaeb. 

° Mr' Gould hero remarked on the Inadequacy 
of imagination to comprehend the vastnes. i of 
those distances which were reckoned by thous- 
ands of thousands of miles, and Jet the osteon 
omer proved these distonoes, and bolievea 
nothing but what he did P™*«- , aooooo- 

■1 he uiatance of Neptune was about AWWAWj 
(XOmiks Tne comet of March 1SW depart^ 

I^SabKt^w^rVb^^ 

"iVto'ST* triangle formed by straight lines, 
we knew three of the six parts- (three sides 
and three anglee)-of which it oonaUti. we 
could, provided one of the parts we had was a 
side, compute tho other three. Thus it we knew 
"be distance from Fort Hill to the State House 
we could, by reckoning from the direction which 
the other two sides of the triangle take toward 
Banker Hill, reckon it* distance. An intricate 
network cf suoh trUnglea wo* used in making 
the U. a Coast Survey. Sueh a triangle, the 
vertlcco ofwhieh were at Berlin «nd at the Cape 
Good Hope, the distance of whioh plaoes from 
each other was known, and formed one side of 
the triangle, gave u» the means of detsraiimns 
the distance of tho moon. 

The distance of the earth from the sun ren- 
dered It Impossible to net a sufficient angle on 



97 



the earth's surface for bucli a measurement, an 1 
astronomers therefore took advantage of the 
transit of Venus, and formed a triangle which 
had two of its vertices in tho diameter of the 
earth's orbit and tbo other in the star. 

The distance of the sun from the earth wa3 
the astronomical unit. la C months tho earth 
moved to a distance of 1, or twioe this unit, 
equal to 101,000,0 mile?. There must there- 
fore tc a continual change in the relative posi- 
tions of the fixed etaTS and tho earth, although 
whether it was appreciable was another ques- 
tion. But the knowledge that it mutt exist had 
been one great stimulus to the attainment of the 
discovery of the parallaxes of some of the fixed 
stars. 

Tho motion of the earth gave the orbit of the 
Mar an apparently elliptic form, while it was in 
fact the earth which moved in an ellipse, and 
by computing the angles formed by the earth 
and star from different points of the earth's vast 
orbit, we would be able to caloulate tho paral- 
lax of the star. 

The first idea of the parallax of the fixed stars 
came from Galileo. The annual differences in 
the position of a star might be owing to regu- 
larly occurring annual phenomena, and it was 
therefore necessary in determining the paral- 
lax, to compare the motion of the star with that 
of some other star near it. Tycho Brahe, with 
his instruments could not detect any parallax 
of tho pole star, and as subsequent knowledge 
showed there was a probable error of l'inhi3 
instruments, and as a parallax of one minute 
would correspond to a distance of 3138 times 
that of the sun from the earth, it was evident 
the pole star was no nearer us than that dis- 
tance, fin figures ;:30,0i 3,000,000 miles.] 

As instruments became improved, their er- 
rors became less, and they were oapaVe of 
measuring greater distances. The probable er- 
ror of Bradley's observations was five seconds, 
and as he could discover no parallax even with 
so little error, it became evident that the pole 
htar was licyond the limit of his observations, 
or more than )1, 2oS times the distance of the 
tun from the earth. ( Twelve times as far as 
was supposed from Tyoho's observations. | 

Up to IM7, numerous intelligent and skilful 
men undertook to determine the parallax of the 



fixed stots, but without success. But excellent 
instruments had been ccustruoted, and particu- 
larly these f ;r Strove and Bcsscl, which were 
cakulatcd to measure very small distances. — 
The limit of th'. uncertainty of the parallax of 
the fixed stuin was reduced by these to onc- 
tenlh of a second of on arc, removing tho limit of 
irr.ir.cisuiabitfty to 'J.OCi'.GW times the distance 
of the sun from the earth, vfhich was precise'.)' 
anelagous to the measurement of a line a a luoa 
lor k at the diUiiiC! of 32 H-lOths milea. 



DailQ burning jErcrodiet, 

BOSTON: 
WEDNESDAY, FE.'IIIPaRV 4, I80t. 



tiftmei «iid rUinvt', each, si 1 -oted a starwhi -i 
they deemed appropriate. Basel's star was <•! 
t'ypni, which had two faint urnra n>ar is, one at 
tie distance of 7+ and the other 11?. Betw«en 
Aufr., 1»87, and <>ct., InHH, h» made V> c.impaii- 
fci.s with the frst s'ar, aad 'JSwith the :'ec:nd, 
- inch i-crop-rison bti:tg the mean of li> iasa 
sunii.eris on tho siiue evening. 

l'rcm V.t data thus ootsiued, after a laborious 
computation of the cities of error, BoHtiel oua- 
oiudcd that the anrunl parallax of 01 </'yg»i J'' - 
ftrcd fioai that of the firii star :;"■ lOOtli » of » 
teovtii*, nnd from that of the second by 'Mr i< K)iUs 
of a 'noi'.d. A second peries of observations 
o mpkted in Moroh, 1*40, cone.ted the error j 
or ti.e f nuer, and the parallax of til Cyg&i was 
3-tlhd beyond Jijputo as the ;;is-10fMHt» |>»rt of 
the •< oomi of an aro, tbo probable error of whieh 
wis not more than 9-lOuOths of a second, whioh 
would g ve the etar in question a dUtanoa of 
692,716 tints the uutance of the »un from the 



I earth. An idea of thi< dis'nnee m'^lit be g lin- 
ed fiom the fact that, if wo were to ci'truet a 
scale, on which one inch should rcpr.-HJiit the 
!H>,OM),(JOO of miles of tho astronomical unit, or 
distance of the sun from tho i'a r th, the* Healu 
i Would have to bo over nine miles long to rcpre- 
£ent the dhtuuee of the star 01 Cy gni from the 
earth. 

The star selected by Rtrnvo was tho highest 
star Vega in the constellation of tho I.yro. This 
had also a small companion at the distance of 
4i". This small star bat no proper pereeptibl« 
motion, nnd muat have been perhaps dill mure 
distant. The result was that the parallax o' 
the bright Htar was decided by Strove to be 
262-lOOOtbs of a second, giving a distance od> 
fourth greater than that of (il Cygni. The true 
parallax of this star, however, had formod a 
subject of disons»ion, and Prof. Hubbard, with 
the improvod priuie-vertlcal instrument at Wash- 
ington was oi gaged in a series of observations 
of the I.yra star, on anew method, with a view 
to a final settlement of tho dispute. Thoto ob- 
servations would not be made public for a year 
or two, till tbey wero perfected. 

Mr. Gould conoluded his lecture with a refer- 
ence to the discovery of the parallax of ft stir 
(Centauri) by Prof. fTeudors >n, whioh was only 
ene-third tia far from us as Gl Cygni, having a 
parallax of one Beoond. Mr. Maolear had re- 
duced it to nine-tenths of a second. 



VOL. VII — IVO 2*30. 



DAILY EVENINO TRAVELLER 

reel tiiirr wi 

wonrauoron, jfi.a unsnn * oo. 

ARDIHAaD AKDHETO AND 0I0B8X TUKOBAU, 
■DITOB*. 

T** M» -«>. — A TKAlCaTBJOTLT IB ADVAUCM. 
BISOLC COPIK8. TWO OIKTS. 

——I VmveUcr Balldbac*, tonur of State 
•»* Co«|r«u ■trc*t*. 

AucPvnnmma at ioimi ovtici— The Ajaovt- 

•»» TraT«n«r, Jkwtf-Wtcklp. on Timmn ud fu- 
KiV*. »t •* ym utnim: t&d tk» Ainrrlon Tr«T«l- 
tot, *«{%, en TiruotTi, •• •& p*r lumm— *U itriatlf 

• MWM. 



68 



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69 



314 



HISTORY OF 



[BOOK II. 



hard, yet they shoot not. Coming to their place,* they 
clapt up their house quickly, and landed their provissions, 
and left y" companic appoynted, and sent the barke home ; 
and afterwards palisadoed their house aboute, and fortified 
them selves better. The Dutch sent word home to y° 
Monhatas what was done ; and in proces of time, they 
sent a band of aboute 70. men, in warrlike maner, with 
collours displayed, to assaulte them ; but seeing them 
strengtened, & that it would cost blood, they came to 
parley, and returned in peace. And this was their enter- 
ance ther, who deserved to have held it, and not by freinds 
to have been thrust out, as in a sorte they were, as will 
after appcre. They did y 8 Dutch no wrong, for they took 
not a foote of any land they bought, but went to y° place 
above them, and bought that tracte of land which be- 
longed to these Indeans which they carried with them, 
and their friends, with whom y° Dutch had nothing to 
doe. But of these matters more in another place. 

It pleased y" Lord to visite them this year with an in- 
fectious fevoure, of which many fell very sicke, and up- 
ward of 20. persons dyed, men and women, besids children, 
and sundry of them of their anciente friends which had 
lived in Holand ; as Thomas Blossome, Richard Master- 
son, with sundry [198] others, and in y 8 end (after he had 
much helped others) Samuell Fuller, who was their sur- 
geon & phisition, and had been a great help and comforte 
unto them ; as in his facultie, so otherwise, being a dea- 
con of y 8 church, a man godly, and forward to doe good, 
being much missed after his death ; and he and y e rest of 
their brethren much lamented by them, and caused much 
sadnes & mourning amongst them ; which caused them to 

• This was on the site of the present (the place we after possessed) the year 

town of Windsor, and was the com- before the Dutch began io the river ; 

mencement of the English settlements the Dutch came in by way of preven- 

in Connecticut. The Dutch authorities lion." Brodhead's New York, p. 211 : 

say this was on the 16th of Septem- Davis's ed. of tho Memorial, Appendix, 

ber. Trumbull says it was in October, p. 305. — Ed. 
Winslow says he " had a place given 



1634.] 



PLYMOUTH PLANTATION'. 



315 



humble them selves, & seeke y° Lord ; and towards winter 
it pleased the Lord y° sicknes ceased. This disease allso 
swept away many of y° Indeans from all y" places near 



adjoyning ;(and y° spring before, espetially all y" month of 



May, ther was such a quantitie of a great sorte of flies, 
like (for bignes) to wasps, or bumble-bees, which came 
out of holes in y° ground, and replenished all y" woods, 
and eate y 8 green-things, and made such a constante yell- 
ing noyes, as made all y" woods ring of them, and ready 
to deafe y" hearers.* They have not by y° English been 
heard or seen before or since. But y" Indeans tould them 
y' sicknes would follow, and so it did in June, July, Au- 



gust, and y° cheefe heat of somer. j ~ — ~ 

It pleased y° Lord to inable them this year to send 
home a great quantity of beaver, besids paing all their 
charges, & debts at home, which good returne did much 
incourage their freinds in England. They sent in beaver 
3366". waight, and much of it coat beaver, which yceled 
20'. p r pound, & some of it above ; and of otter-skines f 
346. sould also at a good prise. And thus much of y 8 
affairs of this year. 



Anno Dom: 1634. 

This year M r . Thomas Prence was chosen Gov'.J 

M r . Sherleys letters were very breefe in answer of theirs 
this year. I will forbear to coppy any part therof, only 
name a head or 2. therin. First, he desirs they will take 
nothing ill in what he formerly write, professing his good 



• " The insect here described," re- 
marks Judge Davis, " is the Cicada sep- 
tendecim of Linnaeus, commonly called 
the locust. They have frequently ap- 
peared since, after long intervals, gen- 
erally about seventeen years, indicated 
by the Linnscan specific name. " Davis's 
ed. of the Memorial, p. 174, and Ap- 
pendix, pp. 396-400 ; Harris's Report 



on the Insects of Massachusetts, pp. 
105-174. — Ed. 

f The skin was sold at 14». & 15. 
y« pound. 

J The Assistants this year were Wil- 
liam Bradfurd, Edward Window, Miles 
Standish, William Collier, John Alden, 
John Howland, and Stephen Hopkins. 
Morton's Memorial. — Ed. 



336 



[1635] 



S r : Having, upon y c consideration of your letter, with y 8 
message you sente, had some serious consultations aboute y* 
great importance of your bussines with y e French, we gave our 
answer to those whom you deputed to conferr w lh us aboute 
y 8 viage to Penobscote. We shewed our willingnes to help, but 
withall we declared our presente condition, & in what state we 
were, for our abilitie to help ; which we for our parts shall be 
willing to improve, to procure you sufEcente supply of men & 
munition. But for matter of moneys we have no authority at 
all to promise, and if we should, we should rather disapoynte 
you, then incourage you by y' help, which we are not able to 
performe. We likewise thought it fitt to take y e help of other 
Esterne plantations ; but those things we leave to your owne 
wisdomes. And for other things we refer you to your owne 
comitties, who are able to relate all y° passages more at large. 
We salute you, & wish you all good success in y° Lord. 
Your faithfull & loving friend, 

Rr: Bellingham, Dep : 
In y° name of y 8 rest of the Comities. 

Boston, Octob r 16. 1635. 



This thing did not only thus breake of, but some of 
their merchants shortly after sent to trad with them, and 
furnished them both with provissions, & poweder & shott ; 
and so have continued to doe till this day, as they have 
seen opportunitie for their profite. So as in truth y 8 Eng- 
lish them selves have been the cheefest supporters of these 
French; for besids these, the plantation at Pemaquid* 
(which lyes near unto them) doth not only supply them 
with what y ey wante, but gives them continuall intelli- 

• A settlement is said to have been grant of Pemaquid from the Council, 

made at Pemaquid as early as 1023, or and resided here for many years, and 

1624. In 1020, according to his depo- was superintendent and chief magis- 

sition sworn to in 1602, Abraham trateofthe settlement. See William- 

Shurte came over as agent of Eldridge son's Maine, I. 241, 242, 003, 694; 

and Aldsworth, who in 1031-2 had a Winthrop, I. 61, 79. — Ed. 

337 [1636] 

gence of all things that passes amonge y 8 English, (espe- 
tially some of them,) so as it is no marvell though they 
still grow, & incroach more & more upon y" English, and 



70 



fill y" Indeans with guncs & munislition, to y" great 
deanger of y" English, who lye open & unfortified, liv- 
ing upon husbandrie; and y" other closed up in their 
forts, well fortified, and live upon trade, in good securitie. 
If these things be not looked too, and remeady provided 
in time, it may easily be conjectured what they may come 

t oe ; but I lea ve them 

^.JThis year, y° 14. or 15. of August (being Saturday*) 
was such a mighty storme of wind & raine, as none living 
in these parts, either English or Indeans, ever saw. Being 
like (for y° time it continued) to those Hauricanes and 
TufFons that writers make mention of in y" Indeas. It 
began in y° morning, a litle before day, and grue not by 
degrees, but came with violence in y° begining, to. y " great 
amasmente of many. It blew downe sundry [211] houses, 
& uncovered others ; diverce vessells were lost at sea, and 
many more in extreme danger. It caused y" sea to swell 
(to y° southward of this place) above 20. foote, right up 
& downe, and made many of the Indeans to clime into 
trees for their saftie; it tooke of y° borded roofe of a 
house which belonged to the plantation at Manamet, and 
floted it to another place, the posts still standing in y" 
ground ; and if it had continued long without y° shifting 
of y e wind, it is like it would have drouned some parte of 
y* cuntrie. It blew downe many hundered thowsands of 
trees, turning up the stronger by the roots, and breaking 
the hiegher pine trees of in the midle, and y tall yonge 

• Saturday was ihe 15th of August. Bristol (Eng.), with one hundred pas- 

Winlhrop erroneously records it under senger3, among whom were Richard 

the 16th. During this same tempest, Mather and Jonathan Mitchell, was met 

Anthony Thatcher was shipwrecked in by this storm in coming upon our coast, 

going from Ipswich to MarWehead in a and barely escaped destruction. See 

bark belonging to Mr. Allerton, con- Young's Chronicles of Massachusetts, 

taining twenty-three persons, all but pp. 473-476, 485-495 ; VVinthrop, I. 

two of whom perished. The James, of 164 - 166. — Ed. ^ 



338 



[1635] 



oaks & walnut trees of good biggnes were wound like a 
withe, very Strang & fearfull to behould. It begane in 
y° southeast, and parted toward y c south & east, and 
vered sundry ways ; but y e greatest force of it here was 
from y c former quarters. It continued not (in y e extrem- 
itic) above 5. or G. houers, but y e violence begane to abate. 
The signes and marks of it will remaine this 100. years 
in these parts wher it was sorest. The moone suffered 
a great eclips the 2. night after it. f 



some of their neighbours in y° Bay, hereing of y° fame 
of Conightecute River, had a hankering mind after it, (as 
was before noted,) and now understanding that y e Indeans 
were swepte away with y° late great mortalitie, the fear 
of whom was an obstacle unto them before, which being 
now taken away, they begane now to prosecute it with 
great egernes. The greatest difFerances fell betweene 
those of Dorchester plantation and them hear; for they 
set their minde on that place, which they had not only 
purchased of y" Indeans, but wher they had builte ; in- 
tending only (if they could not remove them) that they 
should have but a smale moyety left to y 6 house, as to a 
single family; whose doings and proceedings were con- 
ceived to be very injurious, to attempte not only to in- 
trude them selves into y° rights & possessions of others, 



but in effect to thrust them out of all. Many were y e 
leters & passages that went betweene them hear aboute, 
which would be to long here to relate. 

366 [1639.1640] 

A cow-calfc usually at 10". A milch goate at 3". & some 
at 4". And femall kids at 30\ and often at 40'. a peecc. 
By which means y° anciente planters which had any stock 
begane to grow in their estats. Corne also wente at a 
round rate, viz. 6". a bushell. So as other trading begane 
to be neglected ; and the old partners (having now forbid- 
den M r . Sherley to send them any more goods) broke of 
their trade at Kenebeck, and, as things stood, would fol- 
low it no longer. But some of them, (with other they 
joyned with,) being loath it should be lost by discontinu- 
ance, agreed with y° company for it, and gave them aboute 
y* 6. parte of their gaines for it ; [230] with y e first fruits 
of which they builte a house for a prison ; and the trade 
ther hath been since continued, to y° great benefite of f 
place ; for some well fore-sawe that these high prises of 
corne and catle would not long continue, and that then 

y * comodities ther raised would be much missed. 

^JThis year, aboute y" 1. or 2. of June* was a great & \ 
fearfull earthquake ; it was in this place heard before it ) 
was felte. It came with a rumbling noyse, or low mur- 
mure, like unto remoate thunder ; it came from y" norward, 
& pased southward. As y 6 noyse aproched nerer, they 
v earth begane to shake, and came at length with that vio- 
lence as caused platters, dishes, & such like things as 
stoode upon shelves, to clatter & fall downe ; yea, persons 
were afraid of y e houses them selves. It so fell oute y' at 
y* same time diverse of y a cheefe of this towne were mctt 
together at one house, conferring with some of their 
freinds that were upon their removall from y" place, (as if 
y° Lord would herby shew y" signes of his displeasure, in 
their shaking a peeces & removalls one from an other.) 

Wintltrop and Johnson notice this earthquake as occurring on the 1st of 
June. — Ed. ' 



367 



[1639-1640] 



How ever it was very terrible for y° time, and as y men 
were set talking in y° house, some women & others were 
without y c dores, and y c earth shooke with y l violence as 
they could not stand without catching hould of y 8 posts 
& pails y' stood next them ; but y° violence lasted not 
long. And about halfe an hower, or less, came an other 
noyse & shaking, but nether so loud nor strong as 
y* former, but quickly passed over ; and so it ceased. It 
was not only on y° sea coast, but y» Indeans felt it within 
land ; and some ships that were upon y° coast were shaken 
by it. So powerfull is y' mighty hand of y" Lord, as to 
make both the earth & sea to shake, and the mountaines 
to tremble before him, when he pleases; and who can 
stay his hand ? It was observed that y c soihers, for divers 
years togeather after this earthquake, were not so hotte & 
seasonable for y ripning of come & other fruits as for- 
merly; but more could & moyst, & subjecte to erly & 

I untimly frosts, by which, many times, much Indcan corne 
came not to maturitie ; but whether this was any cause, 

[ J Jeave it to naturallists to judge.f ' J 



71 



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202 



LETTERS ON NATURAL MAGIC. 



REMARKABLE ECHOES. 



203 



rapidly through the solid, and the other more slowly 
through the air. The same property is well illus- 
trated by an elegant and easily repeated experiment 
of Chladni's. When sparkling champaign is poured 
into a tall glass till it is half full, the glass loses its 
power of ringing by a stroke upon its edge, and 
emits only a disagreeable and puffy sound. This 
effect will continue while the wine is filled with 
bubbles of air, or as long as the effervescence lasts ; 
but when the effervescence begins to subside, the 
sound becomes clearer and clearer, and the glass 
rings as usual when the air-bubbles have vanished. 
If we reproduce the effervescence by stirring the 
champaign with a piece of bread, the glass will 
again cease to ring. The same experiment will 
succeed with other effervescing fluids. 

The difference in the audibility of sounds that 
pass over homogeneous and over mixed media is 
sometimes so remarkable as to astonish those who 
witness it. The following fact is given on the evi- 
dence of an officer who observed it : — When the 
British and the American forces were encamped on 
each side of a river, the outposts were so near that 
the form of individuals could be easily distinguished. 
An American drummer made his appearance, and 
began to beat his drum, but though the motion of 
his arms were distinctly seen, not a single sound 
reached the ear of the observer. A coating of snow 
that had newly fallen upon the ground, and the thick- 
ness of the atmosphere, had conspired to obstruct 
the sound. An effect the very reverse of this is 
produced by a coating of glazed or hardened snow, 
or by an extended surface of ice or water. Lieu- 
tenant Foster was able to carry on a conversation 
with a sailor across Port Bowen harbour, a distance 
of no less than a mile and a quarter, and the sound 
of great guns has been heard at distances varying 
from 120 to 200 miles. Over hard and dry ground 
of a uniform character, or where a thin soil rests 



upon a continuous stratum of rock, the sound is 
heard at a great distance, and hence it is the prac- 
tice among many Eastern tribes to ascertain the 
approach of an enemy by applying the ear to the 
ground. 

Many remarkable phenomena in the natural world 
are produced bythe reflection and concentration of 
sound. Every person is familiar with the ordinary 
echo which arises from the reflection of sound from 
an even surface, such as the face of a wall, of a 
house, of a rock, of a hill, or of a cloud. As sound 
moves at the rate of 1090 feet in a second, and as 
the sound which returns to the person who emits it 
has travelled over a space equal to twice his distance 
from the reflecting surface, the distance in feet of 
the body which occasions the echo may be readily 
found by multiplying 545 by the number of seconds j 
which elapse between the emission of the sound l 
and its return in the form of an echo. This kind of J 
echo, where the same person is the speaker and the 
hearer, never takes place unless when the observer 
is immediately in front of the reflecting surface, or 
when a line drawn from his mouth to the flat surface 
is nearly perpendicular to it, because in this caso 
alone the wave of sound is reflected in the very 
same direction from the wall in which it reaches it. 
If the speaker places himself on one side of this 
line, then the echo will be heard most distinctly by 
another person as far on the other side of it, because 
the waves of sound are reflected like light, so that 
the angle of incidence, or the inclination at which 
the sound falls upon the reflected surface, is equal 
to the angle of reflection, or the inclination at which 
the sound is returned from the wall. If two persons, 
therefore, are placed before the reflecting wall, the 
one will hear the echo of the sound emitted by the 
other, and obstacles may intervene between these 
two persons so that neither of them hears the direct 
sound emitted by the other ; in the same manner as 



73 



LEAVES 



IBOM IH1 



NOTE BOOK OF A NATURALIST. 



BY 

W. J. BRODERIP, ESQ., F.R.S. 

BTC. SIC. SIO. 
AUTHOR OP "ZOOLOGICAL RB C RB ATIO N S," ETC. HTO. 



Farewell, farewell ! but this I tell 
To thoe, thou Wedding-Quest : 

He prayeth well, who loveth well 
Both man and bird and beast. 

The Ancient Mariner. 



BOSTON: 

PUBLISHED BY E. LITTELL & CO. 

NEW YORK; Q. P. PUTNAM. 

1852, 



73 

102 LEAVES FROM THE NOTE-BOOK OF A NATURALIST. 



his teeth and chaws. Now when he is lulled as it 
were fast asleep with this pleasure and content- 
ment of his ; the rat of India, or ichneumon, spieth 
his vantage, and seeing him lye thus broad gaping, 
whippeth into his mouth, and shooteth himselfe 
downe his throat as quicke as an arrow, and then 
gnaweth a hole through his belly, and so killeth 
him.* 

Scaliger, somewhat scandalized that Pliny had 
made the bird a WTen, was of opinion that it 
should be described ; and the trochilus then came 
out of the size of a thrush, with an acute crested 
feather, which it had the power of erecting, so as 
to prick the palate of the crocodile if he should 
close his jaws and shut her in. Aldrovand backs 
this doctrine by a reference to Leo's work on 
Africa, who declares that he saw on the banks of 
islands in the middle of the Nile crocodiles sun- 
ning themselves, and birds, about the size of a 
thrush, flitting about them ; but after a short 
space the birds flew away. His inquiries were 
answered by a statement that portions of the fishes 
and other animals on which the crocodile feeds 
stick about his teeth and breed worms, to his 
great torment. The birds, perceiving the worms 
when the crocodile gapes, come to feed upon them. 
But the crocodile, as soon as he finds that all the 
worms are eaten up, closes his mouth, and at- 
tempts to swallow the bird that has entered, but, 
being wounded by the sharp spine with which the 
. head of the bird is armed, gapes again and sets 
the winged prisoner free. 

The narrative of Herodotus has received cor- 
roboration from the pen of the accomplished author 
of Visits to Monasteries in the Levant.^ 

I will relate (says Mr. Curzon, in that amusing 
and interesting book) a fact in natural history 
which I was fortunate enough to witness, and 
which, although it is mentioned so long ago as the 
times of Herodotus, has not, I believe, been often 
observed since : indeed, I have never met with any 
traveller who has himself seen such an occur- 
rence. 

I had always a strong predilection for crocodile- 
shooting, and had destroyed several of these dragons 
of the waters. On one occasion I saw, a long way 
off 1 , a large one, twelve or fifteen feet long, lying 
asleep under a perpendicular bank, about ten feet 
high, on the margin of the river. I stopped the 
boat at some distance ; and noting the place as well 
as I could, I took a circuit inland, and came down 
cautiously to the top of the bank, whence with a 
heavy rifle I made sure of my ugly game. I had 
already cut off his head in my imagination, and was 
considering whether it should be stuffed with its 
mouth open or shut. I peeped over the bank; 
there he was within ten feet of the sight of the 
rifle. I was on the point of firing at his eye, when 
I observed that he was attended by a bird called a 
zic-zac. It is of the plover species, of a grayish 
color, and as large as a small pigeon. 

The bird was walking up and down close to the 
crocodile's nose. I suppose I moved, for suddenly 
it saw me, and instead of flying away, as any re- 
spectable bird would have done, he jumped up 
about a' foot from the around, screamed " Zic-zac ! 

* HoUtnd'i Plinv. t London : Jobn Jtturrev. 184V. 



zic-zac!" with all the powers of his voice, <vnd 
dashed himself against the crocodile's face two or 
three times. The great beast started up, and im- 
mediately spying his danger, made a jump into the 
air, and, dashing into the water with a splash which 
covered me with mud, he dived into the river and 
disappeared. The zic-zac to my increased admira- 
tion — proud, apparently, of having saved his friend 
— remained walking up and' down, uttering his ory, 
as I thought, with an exulting voice, and standing 
every now and then on the tips of his toes in a con- 
ceited manner, which made me justly angry with 
his impertinence. After having waited in vain for 
some time, to see whether the crocodile would come 
out again, I got up from the bank where I was ly- 
ing, threw a clod of earth at the zic-zac, and came 
back to the boat, feeling some consolation for the 
loss of my game in having witnessed a circumstance 
the truth of which has been disputed by several 
writers on natural history. 

The crocodile's protector was actuated, doubt- 
less, by that self-interest which governs so many 
social compacts ; and Herodotus, when he de- 
scribes the bird as freeing the crocodile from his 
troublesome parasites, only records an alliance 
which is far from uncommon in the history of an- 
imals. To say nothing of the familiat instances 
of the daws, magpies, and starlings, that attend 
upon our sheep and horned cattle, there are more 
close alliances founded on a reciprocity of benefits. 
Such, among the warm-blodHed v ertebrated ani- 
mals, is the connection betweenjflhe Bwphaga 



h^ttirotij/ncha — the beef-eater of the English, the 
pique-bamf of the French — and the oxen, camels, 
and antelopes, which it frees from the larva that 
burrow in their hides, for which service its feet 
and beak are admirably adapted — the feet, armed 
with strong claws, affording a firm hold on the 
back of the animal, and the beak, fashioned so as 
to dig and extract the maggots as neatly as an in- 
strument combining the qualities of a lancet and 
forceps, in skilful surgical hands, could perform 
the operation. Such are the rhinoceros birds 
mentioned by Mr. Cumming. Even among the 
molluscous animals we have t he asso ciation of the, 
pinna and, the craJM 

The rhinocerosoirds were just as attentive to 
their charge as the guard which deprived Mr. 
Curzon of his " ugly game." A native had in- 
formed Mr. Cumming that a white rhinoceros was 
lying asleep in thick cover, and he accompanied 
his guide to the spot. The rhinoceros was lying 
asleep beneath a shady tree, and his appearance 
reminded Mr. Cumming of an enormous hog. 
The beast kept constantly flapping his ears, which, 
he says, rhinoceroses invariably do when sleeping. 
But before he could reach the proper distance to 
fire, several rh\noceros birds by which he was at- 
tended warned him of his impending danger by 
sticking their bills into his ear, and uttering their 
harsh, grating cry. Thus aroused, he suddenly 
sprang to his feet, crashed away through the jun- 
gle at a rapid rate, and Mr. Cumming saw him 
no more. But it appears that it is not to the 
rhinoceros alone that these guardians do good 
service. 



74 
LEAVES FROM THE NOTE-BOOK OF A NATURALIST. lit 



of broken rocka, where he would have been beyond 
my reach, but before he could gain this place of 
refuge I caught him two or three tremendous whacks 
on the head. He, however, held on, fend gained a 
pool of muddy water, which he was rapidly crossing, 
when I again belabored him,' and at length reduced 
his pace to a stand. We then hanged him by the 
neck to a bough of a tree, and in about fifteen 
minutes he seemed dead, but he again became very 
troublesome during the operation of skinning, twist- 
ing his body in all manner of ways. This serpent 
measured fourteen feet. 

There is no amount of torture that man — aye, 
and woman too, will not inflict on an animal that 
does not cry out. If the eels, which the fish-wife 
or the cook skins with so much unconcern, could 
express their agonies audibly, nothing would in- 
duce either of those delicate females to continue 
the horrible and merciless operation ; but the eels 
are mute, and suffer accordingly. 

Two works of art, ancient and modern, rise 
before us ; one in all the simplicity and purity of 
marble ; the other glowing with all the enchant- 
ment of color. In the one, the agonized priest of 
Apollo and his hapless children vainly struggle in 
the folds of the serpents : — 

Laocoonta petunt : et primum parva duorum 
Corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque 
Implicat, et miseros morsu depascitur artus. 
Post ipsum auxilio subeuntem ac tela fereutem 
Corripiunt, spirisque ligant ingentibus ; et jam 
Bis medium ampleji, bis collo squamea circum 
Terga dati superant capite et cervicibus altis. 
JJle simul manibus tendit divellere nodos, 
Perfusos sanie vittas atroque veneno ; 
Clamorea simul horrendos ad sidera tollit. 

In that marvellous group, 

All made out of the carver's brain, 

the serpents are so represented, that the spectator 
feels that there is no hope for the victims. The 
very opposite of it appears in the subject made 
musical by the exquisite Doric reed of Theocritus, 
and brought in. all its grandeur before the eye by 
the bold and beautiful pencil of our own Reynolds. 
In the idyll of the Greek,* opening with one of 
the most charming material scenes and good nights 
ever presented to the imagination, the serpents are 
made to relax their folds when the spines of their 
backs waxed weary under the killing grasp of the 
Infant Hercules ; and in the British picture you 
see at once that they are dying, overcome by the 
vigor of the son of Jupiter. 

But as long as the locomotive machinery is in 
good order, the sinuous, graceful windings of the 
serpent, joined to the bright hues with which the 
skin of the majority of the species is enamelled, 
make it a pleasing object to those who can over- 
come the natural antipathy felt by so many at their 
presence, and incline them to sympathize with the 
Indian girl- 
Stay, stay, thou lovely, fearful snake, 
Nor hide thee in yon darksome brake j 
But let me oft iby form review, 

* HqaxXiaxo{. E<'<Jr.U<o» xf. 

. lloaxXia dixifitjtor iirta. — *. T. 1. 



Thy sparkling eves and golden hoe i 
From thence a enaplet shall be wove 
To grace the youth I dearest love. 

Then, ages hence, when thou no more 
Shalt glide along the sunny shore, 
Thy copied beauties shall be seen ; 
Thy vermeil red and living green 
In mimic folds thou shalt display ; 
Stay, lovely, fearful adder stay I 

To be sure, poets, as well as doctors, differ; 
and Coleridge, in " that singularly wild and beau- 
tiful poem," tells us that 

A snake's small eye blinks dnll and sly. 
And dull it is sometimes, but only before moulting, 
for the skin of the cornea comes off with the rest 
of the slough. When the serpent comes out in 
its new coat, with its bright eye and elegant action, 
it is as different from its former self as Talley- 
rand in solitary dishabille was from Talleyrand 
dressed in a brilliant assembly, through whose 
crowded mazes he would wind his way, his very 
lameness lending grace to his gently undulating 

p rogress. . 

J Those who define a* serpent as an apod, or foot- 1 
less animal, carry their definition too far. Thel 
large constricting serpents, and not only those, I 
but eryx and tortrix, are furnished with the rudi- I 
ments of hinder extremities, which appear to have 
escaped the notice of Sir Everar d Home, but did j 
not escape that of Dr. Mayer.f Observing the 
spur, or nail, on each side ol the vent in the 
bo'ida, the doctor examined further, and found it 
to be a true nail, in the cavity of which is a little 
semi-cartilaginous bone, ungual phalanx, articu- 
lated with another much better developed bone, 
which is concealed under the skin. This second 
bone of the rudimentary foot presented an external 
thick condyle, with which the ungual phalanx was 
articulated, and was furnished besides with a 
smaller internal apophysis. Proceeding in his 
investigation, he laid bare a rudimentary tibia 
with its muscles, and made out a complete pos- 
terior limb, such as it was, the foot being furnished 
with its abductor and adductor muscles. Upon 
these elements he founded his Phamopoda, a family 
of Ophidians, having the rudiments of a foot visible 
externally, containing the genera boa, python, eryx, 
and tortrix. 

The author of the article " Boa," in the Penny 
Cyclopaedia, where the details of this curious dis- 
covery are given, observes, that no one can read 
of the habits of these reptiles in a state of nature 
without perceiving the advantage which they gain, 
when, holding on by their tails on a tree, their 
heads and bodies in ambush, and half-floating on 
some sedgy river, they surprise the thirsty animal 
that seeks the stream. These hooks help the 
serpent to maintain a fixed point ; they become a 
fulcrum, which gives a double power to his 
energies. 

We need not go to the Valley of Diamonds 
with Sinbad to find enormous serpents. The 
companions of other sailors have been swallowed 
up by those monstrous reptiles, as was too clea.ly 
proved to the crew of the Malay proa, who an- 



75 
LEAVES FROM THE NOTE-BOOK OF A NATURALIST. 



129 



in onfl hole : the others were imprisoned singly, 
and the holes were tightly plugged up. The 
result of these experiments was, a conclusion that 
toads cannot live a year excluded totally from 
atmospheric air, and that they cannot survive two 
years, if entirely prevented from obtaining food. 

But let us, before we depart, look into the 
reptile-house on a warm summer night. We 
enter with a dark lanlhorn. The light is no 
sooner unveiled, than it seems to have a Prome- 
thean effect on the statue-like forms that were so 
still in the morning Now the scene is changed ; 
now all is action, terrible action ; and we behold 
the monstrous constricting serpents, and the hor- 
rible poisonous snakes, and the uncouth lizards, 
wrilhing, coiling, creeping, running, and pushing 
against the transparent walls of their crystal 
prison, till the nervous anxiety of some tempera- 
ments may be pardoned for huddling up to the 
keeper, and inquiring, with bated breath, whether 
the glass is python and boa-constrictor proof? 

March 27. — The rain it raineth every day. 
The peck of dust, worth a king's ransom, will 
hardly be forthcoming, and the farmer begins to 
be uneasy about his oats. The garden in the 
Regent's Park is a swamp. Both the great and 
smaller tortoise in the ostrich-house are dead, as I 
feared. A small one that buries itself two or 
three feet deep in the earth, exposed to all the 
skyey influences, does well. Hippo is flourishing, 
and now has clover-chaff tea, with the boiled chaff 
as a change of diet. He drinks the tea, and then 
eats the sop. His tank in the open air is advanc- 
ing rapidly towards completion. The beautiful 
crested pigeons,* with their hybrid young one, 
are in fine condition. On the 6th September, in 
the last year, I found Goura Victoria? on her nest, 
with her young one able to fly. On that day it 
was five weeks old. The male bird, Goura coro- 
nata, better known as " the great Amboyna 
pigeon," which belongs to her majesty, was 
strutting about on the ground. His productive 
alliance with the species which bears our gracious 
queen's name, is worthy of notice, particularly 
when the difference of climate is taken into the 
account. The egg — there was only one — from 
which the hybrid sprung, was sat on twenty-eight 
days before the young bird was hatched, by both 
parents ; but the male was most assiduous and the 
best nurse. 

An egg was laid and hatched in 1849, but the 
young one died a day or two after its exclusion. 
The birds showing a disposition to sit in 1850, 
the cover of a basket was placed upon the angle 
of a stout, forked pole, in the great aviary ; and a 
few birch twigs furnished to them. Out of these 
rough materials they made a nest. They sat 
side by side. The male always sat with his head 
fronting the spectator, or nearly so, as if he was 
keeping watch, and the female with hers exactly 
in the opposite direction, so that the head of the 
coi-k was parallel to the tail of the hen. The 

* Qouro ooronata and Goura Victorias. 



young one waa fed from the crops and mouths of 
both parents. 

And here we cannot but feel with John Hun- 
ter, who discovered the curious organization in 
the dove kind, which enables the parents to sup- 
port their young with the curd-like contents of 
their crops — from their own bodies, in short, as 
the mammalia do in the early stages of the exist- 
ence of their offspring — that the nourishment of 
animals admits, perhaps, of as much variety in 
the mode by which it is to be performed, as 
any circumstance connected with their economy, 
whether we consider their numerous tribes, the 
different stages through which every animal 
passes, or the food adapted to each in their dis- 
tinct conditions and situations. The food fitted 
for one stage of life is rejected at another. 

Animal life (as Hunter observes) may be 
divided into three states, or stages : the first com- 
prehending the production of the animal and its 
growth in the foetal state ; the second commencing 
when it emerges from that state by what is called 
the birth, but leaving it for a time, either medi- 
ately or immediately dependent on the parent for 
support ; the third when the animal is able to act 
for itself. As a general proposition, it may be 
laid down that the first and third stages are com- 
mon to all animals ; but some classes — fishes and 
spiders, for instance — pass directly from the first 
to the third, having no intermediate stage. 

The great physiologist then notices the infinite 
variety in which Nature provides for the support 
of the young in the second stage of animal life, 
and that Jmngs him to the statement of his dis- 
e tells us, and tells us truly, that the 



cover 

— — ■ i 

young pigeon, like the young quadruped, till it is 
capable of digesting the common food of its kind, 
is fed with a substance secreted for that purpose 
by the parent ; not, as in the mammalia, by the 
female alone, but by the male also, and perhaps 
more abundantly than by the female. 
" Every person who has kept parrots, maccaws, 
and birds generally of that family, must have 
noticed the power possessed by them of throwing 
up the contents of the crop, and feeding each 
other. Hunter, in common with others, saw a 
cock paroquet regularly feed his hen, by first 
filling his own crop, and supplying her thence 
from his. beak ; and he notices what every observer 
who has kept such birds must have remarked — 
namely, that when they are very fond of the per- 
son who feeds and attends upon them, they per- 
form the action of throwing up food, and often do 
it. The cock pigeon, when he caresses the hen, 
goes through the same forms of action as when he 
feeds his young ; but Hunter adds, that he does 
not know if at this time he throws up anything 
from the crop. I have observed a similar action, 
during the breeding season in rooks ; and I have 
reason to believe that the cocks feed the hens 
while they are sitting, as well as the young, with 
food saved in a kind of gular pouch under the 
lower mandible, but 1 do not know whether they 
feed eithej.the hon* n.r.ihii-<' iU .v..w I >*;m.. ''""' •••' -- *- 



76 



130 



LEAVES FROM THE NOTE-BOOK OF A NATURALIST. 



lias undergone any alteration in the crop, or 
whether the hens feed their young or their mates 
with such provender. Hunter, from the observa- 
tions made by him on the parrot-kind, states that 
he has reason to suppose that they are endowed 
with the same power as the pigeons. 

As the breasts or udders of mammiferous fe- 
males become gradually enlarged and thickened at 
the time of uterine gestation, so, during incuba- 
tion, are the coats of the pigeon's crop ; and John 
Hunter, on comparing the state of that organ 
when the bird was not sitting, with its appearance 
during incubation, found the difference very re- 
markable. In the first case, it was thin and mem- 
branous ; but by the time when the young were 
about to be hatched, the whole, except the portion 
which lay under the trachea, became thicker, and 
assumed a glandular appearance, having its inter- 
nal surface very irregular. It was likewise evi- 
dently more vascular than in its former state, in 
order to the conveyance of a quantity of blood 
sufficient for the nourishing substance. 

1 Whatever may be the consistence of this sub- 
stance when just secreted, it most probably very 
soon coagulates into a granulated white curd, for 
in such form," says Hunter, in continuation, "I 
have always found it in the crop ; and if an old 
pigeon is killed just as the young ones are hatch- 
ing, the crop will be found as above described, 
and in its cavity pieces of white curd, mixed with 
some of the common food of the pigeon, such as 
barley, beans, &c. If we allow either of the par- 
ents to feed the brood, the crop of the young 
pigeons when examined will be discovered to con- 
tain the same kind of curdled substance as that of 
the old ones, which passes from thence into the 
stomach, where it is to be digested." 

The joke about " pigeon's milk" is not so 
groundless, after all. But see how beautifully 
this dispensation is ordered, according to the ex- 
igencies of the nestling : — 

The young pigeon is fed for a little time with 
this substance only, as about the third day some of 
the common food is found mingled with it ; as the 
pigeon grows older, the proportion of common food 
is increased ; so that by the time it is seven, eight, 
or nine days old, the secretion of the curd ceases 
m the old ones, and of course no more will be 
found in the crop of the young. It is a curious 
fact, that the parent pigeon has at first a power to 
throw up his curd without any mixture of common 
food, although, afterwards, both are thrown up, 
according to the proportion required for the young 
ones. 

I have called this substance curd, not as being 
literally so, but as resembling that more than any- 
thing I know ; it may, hbwever, have a greater 
resemblance to curd than we are perhaps aware of, 
for neither this secretion, nor curd from which the 
whey has been pressed, seems to contain any sugar, 
and do not ran into the acetous fermentation. The 
property of coagulating is confined to the substance 
itself, as it produces no such effect when mixed 
with milk. This secretion in the pigeon, like all 
other animal substances, becomes putrid by stand- 
"■ nithar. blood dr meat, 



it resisting putrefaction for a considerable time ; 
neither will curd much pressed become putrid so 
soon as either blood or meat.* 

(Those who would wish to examine this phe- ] 
nomenon more closely will find preparations of the I 
pigeon's crop in that noble m useum, t which is 
John Hunter's best monument. \ No young birds 
are in so forlorn a state as young pigeons, if the 
parents are killed before the young can provide 
for themselves. Birds of other species, stimu- 
lated by the cries of the starving young which 
have been deprived of parental aid, can and do 
assist the little wretches, but none except an old 
pigeon with its crop in a proper state can save the 
life of a nestling dove. 

The gouras, by whose alliance a third colum- 
ban form of the same race has been ushered into 
this breathing world of ours, in their natural stale, 
are probably employed, like others of the dove 
kind, in disseminating the fragrant nutmegs 
through New Guinea, the Moluccas, and other 
islands. For Sonnerat declares, and with truth, 
that the pigeons which swallow the nuts whole 
are nourished by the enveloping case, which is 
alone digested, leaving the nut itself uninjured, or 
rather more readily prepared for germinating on 
the soil whereon it is dropped. • 

The Zoological Society possesses a very fine 
collection of Columbida, and a most interesting 
tribe they are. Messengers of love, of peace, 
and of war, they are allied very nearly, as we 
have seen above, to the mammalia in one part of 
their organization, and resemble them in some of 
their habits ; for pigeons do not drink like most 
birds by taking up a small quantity of water at a 
time, and throwing the head upward and back- 
ward, but, like horses or kine, suck up a long 
continuous draught without raising the head, till 
thirst is satisfied. 

Columba : whence the name ? Varro declares 
from its cooing. Did the same impression of its 
notes on the ancient British ear call forth a simi- 
lar appellation, and induce our ancestors to name 
the birds colommen, kylobraan, kulm, kolm, and 
culver ! 

The perseverance with which some of the 
varieties, the carriers especially, when well 
trained, will return from very long distances, is 
wonderful :•— 

It blew and it rained, 
The pigeon disdained 

To geek shelter — undaunted he flew ; 
Till wet was his wing, 
And painful the string, 

So heavy the letter it grew. 

This same faculty, which in comparatively 
modern times was degraded to giving notice to the 

• Animal Economy, edited by Professor Owen. Long- 
man laid Co. 

t The museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of 
England, rendered doubly valuable by the learned and 
elaborate Catalogue by Professor Owen, in 5 vols. 4to. 
The preparations are numbered 3737 to 3741, both inolu- 
slre. 



77 




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more delicate and imperceptible intervals in the song of birds, yet 
manv of them are capable of whistling tunes with our more gross 
intervals, as in the case of piping bullfinches and canary-birds. 
This faculty of learning the first notes that the bird is able to 
disti nguish, le ads us to_ another interesting part of. our subject, 
dCwc will now proceed to the experiments made by Dainesj 
Barringtou, showing that the varied songs which distinguish! 
different species of birds, are the consequence of the parentalS 
notes which first meet their ears. 

The learned author states that to be certain that a nestling willj 
not have even the call of its species, it should be taken from the 
nest when only a day or two old ; because, though nestlings I 
xinnot see till the seventh day, yet they can hear from the instant ! 
:hey are hatched, and probably, from that circumstance, attend to 
rounds more than they do afterwards, especial ly as the call of the; 
(parents anno unces th e arrival of their food. [ Alter stating the 
trouble ot breeding up a bird ot this tender age, and admitting 
that he himself never reared one, he goes on to speak of a linnet 
and a goldfinch which he had seen, and which were taken from 
their nests when only two or three days old, and to mention 
some other curious instances of imitation in the following 
terms : — 

"The first of these (the linnet) belonged to Mr. Matthews, 
an apothecary at Kensington, which, from a want of other sounds 
to imitate, almost articulated the words pretty boy, as well as some 
other short sentences. I heard the bird myself repeat the words 
pretty boy ; and Mr. Matthews assured me, that he had neither 
the note nor c;dl of any bird whatsoever. This talking linnet 
died last year, before which many people went from London to 
hear him speak." 

" The goldfinch I have before mentioned was reared in the town 
of Knighton, in Radnorshire, which I happened to hear as I was 
walking by the house where it was kept. I thought, indeed, that 
a wren was singing ; and I went into the house to inquire after it, 
as that little bird seldom lives long in a cage. The people of the 
house, however, told me that they had no bird but a goldfinch, 
which they conceived to sing its own natural note as they called 
it ; upon which I stayed a considerable time in the room, whilst 
its notes were merely those of a wren, without the least mixture 
of goldfinch. On further inquiries, I found that the bird had been 
taken from the nest when only a day or two old, that it was hung 
in a window which was opposite to a small garden, whence the 
nestling had undoubtedly acquired the notes of the wren, without 
having had any opportunity of learning even the call of a gold- 
finch. These facts which I have stated, seem to prove very deci- 



sively that birds have not any innate ideas of the notes which are 
supposed to be peculiar to each species. But it will possibly be 
asked, why, in a wild state, they adhere so steadily to the same 
song, insomuch that it is well known, before the bird is heard, 
what notes you are to expect from him ? This, however, arises 
entirely from the nestling's attending only to the instruction of the 
parent bird, whilst it disregards the notes of all others, which 
may, perhaps, be singing around him. Young Canary birds are 
frequently reared in a room where there are many other sorts, and 
yet I have been informed that they only learn the song of the 
parent cock. Every one knows that the common house-sparrow, 
when in a wild state, never does anything but chirp ; this does 
not, however, arise from want of power in this bird to imitate 
others, but because he only attends to the parental note." 

Two points in this interesting description will be noted by the 
observer, and the questions will occur — how was the first bird of 
each species taught, and is not the assertion touching the sparrow 



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79 



attains its former proficiency, and the nightingale practises as long 
the strains of his beautiful song, before he gives it full, clear, and 
in all its extent." , 

jThis "practising " is termed by our British bird-fanciers and 

bird-catchers, " recording," a word, according to DainesBarrington, 

I probably derived from the musical instrument formerly used in 
England, called a " recorder,*" which seems to have been a species 
of flute, and was probably used to teach young birds to pipe notes. 
The term "recording" is more particularly used by the same 
fraternity, to distinguish the attempt of the nestling to sing, and 
which may be compared to the babble of a child in its imperfect 

^endeavours to articulate, j 

" I have known, says Barrington, " instances of birds 
beginning to record when they were not a month old. This first 
essay does not seem to have the least rudiments of the future 
song ; but as the bird grows older and stronger, one may begin to 
perceive what the nestling is aiming at. Whilst the scholar is 
thus endeavouring to form his song, when he is once sure of a 
pa -sage, he commonly raises his tone, which he drops again when 
he is not equal to what he is attempting ; just as a singer raises 
his voice, when he not only recollects certain parts of a tune with 
precision, but knows that he can execute them. What the nestling 
is not thus thoroughly master of, he hurries over, lowering his 
tone, as if he did not wish to be heard, and could not yet satisfy 
himself. A young bird commonly continues to record for ten cr 
eleven months, when he is able to execute every part of ids song, 

* The passage in " Hamlet " will occur to every one. 




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hich afterwards continues fixed, and is scarcely ever alterecL 



When the bird is thus become perfect in his lesson, he is said to 
sing his song round, or in all its varieties of passages, which he 

connects together, and executes without a pause." t 

Barrington defines a bird's song to be a succession of three or 
more different notes, which are continued without interruption 
during the same interval with a musical bar of four crotchets in 
an adagio movement, or whtfst a pendulum swings four seconds. 
Now let us see what notes have been detected in the song. 
Observers have marked f natural in woodlarks ; a in thrushes ; 
c falling to a commonly in the cuckoo ; a natural in common 
cocks ; b flat in a very large cock ; d in some owls ; b fiat in 
others. Thus we have a, b flat, c, d, and f, to which Barrington 
adds g from his own observations on a nightingale which lived 
three years in a cage ; and he confirms the remarks of the observer 
who furnished him with the list, and says he has frequently heard 
from the same bird c and f. To prove the precision of the pitch 
of these notes, the b flat of the spinnet by which he tried them 
was perfectly in tune with the great bell of St. Paul's, e then is 
the only note wanting to complete the scale ; but, as he says, the 
six other notes afford sufficient data for making some conjectures 
with regard to the key in which birds may be supposed to sing, 
as these intervals can only be found in the key of f with a sharp 
third, or that of g with a flat third ; and he supposed it to be the 
plaintive flat third, that affecting tone which, in the simple ballad, 
or "wild and sad" chorus, so comes home to our bosoms. 

" Oft have I listened, and stood still, 
A3 it came softened up the hill, 
And deemed it the lament of men, 
Who languished for their native glen." 

Barrington pronounces in favour of the flat third, because he 
agrees with Lucretius, that man first learnt musical notes from 
birds, and because the cuckoo, whose " plain song" has been most 
attended to, performs it in a flat third. He strengthens his 
argument by showing that most of our simple compositions — old 
melodies such as " MorvaRhydland," and ancient music generally 



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f bird will sutler itscit to be puuea at tm it is caught — such aj| 

I fascinating power have the call birds. "*Y 

"VVe do not mean to detain the reader upon a bird-catching 
expedition — though it would be more full of interest than some 
would think — but he ought to know, before he goes on one, that 
a bird acquainted with the nets is by the bird-catchers termed a 
sharper ; him they endeavour to drive away, as they can have no 
sport in his company. It is worthy of note, too, that even in their 
captivity the natural instinct of the cull-birds is in many points no 
whit blunted ; for the moment they see a hawk, caged though 

* Barrington on the small birds of flight. 



they be, they communicate the alarm to each other, by a plaintive 
note, nor will they then jerk or call, though the wild birds are 
near." 



^Tt is in the Insessorial orderf of birds that the songsters abound; 
but there is one remarkable exception among the Raptorial order, 
in that warbling African, Le Faucon Chanteurl of Le Vaillant, 
perhaps the only known bird of prey — Cuvier says the only known 
one — that sings agreeably. Its song is very sweet, but dangerous 
as the lay of the Syrens, and , _ 



" Mocks the dead bones that lie scattered by.' 



[Few spots are more musical with song-birds than these islands, i 
Not that the woods of America are mute — but they want the 
brilliant variety of ours ; and one of her sons, who has so well 
deserved of the lovers of natural history in all countries, has 
endeavoured to colonize the Transatlantic groves with the fea- 
thered songsters of Britain. And yet they have that wonderful 
polyglot the mock-bird. § Him we have seen and heard in 
captivity, and — but Wilson has immortalized the bird with his 
graphic pen, and, in all humility, we lay down ours. ( * 



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• Birrinrton on the small birds of flight, 
t Iri;<?i>orei — Perching birds. 



J Falco mnsicus of Daudin. 
5 Orpheus polyglottus. 



\ The notes of the Gold-crested Wren*, the smallest of British 
birds, can hardly be called a song, but they salute the ear in the 
beginning of February, and the beautiful little bird, with its 
elegant nest and pale-brown eggs, weighing nine or ten grains 
each — the bird weighs no more than eighty — must not pass un- 
noticed. A pair, which took possession of a fir-tree in Colonel 
Montagu's garden, ceased their song as soon as the young were 
hatched ; and, when they were about six d ays old , h e took the., 
nest a nd placed it outside his study window. J Alter the old birds 
had oecome laminar witn that situation, the basket was brought 
within the window, and, afterwards, was conveyed to the opposite 
side of the room. The male had regularly assisted in feeding the 
young ones as long as they remained outside the window; and, 
though he attended the female afterwards to that barrier, he never 
once entered the room, nor brought any food while the young 
were in it. But the mother's affections were not to be so 
checked : — she would enter, and feed her infant brood at the table 
where Colonel Montagu was sitting, and even while he held the 
nest in his hand. One day he moved his head as she was sitting 
on the edge of the nest which he held. She instantly retreated — 
so precipitately, that she mistook the closed for the open part of 
the window, dashed herself against the glass, and lay apparently 

b reathless on the floor for some time. - — N 

^JNeither the fright nor the hurt could, however, overpower her 
maternal yearnings. Colonel Montagu had the pleasure of seeingl 
her recover, and soon return, and she afterwards frequently fedj 



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were ineffectual, and they then closed up the aperture of the nest 
with clay, thus converting it into a sepulchre. At first Mr. Black- 
wall was disposed to attribute the untimely death of the nestlings 
to the accidental destruction of one or both parents ; but the 
accumulated evidence forbade any other conclusion than that these 
cases of protracted suffering and ultimate dissolution, were the 
result of voluntary abandonment. May not the praises bestowed 
of old upon the swallow for its piety in burying its dead, have 
taken their origin from some such facts as one of those recorded 
bv Mr. Blackball ?r 



Vi 



* Researches in Zoology. 

39 



Richard's-pipit (Anthus Ricardi) wa3 first noticed by Mr. 
Vigors, as an occasional visiter, and though the appearance of 
others here has been recorded, they can only be considered as 

stragglerSi^ — _^ 

TOT the true larks (Alaudidce), the only visiter, and that 
'Accidentally, is the shore-lark (Alauda alpestris). Its range from 
north to south is great. Captain Sir James Iloss, R.N., records one 
shot near Felix. Harbour, and Captain Phillip Parker King brought 
it from the Straits of Magellan; or, more correctly, Magalhaens. 
The b ird is a sweet singe r, and Audubon, w ho fou nd it ( 

" — on the dismal shore 
Of cold and pitiless Labrador ; 
Where under the moon, upon mounts of frost 
Full many a mariner's bones are tost," 

graphically describes its zealous parental affection. 

" Although in the course of our previous rambles along the 
coast of Labrador," says that eloquent and accurate ornithologist, 
" and among the numberless islands that guard its shores, I had 
already seen this lark while breeding, never before that day did I 
so much enjoy its song, and never before I reached this singular 
spot had I to add to my pleasures that of finding its nest. Here I 
found the bird in the full perfection of plumage and song, and 
here I had an opportunity of studying its habits, which I will now 
endeavour to describe. 

71 

Nor did the cuckoo fail to figure in the ancient pharmacopoeia. 
Pliny tells us,* that if it be wrapped in a hare-skin and applied to 
the patient, it will produce sleep, and Rodeletius notices its ashes 
iis good against disorders of the stomach. A somewhat unsavoury 
decoction, into the ingredients of which we will not now enter, 
but which could be procured only from the cuckoo, was held to 
be a specific against the bite of a mad dog; and, according to the 
Roman zoologist, the very sound of its voice, when assisted by 
due ceremonies, produced a degree of domestic comfort, which, if 
the ancient Italians were as much subject to pulicial persecution 
as the moderns, must have been quite invaluable : that they were 
not spared the company of the indefatigable insect voltigeurs, any 
more than their descendants, is rendered highly probable by their 
lack of linen. If, when the bird was first heard, the auditor 
circumscribed his right-foot, and dug up the earth on which it 
rested, not a flea would be hatched wherever that earth was scat- 
tered.! Nor did the ancient kitchens disdain it. On the contrary, 
Aristotle states, that cuckoos are fattest and most highly-flavoured 
about the time of their laying \\ and Pliny declares that no bird 
can compete with a young cuckoo, just able to fly, in the sweetness 
of its flesh. || Aldrovandus remarks, that the Italians still bring it 
to their tables ; but that the Germans reject it with loathing as 
an unclean bird, on account of its habit of spitting, to the con- 
side ration of which charge we now proceed . i 

^jThe country people and their children still give the name of 
(," cuckoo-spittle" to the frothy nidus of Tcttigonia spumaria, which 



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88 

kept down to the lowest point in the owl to make it as light as 
possible ; and thus framed and feathered, the bird 

148 

We must now take leave of Europe for the present, and beg our 
readers 



(kej 
IS 



to change the scene to America. 

S i ' 



Dissection," says Air. jtarreJl, " wlncli proved the distinction 
/between the hooper and Bewick's swan, has also proved that the 



144 

j true wild swans of North America are peculiar to that country, J 
I and disti nct from the two European swans.) ' 

1 4. Ot the American swans, the largest— -it is larger than our 

hooper — is the Trumpeter Swan, or Hunter's Swan, Cygnus 
buccinator, the Keetchee icapeeshew of the Cree Indians. 

Lawson in his " Natural History of Carolina" (1714), says : 
'* Of the swans we have two sorts ; the one we call Trompeters, 
because of a sort of trompeting noise they make. These are the 
laro-est sort we have, which come in great flocks in the winter, 
and stay commonly in the fresh rivers till February, that the 
spring comes on, when they go to the lakes to breed. A cygnet, 
that is, a last year's swan, is accounted a delicate dish, as indeed 
it is. They are known by their head and feathers, which are not 
so white as old birds." 

180 

I In the dogs properly so called, the I 

'pupil ot the eye is round"; this modification of the organization I 
i exists in the wolf and the jackal, and for this reason the African | 
Fennec or Zerda is now associated with the true dogs ; but the / 
pupil of th e eye in the foxes , who se habits are more nocturnal, J 
is vertical. f ^The wild dogs, as tney are called — and we do not 
x mean to say that they are improperly named — in whatever quarter 
of the world they are found, do not, in our opinion, help the 
question ; indeed they have embarrassed it. Now there is evi- 
dence of the existence of the domesticated dog from the earliest 
times, and we see no sound reason for concluding that these wild 
races, some of which are well known to our Indian friends, and 
one of which has been named somewhat boldly, canis primccvus, do 
not owe their origin to dogs which have been once under the sub- 
jection of man, partially at least, and have from circumstances 
taken to roving habits and a natural state like the wild horses of 
America. 

In pursuing this inquiry, it becomes of importance to ascertain 
in which of the supposed stocks we can trace the seeds of that 
affection for man,- — yes, affection is the word, — that so highly dis- 
tinguishes the dog. The jackal is altogether unamiable, and we 
know from the experiments of John Hunter, that though it will 
breed with the dog, the period of gestation is fifty-nine days. If 
the fox is looked to — we say nothing of an appeal to another of 
the senses — there does not appear any very inviting symptom to 
encourage us to make a fireside companion of him, 

" Who ne'er so tame, so cherish'd and lock'd up, 
Will have a wild trick of his ancestors." 

259 [ILEPEANT] 

This wonderful organ— almost equal to the hand of man, 
superior to that of the apes— is, perhaps, the most elaborate 
piece of mechanism as yet known to us. In consequence of the 
space necessarily occupied by the sockets of the tusks, the nasal 
bones are limited in their development ; and the nostrils in the 
skeleton are situated towards the upper part of the face. But in 
the living animal they are prolonged into a cylindrical proboscis. 



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65 



ELEMENTARY COURSE 



NATURAL HISTORY, 



BEING JJJ INTRODUCTION TO 



ZOOLOGY: 



INTENDED FOE 



THE COLLEGE AND THE PARLOR. 



ELEMENTS OE ORNITHOLOGY: 



CHARLES BROOKS. 



BOSTON: 

JAMES MUNROE & CO. 134 Washzngton stbeet. 

NEW YORK: C. S. FRANCIS & CO. 

184T. 



FEATHERS. 



Considerable differences in the form of wings arise from] 
the various lengths of the feathers, and these are accompa-l 
nied by corresponding variations in the style of flight. If thel 
first or second feather of the primaries be the longest in -thel 
wing, (and when the second is longest the first comes under- 1 
neath and supports it,) then the bird can turn in the air with 
greater ease than with any other form of wing. i 

The power of flight in birds depends upon two circum-l 
stances ; first, the form and spread of the wings ; and second-l 
ly, the amount of muscular energy applied to their motion. } 





b a 

Fig. 46. Wing of a Sparrow-Hawk. 



Wing of a Falcon. 



^JBy comparing the wings of the Falcon and the Sparrow- 
|Hawk, we can see the difference in those birds which are com- 
' monly supposed to be alike. In the wing of the Falcon, a in- 
dicates the quills of the hand ; bb, those of the fore-arm, and d, 
those of the thumb. In the wing of the Hawk, aa indicates 
the quills of the hand, and b, those of the fore-arm. Of these 
two wings, that of the Falcon is much the best-contrived for 
strong and rapid flight; and this advantage is owing to the 
length of th e quills of the hand, the second of which is 
the longest < 

88 

"With many birds the third and fourth are the longest ; but 
with the Falcon the first quill is almost as long as the second, 
and this arrangement makes the wing longer and more point- 
ed, which form is the perfection of mechanism for powerful 

flight; and these birds are the sharpest pursuers. 

jAs a general rule, the longer the wings the stronger the 

' flight. Among the swiftest birds are the Frigates, Falcons, 
Condors, and Swallows ; but, one author thinks the Pratin- 

I cole is the swiftest of all birds, and asserts, that if he .could 
sustain his utmost speed for one week, he would fly round the 
earth, following the equator ! The Condor and Albatros have 

i^the largest wings, being from ten to twelve feet spread, f ~~ 

Tail-feathers. These help to guide the bird in its flight, 
particularly the upward and downward movements, and also 
to aid him in alighting. The bones of the tail are short and 
generally nine in number, (v. fig. 3,) and they hold a 
range of strong feathers, which are variously shaped, as any 
one may see by comparing together the Bird of Paradise, the 
Wren, and the Peacock. 

•7 

Moulting. As feathers are produced in birds by the or^ 
gans which produce hair in the mammalia, so, like higher 
animals, the birds 3hed their clothing once a year, and this is 
called moulting. 

Feathers are much exposed to the air, which dries them ; 
they are apt to be broken and torn in thickets, among rocks, 
in wars and amid labors, and therefore need renewing. The 
vernal change in the plumage of birds is owing to the same 
cause as the change of their voices from the chirp to the 
song ; and in a state of nature the two cease together. This 
change bears some analogy to the blossoming of plants ; 
while the autumnal moult more resembles the fall of the leaf. 

All . birds are furnished with a gland near the tail, from 
which they press with their bills a kind of oil, that serves to 
dress their feathers and preserve them from injury during 
rain, or while immersed in water. 

_jln certain species the winter plumage diners in its hues 
[from that of the summer ; and in the greater number the fe- 
| male differs from the male by colors les s vivid, and the young 
I of bot h sexes then resemble the femalej 

As the changes in the plumage are the consequences, not 
the causes, of maturity in birds, and the physiological change 
must take place in the more sentient part of the system be- 
fore it affects the feathers, it agrees with all the analogies of 
nature as well as with the facts, that most birds, and indeed 



I* 



84 



all birds, which are a year or two in acquiri ng t heir perma-) 
nent plu mage, breed before that is acquired. J ~~ 

89 



f- fBirds which must get their living on the wing, shed two 
/ feathers of their wings at the same time, ono from each wing ; 
[ thus keeping the balance exactly adjusted.) 

j'he season of moulting is a aangerous one, and many 
birds die in consequence. 

The connexion between the song and the plumage, and the 
silence and the moult, is a very curious matter, and shows 
that the whole bird is subject to some general law, which, 
though it lies deep beyond the power of our divination, gov- 
erns even the minutest circumstance — the production of a 
new spot or gloss on a feather, the reddening of a comb 
or a wattle, or the inspiration of courage in birds natu- 
rally timid. The birds, in fact, blossom in the spring as well 
as the plants, and when the purpose of nature is accom- 
plished, the bloom of the one is shed as well as that of the 
other. 

90 

Procuring Food. From what has been said of the 
internal structure, the powers and flight of birds, we may 
infer much concerning their modes of procuring food ; tlu)ugli 
this subject will be frequently touched upon when speaking 
of the different orders, genera and species. 

Every part of nature is full of food ; and to every depart- 
ment of food there is created a race of animals fitted to feed 
upon it. A portion of this fulness is appropriated to the 
birds. They can eat what others cannot, and others can eat 
what they cannot. In the department appropriated to birds 
there is a great diversity of nutriment ; and what one species 
can eat, another will not. Every order of birds, by this won- 
derful arrangement, may be said to have its appropriate food 
secured and even secreted for it. It is provided with all 
requisite knowledge of the food and of the place where it is 
kept, and, furthermor e, furnished with the apparatus neces- 
sary to obtain it. J Thus nature guards a particular bird': 



breakfast on every side but one, and that bird only can come 
at it upon the unguarded side. For example : what bird but 
the Woodpecker can stand on the upright trunk of a tree and 
sound along its bark till it finds the hiding place of a worm, 
and can then bore his hole wit h his b eak, run in his forked 
Jpngue, and drag out his prey ? { 

With equal care nature provides every bird his breakfast, 
and lets him be assured that it is guarded well till he comes 
for it. Thus, too, the whole creation is fed, without any 
more infringing on each other's rights than is necessary to 
balance opposing forces. 
> This system of 'universal adaptation explains many myste- 
ries. Those birds which feed by day have an apparatus for 
the purpose which would be useless in the night. Those 
which feed in darkness have sombre night-colored feathers, 
that they may be unobserved. They have also exceedingly 
soft plumage, so as to strike the air without being heard. 
The wings of the eagle make an alarming noise, while the 
owl will not even frighten the mouse which he surprises in 
its exposure. 

91 

Nests. Bird-architecture is full of curiosities, and the 
variety of nests is truly marvellous, each indicating the char- 
acter of the bird and its exposure to storms and enemies. 
Nature having given the instinct of construction to these 
feathered tribes, each one builds it3 first nest almost as well 
as its fifth or tenth; and this, too, whether it ever saw a nest 
built or not. Young birds have been taken from their nest 
and put into a large aviary, where no one of their feather 
was present to teach them, and they have built nests exactly 
like those of their relatives in the forest. 

Each bird, by instinct, knows not only its enemies, but 
their mode of attack, and therefore constructs a nest so as to 
defend it3 young from all danger. Those whose young are 
the most feeble, build the best and wannest shelters ; while 



those whose young are able to run about as soon as they are 

bom, or whi c h are covered with down, build very rough and 

c old nests. , l Among those which build cold and slender nests, 

'the male does not assist in incubation ; while those, on the 

[contrary, whose young have no down, construct warm nests, 

land the male does assist. 1 



96 



The number of eggs laid by any bird is in most cases fixed ; 
though in some species there seems to be no natural limit. 
Some lay only one ; others two ; many vary from three to 

t some have as many as six ; a few lay even eight and 
hile our common hen has sometimes numbered a hun-j 
The Eagle has but two, one of which is a male and thel 
a female. The Wren has from twelve to fifteen. / The 
Ostrich lays a great number, which fact seems an exception 
to the general rule, namely, that the smaller birds lay more 
eggs than the larger. Domesticity increases the fecundity, 
as is illustrated in our hen, tame duck and turkey. 

The wisdom of nature how apparent here ! The diving 
birds generally lay but one egg. How wonderful, therefore, 
is that law of the world, which under such circumstances 
keeps equal the number of male and female birds! The 
great doctrine of check and balance, which penetrates with 
such controlling power every rank of being, shows itself here 
to the dullest eye ; and who does not see that it is a subject 
to task the highest intellect, and to challenge the profoundest 
analysis? Take the common Duck and the Fulmar Peterel; 
the former lives among the dwellings of man, where it is 
used for food, and it lays from twelve to twenty eggs in one 
nest ; while the latter nestles in the cliff, sweeps the entire 
ocean for its food, and lays but a single egg ; and yet there 
are more of the latter birds than of the former ! 

Circumstances vary the habj tts of some birds in the matter 
of which we are s peaking, / if the Sparrow loses her eggs] 
by a hungry crow or a wicked boy, she lays four new ones ; 

1 and our domestic hen will continue to lay for months, if she 

J finds daily only one egg in her nest. \ 

Another circumstance is food. If we feed hens with dry 
substances, such as powdered oyster-shells or old lime-plas- 
ter, we shall find them producing eggs for a much longer 
time. Many hens do not lay in winter because they cannot 
find anything to eat out of which the shell of the egg can be 

formed; 

_flt is said that the roundest egg3 contain males, and the! 

(longest ones femal es. I " " 

Incubation. The first parental care of birds is fixed 
upon their eggs. The chick is developed by incubation, 
except where the heat of the climate suffices. A certain de- 
gree of heat steadily applied is necessary to the hatching of 

99 

eggs ; and the degree best adapted to this process is the natu- 
ral warmth of the parent's body. The eggs are generally 
turned over several times in order to distribute the. heat 
equally. That the body of the mother-bird may be brought 
into more direct contact with the eggs, the feathers on the 
under side of the bird are shed just before the sitting season. 
The embryo is in the white of the egg, and the yolk ij ^the 
food which nature provid es for the young, one while 

iJiThe young bird has on the tip of 1 



growing within the shelL 



its beak a horny point, which serves to break the shell, and; 
w hich falls off a few days af ter birth, j 

'Ihe ume required for natcning varies in the diflerent or- 
ders. The Humming-Bird takes but twelve days ; the Ca- 
nary, sixteen ; the Hen, twenty-one ; the Duck, twenty-five ; 
the Swan, forty. With some species both parents share the 
labors of incubation ; but, where the mother alone sits till the 
eggs are hatched, there her mate brings her food ; and what 
doubtless she finds quite as agreeable, he sits on a neighbor- 
ing tree and sings to her, thus assuring her of safety and 
of his sympathy in her cares. Some of the sweetest songs of 
our woods and gardens are these daily concerts amid the 
watchings of connubial affection. Those birds, like the 



85 



Thrush, which sing late in the season, have this same motive ; 
for they rear two broods annually. 

The Ostrich of the temperate zone covers her eggs, while 
the Ostrich of the torriil loaves them (o the heat of the sun. 
It is easy to hatch eggs by artificial heat. In some places 
the farmers, who supply the market with poultry, put great 
numbers of eggs into wool, and then place them in a large 
open oven where the heat is carefully regulated, and in due 



98 

Among the Gallinaceous tribes, many species keep their 
young with them, like the common hen, for some months, and 
■watch to shield them from enemies and select for them food. 
The young gather themselves under the wing of the mother, 
and at her alarm-cry they hasten under some roof or rock 
where the hawks cannot reach them. The hen, when she 
finds any food, gives the notice to her little ones and they 
hasten to seize it ; while the mother-turkey devours all she 
can see, contenting herself to lead her children where food 
can be found. At night the turkey spreads her wings over 
her brood. The time comes when both these parents give 
notice to their several children that they must take care of 
themselves. This paternal hint is by gentle but expressive 
pecks of the bill. This unambiguous expression of the moth- 
er's mind soon teaches them to keep at a respectful distance, 
and the consequence is a speedy alienation. After the sepa- 
ration has taken place and the estrangement has been consum- 
mated, then they can come together again, but only on the 
same terms as other birds. The relationship is never ac- 
kn owledged. 

j~J Among ; the Pigeons (Plates 178-182) there are two eggs* 
[ in each nest, one of which contains a male and the othera; 

99 



female ; and these two birds, when fledged, join their for-) 
t unes, like the eagles, for life. 1 They become part of the 
parental household, and, unlike the young eagles, are not 
driven off to seek their fortunes alone. After the young 
pigeons are fledged, the two parents feed them for a con- 
siderable time, and they are provided with a singular apparatus 
for this very purpose. They have glands for secretions in- 
tended to feed their little ones, and thus give them food, 
already half digested. If you narrowly watch the process of 
feeding, you will see that the pigeon does not give nourish- 
ment to its young by its bill, as other birds do, but it puts its 
bill half-opened into the young one's mouth, and at that mo- 
ment the prepared food is brought up by a peculiar action of 
the gullet, and delivered into the throat of the squab. 

102 

The Cow-Bunting is polygamous. They feed in small 
flocks ; but when the female separates from the company, her 
departure is not noticed ; no gallant partner accompanies her, 
nor manifests any solicitude in her absence ; nor is her re- 
turn greeted by that gratulatory tenderness that so eminently 
characterizes the males of other species. This is explained 
by the general economy of this singular bird. Her egg is 
somewhat larger than that of the Blue-Bird, and is thickly 
sprinkled with grains of pale brown on a dirty white ground. 



100 

There are many spec iea which are greya- 
dnring only a part of the year. JTo mention but one 



the y 
"example : the Bob-o'-Lincolns, when first arrived at the North 
in spring, are found together only in pairs. In this condition 
they make their journey, and in this solitary state they live 
until after midsummer, when they become gregarious, and 
thus continue through the winter. They come north in pairs, ( 
and return in flocks, f it is the same with many birds, mey 
"are solitary during the breeding season, and congregate when 
that is past. 



Ill 



TABLE OF BIRDS. 



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/The' habits of the European Cuckoo and our Cow-Bunting, 
in confiding their young to foster-parents, belong to no other 



in conhd ing their young to roster-parents, oeiong to no wntr 
birds ;f Bnd we are not satished with any of the explanations 
given of the phenomenon. There is nothing peculiar in the 
anatomical structure of these birds which can render them 
incapable of incubation ; and the strange fact remains, that 
here are two species of birds in whom the usual love of the 
natural offspring seems wanting. We also find a powerful 
desire, in some other birds, to preserve and rear to maturity 
the usurper of their own children's rights. More light will 
dissipate the obscurity around this subject, as it has from sev- 
eral subjects of much darker hue. 



112 



THE DIFFERENT ORDERS OF BIRDS. 



The number of species of bn- ds^ already k nown is about; 

th( 



.five thousand ; / and as the organization of them all is some- 
what similar, it is very difficult to classify them with satis- 
faction. The organs which best guide the student are the 
beak, feet and wings ; they having most direct relation to 
the mode of procuring food. 



86 



The Classification of Cuvier seems to have the most au- 
thority, which divides all the birds into the six following 
orders, viz. : — 



1. Birds of Prey. 

2. Passerine Birds. 

3. Climbers. 



4. Gallinaceous Birds. 

5. Waders. 

6. Web-Footed. 



To show in brief the more prominent characteristics of 
the six orders, we refer to the tabular view on the preceding 



in Zoology to distinguish the different) 
| parts of the animal kingdom, are Divisions, Classes, OrdersJ 

' families, Genera, Species and Individuals , f " 

The animal kingdom is composed ot tnclividuals ; but nu- 
merous individuals are found to resemble each other, and 
they reproduce themselves with the same essential charac- 
ters ; all these individuals, when considered together, we call a 
species ; as the white man, the terrier dog, the golden pheasant, 
the green lizard, the pond perch, the yellow wasp, the paper 
nautilus, and the sea anemone. 

When we find many animals that agree in their general 
form, movements and tastes, though they essentially differ 
in small particulars, we group them together under the name 
genus. Thus we say the genus Eagle includes all the eagles 
in the world, though there are several different species com- 
prised under this one generic name. 

116 

In this family are found the birds so famed in falconry. 
The two families are distinguished in the following table : 



ACCIFITRES, 

or 
Rapaces. 



(Eyes directed from the side ; the head and neck 
well proportioned ; the external toe directed for- 
ward, and almost always united to the middle 
toe by a small membrane. 

C Eyes directed forward ; head very large and 
Nocturnal. < neck very short ; external toe may be directed 
( either forwards or backwards. 



The family of Diurnal Birds of Prey are grouped in three 
principal tribes, distinguished as follows : 



DiTJR- 
NAL 

Acci- 
pi- 

TRE9, 

having 



A more or less consider*- " 

ble part of the head and ! 

Eyes even with the J neck destitute of feathers. ' 



head, and talons pro- 
portionally feeble. 



Vultures. 



Head covered with fea- 
thers. 



> Griffins. 



Eyes surrounded by a projecting eyebrow, which } 
makes them appear sunk in the head ; talons very > Falcons. 
strong. ) 

114 

BIRDS OF PREY. 
(Accipitres.) 



This order includes most birds which feed on flesh ; and 
corresponds to the order of carnivorous animals among the 
mammalia. Nature has fitted their organization to the modes 
they must adopt in procuring food. They are armed with a 
terrible power. Their frames throughout show strength of 
muscle and speed of wing. Their beak is short ; and the 
upper mandible, which is longer than the lower, is bent down- 
wards at its end, and has a sharp point. Their legs are short 
and large. Their toes, three before and one behind, are free, 
and only partially united by an elastic membrane. Their 
extremities are armed with sharp, crooked claws', generally 
retractile, and of firmer consistence than bone. The hind 
toe and the interior one are the strongest. The sternum, 
which gives support to the muscles of flight, 13 remarkably 
developed. Their wings are immense. Their sight is pierc- 
ing, to a proverb. Their nostrils are open, and lined by a 
membrane called cere, which covers the base of the beak. 



Their tongue is bifid, or divided at the point. The females 
are larger than the males. They pair for life, and probably 
better deserve that praise for constancy which poet if fiction 
has awarded to the turtle. 

115 

They would kill themselves by 
thus filling their stomachs with indigestible substances, had 
not nature given those which do this the faculty of regurgi- 
tation, by which they cast up in balls all which they cannot 
digest. They can endure hunger longer than any other 
birds, because their food is occasionally very scarce, so scarce 
that they have sometimes been known to die of starvation ; 
yet, after the most extended meal, it is said that some of them 

caq. go nearly a month without eating! 

-~J This order is divided into two families, viz., the Diurnal, I 
I which seek their food by day, and the Nocturnal, which se ek \ 
[theirs by night, f ' 

Ditjrnal Birds of Pret. (Plates 154, 157, 171.) This 
first family of this order of birds have moderately-sized eyes, 
placed on the sides of the head ; the base of their bill is cov- 
ered with a membrane, called the cere, in which the nostrils 
are pierced. Their body is covered with a thick down, and 
protected by feathers whose barbs are close and resisting ; 
thus enabling them to fly long at the highest elevations with- 
out any inconvenience from the excessive coldness of the 
upper atmosphere. Their wings are large and strong, their 
' merry-thought ' bone is semicircular and very open, the 
better to resist the violent pressure of the shoulder during 
flight. Their sight is so long and penetrating, that they will 
descend from the loftiest elevations, almost with the speed of 
lightning, and without touching the ground will seize a small 
animal that is hiding among the bushes. 

The young undergo no change of feather until their second 
autumn ; and they renew their plumage slowly, and in no 
instance more than once in a year ; its seasonal change is 
confined to a slight wearing off of the margins of the feath- 
ers, rather than a natural shedding. In several species, 
however, the color indicative of maturity is partially acquired, 
previously to moul ting, by a change of hue in the first or 
nestling plumage. ( These birds come to their growth in four 
"years, and as their plumage is each year more advanced, one 
bird during this time may appear to belong to four different 

r~ — 



kS£< 



124 



_JFalcons (Falco, Lin.) These constitute the second, and 
by far the most numerous division of the diurnal birds of 
prey. There are about two hundred and thirty species. 
They have the head and neck covered with feathers ; their 
eye-brows, except in the Osprey, form a projection, which 
occasions the eye to appear sunk, and impart3 a very differ- 
ent physiognomy from that of the Vultu res. The female is 
ge nerally one third larger th an t he male.j ^ 

'IMS genus is subdivided into two Sections, — 



the Noble 



and the Ignoble Birds of Prey. Their classification and more 
salient features are briefly noticed in the annexed table. 

The principal European species of this genus are the Per- 
egrine Falcon, the Jer Falcon, Hobby, Red-legged, Kite, 
Merlin. 

We have in America a vast number of birds of prey, known 
under the familiar names of Eagles and Hawks, and we must 
refer the student to the excellent works on American birds 
for a description of them. 




125 



Diurnal Birds of 
Prey of the tribe 
of Falcons, having 
the wings 



Pointed. 



Truncate 
at the 
end. 



Noble 

Birde 

{Prey. 



Ignoble 
Birdt 

Prey. 



87 



The superior mandible armed with 
its point. 

. The upper mandible having only a scallop near its ) 
point ( 

Beak very strong, straight at the base, and curved only ) 
towards the point. j 



Beak 

curved from 

its base : 



ges 

its) 
,ast 

OQtJ 



163 

Cedar or Cherry Bird (Bomh/ciUa carolinensis,~Bniss 
— Plate 25.) This beautiful bird is gregarious, and ranges 
fr om the Atlantic to the Pacific.^ fit is not regular in 
appearance at any given place, but comes at long intervals 
if forced by lo cal penury to seek elsewhere the food it catmir 
find at home, f Its general color is light greyish-brown, pass" 
ing behind into ash grey, before into pale brownish-red, of 
which last color is the upper part of the head. The reddish 
crest on the top of the male's head is easily distinguished. 
They do not breed until July, and a naturalist asks you, con- 
templative reader, if you know why they are so tardy in lay- 
ing their eggs and rearing their young ? 

The appetite of this bird is so extraordinary, that it devours 
any fruit or berry that comes in its way. One in a cage was 
known to eat apples until it . was suffocated. They are the 
particular enemies of the canker-worm, and wherever they 
are allowed to come unmolested, those terrible scourges are 
kept in natural subjection. He who kills one of these birds 
gives existence thereby to thousands of canker-worms. When 
will finite men cease to adjust the forces of nature contrary to 
the ordinations of infinite intelligence ? 

The flight of these birds is easy. They move in close 
bodies, making various circumvolutions before they alight, and 
then coming down together in such numbers as to seem to be 
touching each other. 

They are not timid birds. The presence of a scarecrow 
on a cherry-tree seldom prevents their feasting on the fruit ; 
they look upon one of these 'guardian angels', with its out- 
stretched arms and dangling legs as intended to frighten other 
birds ! 

174 

Swallows (Hirundo, Lin. — Plates 162, 163.) They 
are remarkable for their close plumage, the extreme length 
of their wings, and the rapidity of their flight. Of all birds 
they have proportionably the longest wings, and fly with the 
greatest speed. The tail is forked, and consists generally of 
twelve feathers ; the external ones being remarkably long, 
make the fork extremely deep. Their very short feet have, 
as in the Swifts, a peculiar character, the thumb being direct- 

178 

ed forward almost as much as the other toes, and the middle 
and outer toes having each but three philanges, like the inner 
one. v Their feet and legs are slender and light, because they 
need to use them very little, and they would, if large, be a 
troublesome weight to carry. 

Their sight has, by experiment, been found to be so acute, 
that from a distance of four hundred feet they can discern an 
object not more than half an inch in diameter, and how much 
less than that is not known. 

Of the eight different species in America we have space 
only for one example. 

Barn-Swallow (Hirundo rustica, Lin. — Plate 162.) 
' The Swallows have come.' How delightful is this announce- 
ment in spring ! We are sure that the bird-expelb'ng winter 
is gone, and the bird-inviting summer is at hand. How gay, 
innocent and active is this little bird ! With what peculiar 



Strong ; wings moderate, 
Tail forked, - 



Feeble ; 
wings 
long. 



notching near ) Falcons, 

) properly so called. 



Jer Falcons. 

Eagles. 

Goshawks. 
Kites. 



Feathers between the ) „ -r, 

eye and beak. \ Honey -Buzzards. 



Tail 
equal. ' 



A naked space between ) 
the eye and beak. ] 



Buzzards and 
Harriers. 



rapidity he sweeps through the air, and in most graceful 
curves and circles performs his easy evolutions. He delights 
our sense of seeing as much as the Mocking-Bird does that 
of hearing. Now mark the gambols of a company of these 
birds ! In fine, calm weather their circuits are performed at 
a considerable elevation, with a lightness and ease that are 
truly admirable. They play over the river, the field, or the 
city with equal grace, and during spring and summer you 
might imagine their object was to fill the air around them 
with their cheerful twitterings. When the weather lowers 
they move more swiftly in tortuous meanderings over the 
meadows and through the streets of the towns ; they pass 
and repass, now close to the pavement, now along the walls 
of the buildings, here and there snapping an insect as they 
glide along with a motion so rapid that you can scarcely 
follow them with your eye. 

177 

Purple Martin (Hirundo purpurea, Lin. — Plates 167, 
168.) This bird loves to come year after year and make its 
nest in the box set up for it in the farmer's front yard ; and 
he seems an equal favorite with the Indian, who arranges a 
calabash over the door of his hut, that he may engage the 
Martin to keep insects from the venison and skins he would 
dry in the sun. 

It is worth while to keep Martins near the house for the 
purpose of waking up the family at an early and healthy hour, 
for they trumpet out their morning call as soon as day salutes 

the, e^at. . 

<- *A11 Swallows go South in autumn, and they return in the] 
following order: first, the Bank- Swallows, then the White-\ 
Bellied, then the Purple Mar tin, then the Barn, and lastly! 
the C himney-Swallows, f * ~ ~~~ 

* = 189 

Song-Finch (Fringilla melodia, Wils. — Plate 74.) 
This bird in Massachusetts is called Ground-Bird, because it 
builds its nest on the ground ; and Hair-Bird, because it 
lines its nest with hair ; and Spring-Bird, because it is the 
first visiter, from the cypress swamps of the South, which 
gives us a song. It is quite a performer, and it swells out its 
clear notes as if it were r esolved to bring the farmer's daugh- 
ter to the door fo listen. 5 It salutes us even before the Pe- 



wee or Blue-Bird. Its sweet and earnest trills resemble the 
Canary's, and they are continued through the summer, be- 
cause this bird raises three broods a year, six in the first, 
five in the second, and three irr the third brood. ( No wonder 



that these Sparrows are more numerous than those of any 
other species. Birds of prey devour so many of them, that 
with all their industry they do no more than keep their num- 
bers good. 

This little vernal songster, which skips about from tree to 
bush, all full of life and music, is of a brownish hue above, 
and whitish underneath. Its eggs are of a very broad, ovate 



88 



form, light greenish-white, speckled with dark umber, the 
specks larger towards the greater end. The male assists in 
the process of incubation, during which one bird feeds the 
other in succession. 

All birds are remarkably clean during the breeding sea- 
son ; but this is the cleanest of the clean. Her nest seems as 
clean after the young are fledged as it ever was ; never- 
theless, she abandons it and constructs a new nest for her 
second brood ! How can we account for this strange fact? 

These birds eat seeds and insects, and are good friends to 
the farmer. 

804 

This bird is very fond of silence ; and, therefore, if you 
■wish to see his mode of doing business on the surface of a 
brook or pond, you must remain very quiet. He is seldom 
found over turbulent or brawling streams, or where the wind 
curls or the mud darkens the waters. 

The favorite resort of this bird is near quiet brooks, and 
especially water-mills, for there fish are easily caught. Where 
cascades occasionally cause the death of fish, there you will 
hear the rough, rapid, rattling notes of the King-Fisher, re- 
joicing over his good luck. At such times you may see him 
darting about in the sun, with his colors so gaudy that you 
might suppose a kaleidoscope-figure had taken wings to flit 
around you. When the angler finds him in a sequestered 
spot, near shallow and clear streams, he may be certain there 



are trout somewhere near. 

This bird digs a horizontal hole, three or four feet in 
length, into a bank, and there deposits its nest, made of sticks 
and feathers. There are generally six eggs, and they are all 
batched in sixteen days, incubation being performed by both 

p arents. _~ 

f This bird is the Halcyon of the ancienls/W nd there have 
been clusters of wild superstitions concerning it. It was once 
believed in Europe, that its feathers were a charm for love, 
and a protection against witchcraft, and a security for fair 
weather. It was believed, that if the body of the King-Fisher 
be suspended by a thread, some magnetic influence would 
turn its breast to the north. I But the most curious of all was.] 
that its nest was made of fish-bones and glue, and that this! 
nest was placed by the bird on the sea at a time when it 
would be calm for fourteen days, which time would be long 
enough for incubation. On this account these fourteen days I 
obtained, from this bird, the appellation of Hairy m-days.) 
This fable has been much used by ancient and modern poct3. 



318 



_JT)ucks are found in every part of the world. We have 
twenty-six different species in the United States, sixteen of 
which are sea Ducks, and the rest frequent ponds and lakes. 
(See examples on the last pages of Plates.) One character 
in the plumage of most of them is a patch upon the secondary 
quills, of different colors in the different species, but with a 
sort of metallic lustre ; and thence called t he ' speculum,' and 
also the ' wing spot,' or the ' beauty spot.' t 



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89 



14 

The farmers here experienced great inconvenience and 
alarm from the burning of woods. Such was the Indian 
system of clearing a forest; but it Would not do where 
European settlements obtained. Our fathers therefore applied 
legislation to the matter in the following form : " Nov. 5, 
1639. — Ordered, That whosoever shall kindle a fire in other 
men's grounds, or in any common grounds, shall be fined 

15 

forty shillings. No fires to be kindled before the first of 
March." 

T_h p y p fiered a small bounty on every acre of plated field 



{ We presume that the Colony of Massachusetts was quite as 
far advanced in agricultural skill and productive harvests 
as that of Connecticut; therefore, we can judge from Mr. 
Wolcott's farm in Connecticut what and how much our 
Medford farmers raised. That distinguished magistrate says 
(1638): "I made five hundred hogsheads of cider out of 
my own orchard in one year ! " We apprehend these hogs- 
heads were not of the modern size, but were a larger kind j 
of barrel. He says: "Cider is 10s. a hogshead." / He give ' s 

ran enumeration ot products thus : « English wheat, rye, flax, 
hemp, clover, oats, corn, cherries, quince, apple, pear, plum, 
barberry-trees." A very tasteful catalogue ! It sounds very 
little like scarcity or self-denial. 

It seems that the land hereabouts was as rich and produc- 
tive as in any of the neighboring states: nevertheless, it 
needed help from manure ; and Johnson tells us, that in this 
region " there was a great store of fish in the spring time, 
and especially alewives, about the largeness of a herring. 
Many thousand of these they use to put under their Indian 
corn." They are sometimes so used at this day. 
16 

It may be interesting to see the progress of vegetation in 
this locality. It is as follows : — 



1 1646, Aug. l. 
.. 3. 
.. 12. 
,, 15. 
,. 18. 

1647, July 6. 

„ 11. 
Aug. 2. 

" 7. 
Sept. lo. 

1648, May 26. 

July 28. 

1649, July 20. 



The great pears ripe. 

The long apples ripe. 

Blackstone's apples gathered. 

Tankerd apples gathered. 

Kreton pippins and long red apples gathered. 

We began to cut the peas in the field. 

We began to shear rye. 

We mowed barley. 

Same week we shear summer wheat. 

The great pears gathered. 

The russetins gathered, and pcarmaines. 

Sown one peck of peas, the moon in the full. Observe 

how they prove. 
Summer apples gathered. 
Apricoks ripe." 

As the soil and climate must determine what grains, fruits, 
and vegetables can be raised with profit, it soon became 
evident to our Medford farmers that Indian corn was to be a 
staple. Rye, barley, wheat, and oats were found productive 

17 

as grains ; peas and beans yielded abundantly ; while turnips, 
beets, onions, and parsnips gradually grew into favor. 
Potatoes were not known' to our first settlers; although 
among the articles, " to send for New England," from Lon- 
don, March 16, 1628, " pota toes " are named. The potato 
j s_ a native of Chili and P eru, f We think there is no satisfac- 
tory record of potatoes" 



carried 
1653 



jeing in England before they were 
d from Santa Fe, in America, by Sir John Hawkins, in i 
/They are often mentioned as late as lHIIig- Their 
first culture in Ireland is referred to Sir Walter Raleigh, 
who had large estates there. A very valuable kind of potato 
was first carried from America by " that patriot of every 
clime," Mr. Howard, who cultivated it at Cardington, near 
Bedford, 1765. Its culture then had become general. Its 
first introduction to this neighborhood is said to have been by 
those emigrants, called the "Scotch Irish," who first entered 



Londonderry, New Hampshire, April 11, 1719. As they 
passed through Andover, Mass., they left some potatoes as 
seed to be planted that spring. They were planted according 
to the directions ; and their balls, when ripened, were supposed 
to be the edible fruit. The balls, therefore, were carefully 
cooked and eaten , but the conclusion was that the Andover 
people did not like potatoes ! An early snow-storm covered 
the potato-field, and kept the tubers safely till the plough of 
the next spring hove them into sight. Some of the largest 
were then boiled; whereupon the Andover critics changed 
their opinion, and have patronized them from that day. When 
the potato was first known in Scotland, it suffered a religious 
persecution, like some other innocent things. The Scots 
thought it to be a most unholy esculent, blasphemous to raise, 
and sacrilegious to eat. They therefore made its. cultivation 
an illegal act ; and why ? " Because," as they say, " it is not 
mentioned in the Bible " ! The prejudice against this unof- 
fending vegetable was so great at Naples, in Italy, that the 
people refused to cat it during a famine ! We do not find 
that any epidemic has attacked this healthy plant until the 
potato cholera, which, of late, has nearly ruined it. The soil 
in Medford has been found particularly fitted for this plant, 
owing to a substratum of clay which keeps it moist. The 
early mode of preserving potatoes through the winter was to 
bury them below the reach of the frost, and shelter them 
from rain. 

20 

NATURAL HISTORY. 

The rocks are mostly primitive granite or sienite, existing 
in large masses. Some are in a state of decay, as, for 

21 

example, the "pasture-hill gravel." This gravel is used 
extensively for garden walks, and its fineness and color make 
it a general favorite. The soil is composed mostly of silex 
and argilla, a mixture favorable to vegetation. 

The Jlora of Massachusetts would be a fair one of Medford. 
The high hills, rocky pastures, large plains, alluvial intervales, 
deep swamps, and extensive marshes, here give food to almost 
all kinds of trees, plants, shrubs, grasses, and sedges. The 
presence of fresh water and salt, also the mingling of them 
in Mystic River, produce a rich variety of herbaceous plants ; 
and the salt-marsh flowers, though very small, are often very 
beautiful. Of lichens there are great vari eties, and some rare 
specimens of the cryptogamous plants^ Of the forest-trees,^ 

fwe have many ot the white and black ^oak, and some of the I 
red and grey. The oldest survivor of this family of querevs 

j stands in a lot owned by Mr. Swan, and is about half a mile 
north-east of the meeting-house of the First Parish. It is 
almost disarmed by time ; and it therefore better stood the 
strain of the tornado of August 22, 1851. Its trunk is six 



y feet in diameter near the ground ; jruul it is probably as old as 
Massachusetts Uoiony. Two varieties of walnut arc found 
among us, and " nutting " is yet a cherished pastime with the 
boys in October. The sycamore or plane-tree, commonly 
called buttonwood, abounds here by plantation. Of late 
years it has been suffering from a sort of cholera, which has 
destroyed its first leaves, and rendered its appearance so dis- 
agreeable as to induce most persons to remove it from sight. 
The violence of the disease seems past, and the tree gives 
signs of rejuvenescence. The graceful elms rejoice our eye 
wherever we turn, and our streets will soon be shaded by 
them. The clean, symmetrical rock-maple has come among 
us of late, and seems to thrive like its brother, the white. 
Of the chestnut, we have always known two large trees in 
the woods, but have never heard of more. The locust is 
quite common, and would be an invaluable tree to plant on 
sandy plains in order to enrich them ; but a borer-worm has 
so successfully invaded, maimed, and stinted it that its native 
beauty is gone. The locust is the only tree under which the 



90 



f only casual among u s. / Wh 
when our ancestors first s 



ruminating animals prefer to graze. Of beach-trees we have 
not many, and what we have are small. So of the black and 
white ash, there is not an abundance. Once there was a good 
supply of the hornbeam ; but that has ceased. Of birch, the 
black, white, and yellow, there are flourishing specimens. 

as 

The class of forest evergreens is well represented in Medford. 
The white and pitch pines are common, though their use in 
building, and their consumption by steam-engines, have made 
them comparatively scarce. One of the most familiar, beau- 
tiful, and valuable forest-tree s Js the cedar; and both kinds. 
the red and white r are here. /The hemlock and the holly are ) 
iether ail these trees were common 
settled here, we cannot say ; for 
there may have been then, what we now see, namely, a rota- 
tion of forest-trees. We have seen a pine-forest felled, and 
an oak one spring in its place ; and, where the oak one has 
been felled, the pine has sprung up. In like manner, the 
cedar and maple forests have been rotatory ! ' 

Of indigenous shrubs, there is among us the usual varie- 
ties ; among them, the hazel, the huckleberry, barberry, 
raspberry, gooseberry, thimbleberry, blackberry, &c. There 
are two species of wild grapes ; if they ripen well, they are 
sweet and palatable, but are used often as pickles. 

23 

The birds, now common with us, are those usually found 
in this latitude. As birds must follow their food, their mi- 
gration northward in spring and southward in autumn enables 
us to see a great variety of these travellers. JIow powerful, 
how mysterious, is this impulse for change of place! God 
seems to have touched them with his spirit, and they became 
as obedient as the planets. 

" Who bade the stork, Columbus-like, explore 
Heavens not his own, and worlds unknown before i 
Who calls the council, states the certain day r 
Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way ? " 

Some birds, like the wild-geese and ducks, make all their 
journey at once ; while most of them follow slowly the open- 
ing buds, the spring insects, and the spawning herring. A 
few leave Florida, and follow vegetation to the White Hills ; 
they pass us in Medford during April and May, resting with 
us a few days " to take a bite," and to give us a song. The 

24 
close observer might publish regular ornithological bulletins 
of their successive arrivals. 

The rice-hiM of Carolina, called the reed-bird in 
Pennsylvania, and the butter-bird in Cuba, is called here the 
bob-o-lincoln ; and it amuses us greatly. The male, when he 
arrives, is dressed up as showily as a field-officer on parade- 
day, and seems to be quite as happy. Fuddled with animal 
spirits, he appears not to know what to do, and flies and sings 
as if he needed two tongues to utter all his joy. We might 
speak of the little wren, that creeps into any hole under our 
eaves, and there rears its numerous family; the humming- 
bird, that builds so skilfully in our gardens that we never ' 
find its nest; the yellow-bird, that makes the air resound 
with its loye-notes ; the thrush, that seems made to give the 
highest concert-pitch in the melody of the woods. To these 
"we might add the night-hawk and the whip-poor-will, and 
many more that spend their summer with us ; but these are 
enough to show that the dwellers in Medford are favored 
each s eason with the s i ght and songs of a rich variety of 
birdfl^JWe find the following record made March 8, 1631 : ) 
" Flocks of wild pigeons this day so thick that they obscure ( 

i the light/' ( ' •* 

Ehother record shows that our fathers preserved the game 
by laws. "Sept. 3, 1634: There is leave granted (by the 

General Court) to Mr. John Winthrop, jun., to employ his 
Indian to, shoot at fowl " (probably in Mystic River). 



36 

The early histories tell of many, in other places, who 
became dissatisfied with their first choice, and moved to more 
promising localities ; but not a word of complaint reaches us 
from the first planters of Medford, and no one, to our 
knowledge, left the plantation.. They brought with them the 
animus manendi. 

To show how fast the settlement went on, it is said, under 
date of Oct. 30, 1631, that "the Governor erected a build- 
ing of stone at Mistick." The houses of the first settlers 
were fortified by palisades, thought to be a very necessary 
defence of themselves and their cattle against the nocturnal 
attacks of wild beasts and savages. It was not uncommon 
for a plantation to unite in building a stone or brick house, 
into which they could retire for the night, or escape from the 
Indians r -Sin Medford were built three of the se strong brick - } 
f citadels, two of which yet stan d. fObligod to depend in great 
measure for subsistence, during the first winter, upon food 
brought from England, there must have been an impatient 
waiting for spring ; and, when it arrived, the whole population 
must have gone to work in clearing whatever open land could 
bemused for planting. 

39 

As soon as Gov. Winthrop had settled himself on the Ten- 
Hill Farm, in 1G30, he recommended Gov. Cradock's men to 
plant themselves directly opposite him on the north side of 
the river. They did so. A promontory there, jutting 
towards the south into the marsh, was the only safe place 
then to build upon. It is about sixty rods south-east of the 
ancient house now standing on the farm of Messrs. James and 
Isaac Wellington. The marshes stretch away from this pro- 
montory, on every side except the north, where it joins the 
mainland. On its highest point they built the first house 
erected in Medford. This was in July, 1630. There are 
persons now living who knew an old lady, named Blanchard, 
who was born in that house. It was probably a log-house, 
of large dimensions, with a small, deep cellar, having a 
chimney of bricks laid in clay. The cellar was walledji 
with stone, and has been destroyed but a few years. j The 
(bricks, very similar to those in Gov. Cradock's mansion-house, 
I have been in part removed. We have to-day (April 25, 
|^1855) taken away half a dozen of them as specimens of the 



40 



first manufactory in Medford. They are very larg e, very) 
^ badly made, and burned to the hardness of granite, f Thus 



sin 



fixed, in the most favorable position, Gov. Cradock's men 
passed the first winter ; and were ready to proceed to busi- 
ness in the spring of 1631. 



^Governor Cradock's House.— The old two-story brick house 
in East Medford, on Ship Street, is one of the most precious 
relics of antiquity in New England. That it was built by 
Mr. Cradock soon after .the arrival of his company of carpen- 
ters, fishermen, and farmers, will appear from the follo wing ^ 
f acts. J * " 

TEe lapd on which it stands was given by the General 
Court to' Mr. .Cradock. When the heirs of Mr. Cra- 
dock gave a deed of their property, June 2, 1652, they 
mentioned houses, barns, and many other buildings, but 
did not so specify these objects as to render them cogni- 
zable by us. There is no deed of this house given by 
any other person.' There was no other person that could own 
it. It was on Mr. Cradock's land, and just where his busi- 
ness made it necessary : the conclusion, therefore, is inevitable 
that Mr. Cradock built it. There is every reason to believe 
that it was commenced early iu the spring of 163-i. Clay was 
known to abound; and bricks were made in Salem in 1629. 
Mr. Cradock made such an outlay in money as showed that 
he intended to carry on a large business for a long time, and 



91 



doubtless proposed visiting 
very firstnecessity in such 



his extensive plantation. The 

an enterprise was a sufficient 

housgaJ The sooner it was finished, the better; and it was 

commenced as soon a s the land was granted, which was 



tsl 



March, 1634. ) Who, m that day, could allorcl to build such 
a house but the rich London merchant? and would he delay 
doing a work which every day showed to be indispensable ? 
He was the only man then who had the funds to build such 
a house, and he was the only man who needed it. Taking all 
these circumstances into consideration, the inference is clear, 
that the ".old fort," so called, was Governor Cradock's house, 
bui lt in 1634. It is a n invaluable historical jewel, 
[It has been called the " Fort " and the " Garrison House." 



1 



(because its walls were so thick, and because it had close out-7 
[side shutters and port-holes. / ~ 

It is certainly well placed for a house of defence. It is on 
land slightly elevated, where no higher land or rocks could be 
used by enemies to assail it, and is so near the river as to 
allow of reinforcements from Boston. Its walls are eighteen 
inches thick. There were heavy iron bars across the two 
large arched windows, which are near the ground, in the 
back of the house; and there are several fire-proof closets 
within the building. The house stood in an open field for a 

[Between 46 and 47] 







,* 



„_,£ ,1.1 , ; .KuasnJi 

t-teM'f- M\W "■\^&r 




* 



47 

century and a half, and could be approached only by a private 
road through gates. As the outside door was cased with 
iron, it is certain that it was intended to be fire-proof. There 
was one pane of glass, set in iron, placed in the back wall of 
the western chimney, so as to afford a sight of persons com- 
ing from the town. 

It was probably built for retreat and defence ; but some of 
the reasons for calling it a fort are not conclusive. Outside 
shutters were in common use in England at the time above 
mentioned; and so was it common to ornament houses with 
round or oval openings on each side of the front. These 
ovals are twenty inches by sixteen. Mr. Cradock's company 



was large, and he was very rich, and had told them to build 
whatever houses they needed for shelter and defence. It is 
probable, that, as soon as the spring opened, they began to dig 
the clay, which was abundant in that place; and very soon 
they had their bricks ready for use. That they should build 
such a house as now staiuls jvherc their first settlement took 
lace, is most natural. (The bricks are not English" bricks 
/either in size, color, or workmanship. They arc from eight 
/to eight and a half inches long, from four to four and a 
J quarter inches wide, and from two and a quarter to two 
and three-quarters thick. They ha ve the color of the bricks, 
( made afterwards in East _Mcd lord. ( They arc hastily"macle, 
but very well burned, they arc not like'the English bricks 
of the Old South Church in Boston. The house has 
undergone few changes. Mr. Francis Shedd, who bought, it 
about fifty years ago, found the east end so decayed and 
leaky that he took a part of it down and rebuilt it. There 
is a tradition, that in early times Indians were discovered 
lurking around it for several days and nights, and that a skir- 
mish took place between them and the white men ; but we 
have not been able to verify the facts or fix the date. The 
nark impaled by Mr. Cradock probabl y, included this house 
It is undoubtedly one of the oldest buildings in the United! 
States ; perhaps the oldest that retains its first form. r Tt~has 
always been in use, and, by some of its tenants, hasnot been 
honored for its age. Its walls are yet strong, and we hope it 
may be allowed to stand for a century to come. We wish 
some rich antiquarian would purchase it, restore to it its 
ancient appendages, and make it a depository for Medford 
antiquities, for an historical library, and a museum of natural 
curiosities. It would then be an honor to our town'; be 



80 

Mr. Thomas Seccomb's 
large brick house, on the north side of the market -pkice, was 
the first copy of Col. Royal's. Rev. Mr. TurelPs house, now 
owned by Jonathan Porter, Esq., is a good example of another 
style ; also the ^one now owned and >c-up ied by Gorham 
JaCgoks, Esq. jThe old dilapidated mansion ot the late Ur. 
Sim onTrnTs7 south-east corner of High and Forest Streets, 
,is one of the oldest and best specimen:; of the second fashion 
which prevailed in New England. Il has three stories in 
front, and the large roo f behind d escends so as to allow of only 
one story in the real. / It seems to lean to the south, to oiler 






%0 



IS 



$001 

■Jjiiilil 

Pr. Simon Tuft> Ilou»c. IV1 



its back to the cold storms of the north. One enormous 
chimney in the centre of the building serves every need arid 
keeps the house steady in high winds. The house so Ion"- 
occupied by Gov. Brooks, and in which he d if, d, is a newer 
^specj mru . fif th e same modcl t f The next fashion] int.-nHnr-H 
as an improvement upon these, was the broke n or " g ambrel 




roofed " houses, many of which still remain./ See a specimen 
at the end of this volume. Tliese soon gave place to the 
present models, which are importations from distant n^es and 
all civilized countries, not excepting Egypt and China. 



92 



The bridge over Marble Brook, in West Medford (called 
" Meeting-house Brook " in later times), was made of wood at 
first, and so continued for more than a century; it was then 
built of stone, in 1803, and so continued till 1850, when it 
was rebuilt of stone, and made as wide as the street. The 
same remarks belong to the small bridge, called " Whitmore's 
Bridge," farther west, and near the Lowell Railroad Station 
in "West Medford'. 

There is one feature connected with each of the four 
bridges, here in described, which is worth a passing notice. 
It_is__lbis — I These" bridges were only half the width of the] 
road, and thus allowed fording ways at their sides. It was I 
| formerly the custom for those travelling with horses or driv- I 
ling cattle to let thei r horses and c attle pass through the j 
jbrook, and drink. / The multiplication ot wells, in public 
Kiuares and fr.equented places, has helped to change the old 
habits; and now, generally, these "watering-places" are 
covered. 

86 

The Goff of heaven and earth preserve and keep you from all 
foreign and inland enemies, and bless and prosper this plantation to 
the enlargement of the kingdom of Jesus Christ, to whose merciful 
protection I commend you and all your associates there, known or 
unknown. And so, till my next, which shall be (God willing) by 
our ships, who I make account will be ready to set sail from hence 
about the 20th of this next month of March, I end, and rest, 
Your assured loving friend and cousin, 

Mathevt Cradock. 
From my house in Swithin's Lane, near London Stone, this 16th 
February, 1628, stilo Anglicse. 

The confidence felt by the "Court" in Mr. Cradock's 
judgment was evinced by putting him first on that Commit- 
tee which was to divide and apportion the lands in New 
England, thus deciding how and where the first settlements 
should take place. He did all he could to get the fleet in 
readiness to sail. On the morning of the 29th March, 1630, 
when the vessels were lying at Cowes, he made a visit to his 
friends, and consulted with them on the expediency of sailing 
on Easter Monday. Hubbard says : " They were advised so to 
do by Mr. Cradock (who was that morning on board the 'Ar- 
bella ' ), the late Governor, and owner of the two last ships." 
Gov. Winthrop says : " Mr. Cradock was aboard the 'Arbella.' 
We came to council. Mr. Cradock presently went back, our 
captain giving him three shots out of the steerage for a fare- 
well." This gentleman, wise, good, zealous, honored, and 
rich, may be regarded, before any other individual, as the 
Founder of Medford. There is no record of settlements 
earlier than those connected with him. 

He was singularly cautious in selecting his workmen ; and 
such an extensive establishment for fishing as he designed, 
supposes many collateral branches of trade. In 1631, his 
agent, Mr. Davison, had become so settled as to build a ship 
on the bank of the Mystick. The place probably was where 
Mr. Calvin Turner built his first ship, or at Rock Hill. 
Providing his fishermen with vessels as fast as possible must 
have made Medford a place of brisk trade and commercial 
consequence. These first movements of Mr. Cradock here 
were in keeping with his expansive mind and great wealth. 
We have proof of his wide enterprise in the following 
record: "Feb. 1, 1634: Mr. Cradock's house at Marblehead 
was burnt down about midnight before, there being in it Mr. 
Alleiton and many fishermen, whom he employed that season. 

87 



_ Mr. Allerton fished with eight boats." ( Jossylyn speaks ofj 
Mr. Cradock's plantation, in 1638, "on the west of Mystick J 
River, where he has impaled a park ; " unquestionab ly the / 
first park for deer impaled in thi s country^ 

In 1630, Air. (..'radork provides a man (Richard Water- 
man), "whose chief employment," he says to his men at 



Medford, " will be to get you good venison." The Company 
in England say (April 17, 1629), "William Ryall and 
Thomas Brude, coopers and cleavers of timber, are enter- 
tained by us in halves with Mr. Cradock, our Governor." 

To express their sense of the value of Mr. Cradock's ser- 
vices for the Colony, the General Court, held at Newton, 
March 4, 1634, make him a grant of land in the following 
words: "All the ground, as well upland .as meadow, lying 
and being betwixt the land of Mr. Nowcll and Mr. Wilson 
on the east, and the partition betwixt Mistick bounds on the 
west, bounded with Mistick River on the south, and the 
Rocks on the north, is granted to Mr. Mathcw Cradock, 
merchant, to enjoy to him and his heirs for ever." 

386 

is therefore attributed to the terrific noises mad e by railroad 
cars, as they cross the Mys tic at Charlestown. ( The largest \ 
/"number oi alewives taken by one draught from Mystic River | 
I was in 1844 ; and they counted some few more than fifty- 
f eight thousand ! We once saw taken, by one d raught fr om 
I this* river, shad sufficient to fill six horse-carta. fin Mystic 
"Kiver the bass iiave wholly disappeared; though there are 
those living who remember to have seen them plenty, and 
some of them weighing more than thirty pounds. 

In 1776, a negro, named Prince, was at work on the bank 
of the river, opposite the shallow where the ford was, a few 
rods above the bridge, when he saw an enormous bass swim- 
ming very slowly up the river. The tide was inconveniently 
low for the bass, but conveniently low for the negro. Plunge 
went Prince for the fish, and caught him ! No sooner was 
ho out of water than a desperate spring, such as fishes can 
give, released him from his captor ; and back he falls into his 
native element. Quick as a steel-trap, Prince springs upon 
him again, and again clutches him and lifts him up. The 
fish struggles ; and Prince and fish fall together. Again 
Prince rises, with his prize in his arms, and then brings him 
ashore. It weighed sixty-five pounds. Prince thought that 
such a wonderful fish should be presented to the commander 
of the American forces then stationed on Winter Hill. His 
master thought so too. Accordingly, Prince dressed himself 
in his best clothes, and, taking the fish in a cart, presented 
it to the commander, and told the history of its capture ; 
and the commander gave him six cents ! 

425 BURYING-GROUND3. 

The places used by the first settlers of Medford for the 
burial of the dead are not positively known. Whether from 
unwillingness to follow England's example, in providing 
expensive and well-secured graveyards, or from their inability 
to do so, we cannot say ; but the fact is clear, that such pro- 
visions for the dead were not made. / The oldest gravestones 
Ein the present graveyard, near Gravelly Bridge, were brought 
from England, and are remarkable for their width , thickness 
and weight. The oldest bears the date of 1691. / It may be 
that Borne of our gardens are cemeteries, and that from 
human soil we gather our daily bread, while the spade and 
ploughshare lacerate the relics of our ancestors. 

March 20, 1705 : " Put to vote, whether the selectmen shall dis- 
course Mr. Dudley Wade, referring to the proposals made this 
meeting by Stephen Willis, jun., in said Wado's behalf, respecting 
the burying-place in Medford, and make return thereof to the town 
at the next town's meeting. Voted in the affirmative." 

It does not appear what this proposition was, nor what 
action the town had upon it. Probably it was a proposal to 
sell the town some land for a place of burial; and we pre- 
sume it was accepted, because, May 15, 1717, we find the 
following record : — 

" Put to vote, whether the town will choose a committee, to join 
with the selectmen, to view some land offered by Mr. Aaron Cleav- 
laod and John Willis, for the enlargement of the burying-place near 
Mistick Bridge ; and bring in a report to the town of the same, at 



93 



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DEER IN THE LAUREL SWAMPS. 311 

LETTER XLII. 

AH EXCURSION TO THE WATER GAP. 

E aston, Pena, October 24, 1846. 
My yesterday's letter left me at Stroudsburg, about four 
miles west of the Delaware. It is a pleasant village, situated 
on the banks of the Pocano. From this stream the inhab- 
itants have diverted a considerable portion of the water, 
bringing the current through this village in a canal, making 
it to dive under the road and rise again on the opposite side, 
after which it hastens to turn a cluster of mills. To the 
north is seen the summit of the Pocano mountain, where this 
stream has its springs, with woods stretching down its sides 
and covering the adjacent country. Here, about nine miles 
to the north of the village, deer haunt and are hunted. I 
heard of one man who had already killed nine of these ani- 
mals within two or three weeks. A traveller from "Wyoming 
county, whom I met at our inn, gave me some account of 

the win ter life of the deer. 

\" They inhabit," he said, " the swamps of mountain-laurel! 
[ thickets, through which a man would find it almost impossi- j 
I ble to make his way. The laurel-bushes, and the hemlockBj) 



312 



LETTERS OF A TRAVELLER. 






scattered among them, intercept the snow as it falls, and form 
a thick roof, under the shelter of which, near some pool or 
rivulet, the animals remain until spring opens, as snugly pro- 
tected from the severity of the weather as sheep under the 
sheds of a farm-yard. Here they feed upon the leaves of the 
laurel and other evergreens. It is contrary to the law to kill 
them after the Christmas holidays, but sometimes their re- 
treat is invaded, and a deer or two killed ; their flesh, how 
ever, is not wholesome, on account of the laurel leaves on 
which th ey feed, and their skin is nearly worthless.' '} 

I expressed my surprise that the leaves of the mountain 
laurel, the kalmia latifolia, which are so deadly to sheep, 
should be the winter food of the deer. 

" It is because the deer has no gall," answered the man, 
" that the pison don't take effect. But their meat will not 
do to eat, except in a small quantity, and cooked with pork, 
which I think helps take the pison out of it." 

" The deer," he went on to say, " are now passing out of 
the blue into the gray. After the holidays, when their hair 
becomes long, and their winter coat is quite grown, their hide 
is soft and tender, and tears easily when dressed, and it would 
be folly to kill them, even if there were no law against it." 



94 





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THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF SUEZ. 



105 



of reference to their knives, gentle charity took the nlarm 
and fled. My pistols kept tlicm at bay, for they were only 
making an attempt to intimidate, and though I took the pre- 
caution of sitting apart from them, there was no real danger. 
Of the Maghrabis I shall have more to say when relating 
my voyage in the Pilgrim Ship : they were the only travel- 
lers from whom we experienced the least annoyance. Nu- 
merous parties of Turks, Arabs, and Afghans, and a few 
Indians, were on the same errand as ourselves. All, as we 
passed them, welcomed us with the friendly salutation that 
so becomes men engaged in a labor of religion. 

Suez was now near. In the blue distance rose the castel- 
lated peaks and the wide sand-tracts over which lies the land 
route to El Hejaz. Before us the sight ever dear to English 
eyes, — a strip of sea gloriously azure, with a gallant steamer 
walking the waters. On the right-hand side lay the broad 
slopes of Jebel Mukuttum, a range of hills which flanks the 
road all the way from Cairo. It was at this hour a specta- 
cle not easily to be forgotten. We drew up at a small 
building called Bir Smvays (well of Suez), and under pretext 
of watering the cattle, I sat for half an hour admiring the 
charms of the Desert. The eye never tires of loveliness of 
hue, and the memory of the hideousness of this range, when 
a sun in front exposed each barren and deformed feature, 
supplied the evening view with another element of attrac- 
tion. 

246 

The fruit is prepared in a great variety of ways : per- 
haps the most favorite dish is a broil with clarified butter, 
highly distasteful to the European palate. The date is also 
left upon the tree to dry, and then called " Balah :" this is 
eaten at dessert as the " Nukliyat," the " quatre mendiants," 
of Persia. Amongst peculiar preparations must be men- 
tioned the Kulladat el Sham. The unripe fruit is dipped in 
boiling water to preserve its gamboge color, strung upon a 
thick thread and hung out in the air to dry. These strings 
are worn all over El Hejaz as necklaces by children, who 
seldom fail to munch the ornament when not in fear of slap- 
pings, and they are sent as presents to distant countries. 
^_J January and February are the time lor the masculation 
of the palm. The " Nakhwali," as he is called, opens the 
female flower, and having inserted the inverted male flowers, 
binds them together: t his operati on is perfo rmed as in^ 
Egypt upon each cluster. J The fruit is ripe abont the mid 



die of May, and the gathering of it forms the Arab's " ven- 
demmia." The people make merry the more readily because 
their favorite fruit is liable to a variety of accidents : droughts 
injure the tree, locusts destroy the produce, and the date 
crop, like most productions which men are imprudent enough 
to adopt singly as the staff of life, is subject to failure. 
One of the reasons for the excellence of Medinah dates is 



THE COOL SHADES OP KUDA. 



241 



the quantity of water they obtain : each garden or field has 
its well, and even in the hottest weather the Persian wheel 
floods tho soil every tliird day. It has been observed that 
the date-tree can live in dry and barren spots ; but it loves 
the beds of streams and places where moisture is procurable. 
The palms scattered over the other parts of the Medinah 



plain, and depending solely upon rain water, produce less 
fruit, and that too of an inferior quality. 

Verdure is not usually wholesome in Arabia, yet invalids 
leave the close atmosphere of El Medinah to seek health 
nnder tho cool shades of Kuba. The gardens arc divided 
by what might almost be called lanes, long narrow lines 
with tall reed fences on both sides. The graceful branches of 
the Tamarisk pearled with manna, aud cottoned over with 
dew, and the broad leaves of the castor plant, glistening 
in the sun, protected us from the morning rays. The ground 
on both sides of the way was sunken, the earth being dis- 
posed in heaps at the foot of the fences, an arrangement 
which facilitates irrigation, by giving a fall to the water, 
and in some cases affords a richer soil than the surface. 



314 

Leaving our camp at seven a.m., we passed over the 
grim stone-field by a detestable footpath, and at nine 
o'clock struck into a broad fiumara, which runs from the 
east towards the north-west. Up this line we travelled the 
whole day. About six p.m., we came upon a basin at least 
twelve miles broad, which absorbs the water of the adjacent 
hills. Accustomed as I have been to mirage, a long thin 



GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE COCTNTKY. 



315 



line of salt efllorcscence appearing at some distance on the 
plain below us, when the shades of evening invested the 
view, completely deceived nu, Even the Arabs were 
divided in opinion, some thinking it was the effects of the 
rain which fell the day before : others were more acute.* 
Upon the horizon beyond the plain rose dark, fort-like 
masses of rock which I mistook for buildings, the more 
readily as the Shaykh had warned nic that we were 
approaching a populous place. At last descending a long 
steep hill, we entered upon the level ground, and discovered 
our error by the crunching sound of the camels' feet upon 
large curling flakes of nitrous salt overlying caked nuid. 
Those civilised birds, the kite and the crow, warned us that 
we were in the vicinity of man. It was not, however, 
before eleven p.m., that we entered the contines of El 
Suwayrkiyah. The fact was made patent to us by the 
stumbling and the falling of our dromedaries over the little 
ridges of dried clay disposed in squares upon the fields. 
There were other obstacles, such as garden walls, wells, and 
hovels, so that midnight had sped before our weary camels 
reached the resting-place. A rumor that we were to halt 
here the next day, made us think lightly of present troubles ; 
it proved, however, to be false. 

During the last four days I attentively observed tho 
general face of the country. This line is a succession of 
low plains and basins, here quasi-circular, there irregularly 
oblong, surrounded by rolling hills and cut by fiumaras 
which passed through the higher ground. The basins are 
divided by ridges and flats of basalt and greenstone avc- 

j * It is fluid that beasts arc never deceived by the mirage, and this/l 
as far as my experience goes, is eorrccL May not tlie reason Im that 
most of thein know the vicinity of water rather by smell tlinn by I 
eight! 



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65 



tliis branch likewise, which was so different from the rest ; and 
finding that I l md great success in it, I produced several pieces 
in thi s way. j AIy performances, indeed, were much finer and 



more durable than the Turkish, for several reasons : one was, 
that I made a much deeper incision in the steel than is generally 
practised in Turkish works ; the other, that their foliages are no- 
thing else but chickory leaves, with some few flowers of Echites: 
these have, perhaps, some grace, but they do not continue to 
please liko our foliages. In Italy there is a variety of tastes, 
and we cut foliages in many different forms. The Lombards 
make the most beautiful wreaths, representing ivy and vino 
leaves, and others of the same sort, with agreeable twinings 
highly pleasing to the eye. The Romans and Tuscans have a 
much better notion in this respect, for they represent Acanthus* 
leaves, with all their festoons and flowers, winding in a variety 
of forms ; and amongst these leaves they insert birds and animals 
of several sorts with great ingenuity and elegance in the arrange- 
ment. They likewise have recourse occasionally to wild flowers, 
such as those called lions' mouths, for their peculiar shape, ac- 
i companied by other fine inventions of the imagination, which are 
termed grotesques by the ignorant. These foliages have received 
that name from tho moderns, becauso they are found in certain 
caverns in Home, which in ancient days wero chambers, baths, 
studies, halls, and other places of tho liko nature. Tho curious 
happened to discover them in theso subterraneous caverns, whoso 
low situation is owing to tho raising of tho surface of tho ground 
in a sorics of ages ; and as these caverns in Ilomo are commonly 
called grottos, they from thenco acquiro the name of grotesque. 
But this is not their proper name : for, as tho ancients delighted 
in the composition of chimerical creatures, and gave to the sup- 
posed promiscuous breed of animals tho appollation of monsters, 
in liko manner artists produced by their foliages monstors of this 
sort; and that is tho proper namo of them— not grotesques. f In 



such a tasto I mode foliages filled up in the manner above-mon- 
tioncd, which wcro far more elegant and pleasing to the oye than 
tho Turkish works. 

* Acanthus, called Brancuortina, or Boar'i claw.— Es. 

114 

tho others then suid to me, " Ucnvenuto, 
tho hindranco wo have been to you, however disagreeable, wus 
intended for a good end. Let uh now go to tho assistance of tho 
dying man." So wo turned back, and went to the assistance of 
my brother, whom I ordered to bo removed to a neighboring 
houso. 

A consultation of surgeons being immediately called in, they 
dressed his wound, but he would not hear of having his leg cut 
off, though it would havo been the likeliest way to save his life. 
As soon as they had done, Duke Alejandro made his nppennuico, 
and spoko to my brother with great tenderness ; the latter being 
still in his right mind, said to his excellency, " My dear lord, 
thoro is nothing I am grieved at, but that you are going to lose a 
servant, who may be surpassed by others in courage and abilities, 
but will never be equallod for his fidelity and attachment to your 
person." The duke desired he would endeavor to live, declaring 
that he knew him to be in all respects a valiant and worthy man : 
he then turned about to his people, and bid them supply the youth 
with whatever he wanted. No sooner was the duke departed, 



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telling me that so brave a youth well deserved it. 
follows : 



98 

-It was as 



"Francisco Ccllino Florentines, qui quod in teneris annis ad Johannem 
Mediccm ducem plures victorias retulit, et signifcr fuit, facile documentum 
dedit quantae fortitudinis et consilii vir futurus erat, ni crudelis fati archi- 



• Vnrchi pays a high tribute to the bravery and worth of Francesco Cel- 
lini, in the eleventh chapter of his History, where he also speaks at length 
respecting Bertino Aldobrandi, the before-mentioned pupil of the same; 
who fell in a savage duel, near Florence, March, 1530.— See Ammirato. 

116 

buso transfossus quinto aHatis lustro jaoeret. Benvenutus fratcr posuit. 
Obiit die 27 Maii, MDXX1X." 

"To Francesco Cellini, a Florentine, who as he had in his youthful days 
gained many victories for Duke Giovanni of Medici, plainly showed how 
bravo and wise a man he would havo proved, if he had not by a decree of 
cruel fate been shot by a musket in his twenty-fifth year. Benvonuto, his 
brother, erected this monument. He died on the 27th May, MDXXIX." 

He was in the twenty-fifth year of his age ; and though in the 
army was called Cccchino the musician, I clip.se to give him ou r 
fam ily name, with the arms of Cellini. } This namo I ordered to 
; be carved in tho finest antique characters, all of which wcro 
represented broken, except the first and last. Being asked the 



li 



1 

V 



reason of this by the literati who had written the epitaph for me, 
I told them that the letters wcro represented broken, because his 
corporeal framo was destroyed ; and those two letters, namely, 
the first and last, were preserved entire — the first in allusion to 
that glorious present, which God has made us, of a soul enlightened 
by his divine rays, subject to no injury; tho l ast on account of, 
tho great renown of his virtuous ac tions, f This device met with 
general approbation, and tho method was afterwards adopted by 
others. I caused the arms of Cellini to be wrought upon the 
same tomb-stone, in which I made some little alteration ; for there 
are in Ravenna, a very ancient city, some of the Cellini family, 
who are respectable gentlemen, and have lor their arms a lion 
rampant of the color of gold, in an azure field, with a red lily 
upon the right foot, and three little golden lilies upon the basis. 
This is the true coat of arms of our family ;* my father showed 
me one which contained only the foot with the remaining parti- 
culars already described ; but that of the Cellini of Ravenna 
pleases me most. To return to the devices which I ordered to be 



•Such was Cellini's predilection for this coat of arms, that he has left 
us a drawing of them in black chalk, and in ink upon tho card, under 
which is affixed tho following notice, in his hand-writing : — " The original 
arms of the Cellini family, as worn by the gentlemen of the ancient city 
Ravenna, remaining in our house from the time of Cristofano Cellini, my 
great-grandfather, father of Andrea, my grandfather." 

It is also stated in the Preface to Goldsmith's Art, edition of 1731. " We 
have for this reason subjoined the family arras thus preserved : to the por- 
trait of our Author." 

117 

made for the monument, and to tho arms in particular : the paw 
of the lion was represented upon it, and in tho room of the lily I 
caused an axe to bo placed in tho paw, with no other view but to 
remind mo of revenging his injured manes. 

Meanwhile I exerted my utmost cilbrt8 to finish the work in 
gold which I was employed in by Pope Clement : his Holiness 
was very earnest to have it completed, and sent for me two or 



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L E S 




DE LA 

NO WELLE FRANCE 

OCCIDENTALS, DICTE 

CANADA, 

FAITSPAR LE S" DE CHAMPLAIN 

Xain&ongeois, Capitaine pour lc Roy en la Marine du 

Ponant, & routes les Defcouuertcs qu'il a fakes en 

cc pais depuis Tan 1603. iufqucs en Tan 1629. 

Oufe volt comme cepays a eftepemkrement dejeouuert par les Francois* 
feus r a rf thorite dc nos Roys tres- chrefticm, iu/ques an regnt 
de/a Utfajeite a pre/cut regnante LOFIS XIII. ~ 
Roy, de France &_de 7{auarrc. 

Aucc vn traitte des qualitez & conditions requifes a vn bon & parfai&Nauigateur 
pour cognoiftrc-la diuerfite des Eftimcs qui fe font en laNauigation ; Les 
Marques & enfeignements que la prouidence de Dieu a miles dans les Mers 
poyrredrcrtcr les Marinierselileur routte, fans lefquclles ils tomberoient en 
de grands dangers , Et la maniere de bieridr.efler Cartes marines auec leurs 
Ports, Radcs, Ifles, Sondes, & autre chofe neccflfaire a la Nauigation. 

Enfeeble vkc Carte generallede la definition dudit paysfaifte en fin Meridien'feUn 

la'declinai fin de la guide ^Ajmant^ vnCatechiftneou Inftrtftiien traduiUt 

du Francois an langage dei • feu f les Saxuages dequelcjue contree t auee 

ce qui iefi pajfe en ladite Nouuelle Frttxce en I'anne'e 1631. 

A MONSEIGNEVR TE CARDINAL DVC DE RlCHELIEV. 




A PARIS, 

Chez Pierre Le-Mvr, dans la grand' Salle 

du Palais, 

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176 



ELEVEN WEEKS IN EUROPE. 



Lautcrbrunncn, and in the course of half an hour's 
walk, passed from a region of utter barrenness to one 
of luxuriant vegetation. Thousands of feet below, lay 
the valley toward which we descended ; the path down 
was so steep that it went in zigzags, but on each side, 
nevertheless, were fields of grass. How they could 
ever be mown, and the hay raked, passed our wit to 
tell. One of my companions thought to make the way 
shorter by crossing these fields in a straight line, in- 
stead of keeping to the zigzag road ; but he soon found 
it too steep to justify his standing upright ; so he sat 
down, and attempted to slide down ; but this also was 
dangerous, and there he sat, holding on to the grass, 
uncertain what to do. By the aid of his alpenstock 
however, he reached the road, with this practical 
experience of the portentous faithfulness of Swiss agri- 
culture, which can. make hay in places so steep that 
any body but a Swiss cannot stand upright. 

No where in the world, I think, can such a combina- 
tion of beauty be brought together as is to be found in 
the Valley of Lauterbrunnen. The name in German 
means, * Nothing but brooks, 1 — and indicates one of 
its characteristics. The valley is a long and narrow 
one, extending from the foot of the Jungfrau, between 
precipitous and lofty hills, toward Interlachen. Over 
these perpendicular walls fall a thousand brooks, 
which hang like white threads or ribbons along their 
sides. The presence of so much water gives a pecu- 
liar character to the trees. Tr ees always conform to 
their situation^ In forests, all trees, no matter what 



may be their typical form, imitate the pine, and strain 
[upward to the light in perpendicular shafts. By the 



101 



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ELEVEN WEEKS IN EUROPE. 



177 



side of running water, all trees imitate the willow and 
bend their limbs downward in bowery masses ; and 
wherever the atmosphere is charged with moisture, 
the trees expand their branches in a peculiarly indolent 
and luxurious manner difficult to describe, but easily 
recognised. Whenever, therefore, you see a tree with 
its limbs hanging downward like those of a willow, you 
may be pretty sure that there are brooks running below 
the surface, if not visible above it ; and when you see 
trees spreading themselves out in every direction, 
leaning their branches this way and that, like the trees 
which the Italian painters loved to draw in their picture 
of the Flight into Egypt, you may recognise the pres-^ 
ence of an excess of aqueous vapor in the air.f 



Thus leaned and expanded the limbs of the walnuts, 
and beeches, and chestnuts, as we passed down toward 
Lauterbrunnen. High above us, the snowy Alps 
seemed to overhang the valley, though in fact miles 
away. Opposite to us waved in the wind the Staub- 
bach, made famous by Byron, who compares it to the 
waving tail of the White Horse in the Apocalypse. This 
mountain torrent, on reaching the edge of the precipice, 
falls eight hundred feet without touching the rock on 
its way into the valley ; before it has descended a third 
part of this distance, the resistance of the air has 
changed it into spray, and the wind drives it and 
bends it, this way and that, in snake-like curves. 1 We 

1 ' The torrent is in shape curving over the rock, like the tail 
of a white horse streaming in the wind, such as it might be 
conceived would be that of the " Pale Horse " on which Death is 
mounted in the Apocalypse. It is neither mist nor water, but 
a something between both ; its immense height (nine hundred 



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86-87 



CLASS MAMMALIA. 



ncss of locomotion he is much inferior to other 
animals of not greater dimensions. He has neither 
projecting jaws, nor protruding canine teeth, nor 
nails extended into claws or talons, and is con- 
sequently destitute of offensive weapons. He is 
also almost without defensive arms, as the sides 
and upper part of his body are literally naked, not 
being furnished even with a covering of hair. Above 
all, he is the longest of all living beings in arriving 
at the full maturity and entire possession of all his 
faculties and energies, or even in acquiring suf- 
ficient force for his own preservation, subsistence 
and defence. 

But he derives additional strength from his very 
weakness. His external deficiencies oblige him to 
\ook within, and to have recourse to that intelli- 
gence with which nature has endowed him in so 
eminent a degree. 

No quadruped is comparable to man for the mag- 
nitude of the hemispheres of the brain, that is, of 
the part of this organ which serves as the principal 
instrument of the intellectual operations. The hin- 
der part of the same organ extends so as to form 
a second covering for the cerebellum. The very 
form of the cranium announces this magnitude of the 
brain, while the comparative smallness of the face 
displays how little that part of the nervous system 
which influences the external senses is predominant 
in the human species. 

These external sensations which are less energetic 



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in man than in some other animals, are nevertheless 
very delicate, and are admirably balanced among 
themselves. 

His eyes are directed forwards : thus, though he 
does not see on both sides at once like most qua- 
drupeds, yet, is there a great unity in the result of 
the visual operation, and the attention is concen- 
trated more effectually on sensations of this kind. 
The globe and the iris of the eye possess little varia- 
tion, and this restrains the sphere of vision to a de- 
termined distance, and a fixed degree of light. 

The couch of his ear, possessing but little mobility 
or extent, does not enervate the intensity of sounds, 
yet of all animals he can best distinguish the various 
degrees of intonation. His nostrils, more compli- 
cated than those of apes, are less so than those of 



other animals, yetf he appears to be the only living\ 
creature whose sense of smell is suf ficiently d el icate ) 
to b e affected by unpleasant odours. The delicacy of 
the smell must have some influence on that of taste, 
but independently of that, man must possess con- 
siderable advantages in this respect, at least, over 
those animals whose tongues are covered with 
scales. Lastly, the perfection of his tact results 
both from the delicacy of his external tegument, the 
absence of all insensible parts, and the form of his 
hand so admirably constructed to adapt itself to all 
the slightest inequalities of surface. 

Man possesses a most distinguished pre-emi- 
nence in the organs of his voice ; he alone can pro- 
duce articulate sounds. The form of his mouth and 



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109 




HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL 



ESSAYS. 



BY 



THOMAS DE QULNCEY, 



AUTHOR OF 



•CONFESSIONS OF AN ENGLISH OPIUM '- EATER' ETC. ETC, 



IN TWO VOLTJMES. 

VOL. I. 



119 



BOSTON: 
TICKNOR, REED, AND FIELDS. 

MDCCCLIII. 

PHILOSOPHY OF HERODOTUS. 



110 



120 



Few, even amongst literary people, arc aware of 
the true place occupied by Herodotus in universal 
literature ; secondly, scarce here and there a scholar 
up and down a century is led to reflect upon the 
multiplicity of his relations to the whole range of 
civilization. We endeavor in these words to catch, 
as in a net, the gross prominent faults of his appre- 
ciation ; on which account, first, we say pointedly, 
universal literature, not Grecian — since the primary 
error is, to regard Herodotus merely in relation to the 
literature o.f Greece ; secondly, on which account we 
notice the circuit, the numerical amount, of his col- 
lisions with science — because the second and greater 
error is, to regard him excl usively as an histo rian. 
But now, under a juster allocation of his rank, as] 
the general father of prose composition, Herodotus is/ 
nearly related to all literature whatsoever, modern not\ 
less than ancient'; and as the father of what may 
be called ethnographical geography, as a man who 
speculated most ably on all the humanities of science 
— that is, on all the scientific questions which naturally 
interest our human sensibilities in this great temple 



which we look up to, the pavilion of the sky, the sun, 
the moon, the atmosphere, with its climates and its 
winds ; or in this home which we inherit, the earth, 
with its hills and rivers — Herodotus ought least of 
all to be classed among st historians : [ that is but a 
secondary title for him ; he deserves to be rated as 
the leader amongst philosophical polyliistors, which is 
the nearest designation to that of encyclopasdist cur- 
rent in the Greek literature. And yet is not this word 
encyclopedist much lower than his ancient name — 
father of history ? Doubtless it is no great distinction 
at present to be an encyclopaedist, which is often but 
another name for bookmaker, craftsman, mechanic, 
journeyman, in his meanest degeneration ; yet in those 
early days, when the timid muse of science had 
scarcely ventured scandal deep into waters so un- 
fathomable, it seems to us a great thing indeed, that 
one young man should have founded an entire ency- 
clopaedia for his countrymen, upon those difficult 
problems which challenged their primary attention, 
because starting forward from the very roof — the 
walls — the floor of that beautiful theatre which they 
tenanted. The habitable world, >; oixouutrif, was now 
daily becoming better known to the human race ; 
but how ? Chiefly through Herodotus. There are 

" Nor was it in the 

facts merely, that he retraced the portraits of all 
leading states ; whatsoever in these facts was mys- 
terious, for that he had a self-originated solution ; 
whatsoever was perplexing by equiponderant counter- 
assumptions, for that he brought a determining impulse 
to the one side or the other ; whatsoever seemed 
contradictory, for that he brought a reconciling hypo- 
thesis. Were it the annual rise of a river, were it the 
formation of a famous kingdom by alluvial depositions, 
were it the unexpected event of a battle, or the 
apparently capricious migration of a people — for all 
alike Herodotus had such resources of knowledge as 
took the sting out of the marvellous, or such res ources 
of ability as at least suggested the plausible. / Anti 



quities or mythology, martial institutions or pastoral, 
the secret motives to a falsehood which he exposes, or 
the hidden nature of some truth which he deciphers — 
all alike lay within the searching dissection of this 
astonishing intellect, the most powerful lens by far 
that has ever been brought to b ear upon the mixed 
objects of a speculative traveller. J 

117 

The substantive is a word frequently employed by 
Herodotus: often in the plural number; and uniformly 
it me ans inquiries or investigations ,7so that the proper 
(English version of the title-page would be — ' Of the 
(Researches made by Herodotus, Nine Books. j And, in 
reality, that is the very meaning, and the secret drift, 
the conservation running overhead through these nine 
sections to the nine muses. Had the work been de- 
signed as chiefly historical, it would have been placed 
under the patronage of the one sole muse presiding over 
History. 



133 

Once, and in a public situation, we ourselves de- 
nominated Herodotus the Froissart of antiquity. But 
we were then speaking of him exclusively as an 
historian ; and even so, we did him injustice. Thus 
far it is true the two men agree, that both arc less 
political, or reflecting, or moralizing, as historians, 
than they are scenical and splendidly picturesque. 
But Froissart is little else than an historian. Whereas 
Herodotus is the counterpart of some ideal Pandora, 
by the universality of his accomplishments. J He is a 



111 



"j — 1 1 — ■ — 

traveller of discovery, like Captain Cook or Park 
He is a naturalist, the earliest that existed. He is a 
mycologist, and a speculator on the origin, as well as 
value, of religious rites. He is a political economist 
by instinct of genius, before the science of economy 



134 



(had a name or a conscious fun ction ; and by two great} 
records, he has put us up to the level of all that can 
excite our curiosity at that great era of moving civi- 
lization : 

135 

But take him as an exploratory traveller and as a 
naturalist, who had to break ground for the earliest 
entrenchments in these new functions of knowledge ; 




we do not scruple to say that mutatis mutand 
concessis concedendis, Herodotus has the se 
qualifications of the two men whom we would 
by preference as the most distinguished amongst 
Christian traveller-naturalists ; he has the universality 
of the Prussian Humboldt ; and he has the picturesque 
fidelity to nature of the English Dampicr — of whom 
the last was a simple self-educated seaman, but strong- 
minded by nature, austerely accurate through his 
moral reverence for truth, and zealous in pursuit of 
knowledge, to an exces s which raises him to a levely 
L with the noble Grcck.j Dampicr, when in the last 
stage of exhaustion from a malignant dysentery, un- 
able to stand upright, and surrounded by perils in a 
land of infidel fanatics, crawled on his hands and feet 
to verify some fact of natural history, under the 
blazing forenoon of the tropics ; and Herodotus, hav- 
ing no motive but his own inexhaustible thirst of 
knowledge, embarked on a separate voyage, fraught 
with hardships, towards a chance of clearing up what 
seemed a difficulty of some importance in deducing 
the religious mythology of his country. 

141 

I. — The Non-Planetary Earth of Herodotus in its 
relation to the Planetary Sun. 
Mr. Hermann Bobrik is the first torch-bearer to He- 
rodotus, who has thrown a strong light on his theory of 
the earth's relation to the solar system. This is one of 
the prctcognita, literally indispensable to the compre- 

143 

hension of the geographical basis assumed by Herodo- 
tus. And it is really interesting to sec how one origi- 
nal error had drawn after it a train of others — how 



1 



one restoration of light has now illuminated a whole 
hemisphere of object s^ We suppose it the very next 
thin" to a fatal impossibility, that any man should at 
once rid his mind so profoundly of all natural biases 
from education, or almost from human instinct, as 
barely to suspect the physical theory of Herodotus — 
barely to imagine the idea of a divorce occurring in 
any theory between the solar orb and the great phe^ 
nomena of summer and winter. /"Prejudications, hav- 



ing the force of a necessity, had blinded generation 
after generation of students to the very admission in 
limine of such a theory as could go the length of de- 
throning the sun himself from all influence over the 
great vicissitudes of heat and cold — seed-time and 
harvest — for man. They did not see what actually 
was, what lay broadly below their eyes, in Herodotus, 
because it seemed too fantastic a dream to suppose 
that it could be. The case is far more common than 
feeble psychologists imagine. Numerous are the in- 
stances in which we actually see — not that which is 
really there to be seen — but that which we believe d 
priori ought to be there. And in cases so palpable as 
that of an external sense, it is not difficult to set the 
student on his guard. But in cases more intellectual 
or moral, like several in Herodotus, it is difficult for the 
teacher himself to bo effectually vigilant. It was not 
anything actually seen by Herodotus which led him 
into denying the solar functions ; it was his own inde- 



pendent speculation. 



144 



For Herodotus, there existed two 
great counter-forces in absolute hostility — heat and 
cold ; and these forces were incarnated in the winds. 
It was the north and north-east wind, not any distance 
of the sun, which radiated cold and frost; it was the 
southern wind from Ethiopia, not at all the sun, which 
radiated heat. But could a man so sagacious as He- 
rodotus stand with his ample Grecian forehead exposed 
to the noonday sun, and suspect no part of the calorific 
agency to be seated in the sun ? Certainly he could 
not. But this partial agency is no more than what we 
of this day allow to secondary or tertiary causes apart 
from the principal. We, that regard the sun as upon 
the whole our planetary fountain of light, yet recog- 
nise an electrical aurora, a zodiacal light, &c, as sub- 
stitutes not palpably dependent. We that regard the 
sun as upon the whole our fountain of heat, yet recog- 
nise many co-operative, many modifying forces having 
the same office — such as the local configuration of 
ground — such as sea neighborhoods or land neighbor- 
hoods, marshes or none, forests or none, strata of soil 
fitted to retain heat and fund it, or to disperse it and 
cool it^ J Precisely in the same way Herodotus did 
allow an agency to the sun upon the daily range of 
heat, though he allowed none to the same luminary in 
regulating the annual range. What caused the spring 
and autumn, the summer and winter, (though generally 
in those ages there were but two seasons recognised,) 
was the action of the winds. The diurnal arch of heat 
(as we may call it) ascending from sunrise to some 
hour, (say two P. M.) when the sum of the two heats/ 



146 

(the funded annual heat and the fresh increments of 
daily heat) reaches its maximum, and the descending 
limb of the same arcli from this hour to sunset — this 
he explained entirely out of the sun's daily revolution, 
which to him was, of course, no apparent motion, but a 
real one in the sun. It is truly amusing to hear the 
great man's infantine simplicity in describing the 
cfTccts of the solar journey.. The sun rises, it seems, 
in India ; and these poor Indians, roasted by whole 
nations at breakfast-time, are then up to their chins in 
water, whilst we thankless Westerns are takinc 'tea 
and toast ' at our ease. However, it is a long lane 
which has no turning ; and by noon the sun has driven 
so many stages away from India, that the poor crea- 
tures begin to come out of their rivers, and really find 
things tolerably comfortable. India- is now cooled 
down to a balmy Grecian temperature. 'All right 
behind ! ' as the mail-coach guards observe ; but not 
quite right ahead, when the sun is racing away over 
the boiling brains of the Ethiopians, Libyans, &c.,and 
driving Jupiter-Ammon perfectly distracted with his 
furnace. But when things are at the worst, the proverb 
assures us that they will mend. And for an early five 
o'clock dinner, Ethiopia finds that she has no great 
reason to complain. All civilized people arc now cool 
and happy for the rest of the day. But, as to the 
woolly-headed rascals on the west coast of Africa, they 
' catch it ' towards sunset, and ' no mistake.' Yet why 
trouble our heads about inconsiderable black fellows 
like them, who have been cool all day whilst butter 

.... . . r '. X 



112 



men were melting away by pailfuls ? f And such is the 
history of a summer's day in the heavens above and 



jj™ 



146 

on the earth beneath. As to little Greece, she is but 
skirted by the sun, who keeps away far to the south ; 
thus she is maintained in a charming state of equilib- 
rium by her fortunate position on the very frontier line 
of the fierce Boreas and the too voluptuous Notos. 

Meantime one effect follows from this transfer of the 
solar functions to the winds, which has not been re- 
marked, — viz. that Herodotus has a double north ; 
one governed by the old noisy Boreas, another by the 
silent constellation Arktos. And the consequence of 
this fluctuating north, as might be guessed, is the want 
of any true north at alt ; for the two points of the wind 
and the constellation do not coincide in the first place ; 
and secondly, the wind docs not coincide with itself, 
but nat urally traverses through a few points right an d 
left, y . Next, the east also will be indeterminate from a 
different cause. Had Herodotus lived in a high north- 
ern latitude, there is no doubt that the ample range of 
difference between the northerly points of rising in the 
summer and the southerly in winter, would have forced 
his attention upon the fact, that only at the equinox, 
vernal or autumnal, do cs the sun's rising accurately 
coincide with the eas j J _JBut in his Ionian climate, the^ 
deflexions cither way, to the north or to the south, were 
too inconsiderable to force themselves upon the eye ; 
and thus a more indeterminate east would arise — 
never rigorously corrected, because requiring so rnode- 



Vatc a correction. Now, a vague unsettled east, would 
support a vague unsettled north. And of course, 
through whatever arch of variations cither of these 
points vibrated, precisely upon that scale the west and 
the south would follow them. I 



147 

II. — The Danube of Herodotus considered as a 

counterpole t o the Nile. 

_>There is nothing more perplexing to some of the 
many commentators on Herodotus than all which he 
says of the river Danube ; nor anything easier, under 
the preparation of the preceding article. The Danube, ) 
or, in the nomenclature of Herodotus, the Islros, is 
described as being in all respects «* nanaii^iov, by which 
we must understand corresponding rigorously, but 
antistrophically, (as the Greeks express it,) similar 

jangles, similar dim ensions, but in an inverse order, to. 

^the Egyptian Nile. / The Nile, in its monstrous section, 
flows from soXith to north. Consequently the Danube, 
by the rule of parallelism, ought to flow through a. 
corresponding section from north to south. But, say 
the commentators, it does not. Now, verbally they 
might seem wrong; but substantially, as regards the 
justification of Herodotus, they are right Our business, 
however, is not tojustify Herodotus, but to explain him. 
Undoubtedly there is a point about one hundred and 
fifty miles east of Vienna, where the Danube descends 

148 

almost due south for a space of three hundred miles ; 
and this is a very memorable reach of the river; for 
somewhere within that long corridor of land which lies 
between itself, (this Danube section,) and a direct 
parallel section equally long, of the Hungarian river 
Theiss, once lay, in the fifth century, the royal city or 
encampment of Attila. 

151 

This construction it was of the 
Danube's course which subsequently, upon his hearing 
of a corresponding western limb for the Nile, led him 
to perceive the completion of that analogy between 
the two rivers, its absolute perfection, which already 
he had partially suspected. Their very figurations 
now appeared to reflect and repeat each other in 
solemn mimicry, as previously he had discov ered the 
mimical c orrespondence of their functions ; { for this 
latter doctrine had been revealed to him by the Egyp 
tian priests, then the chief depositaries of Egyptian 
learning. They had informed him, and evidently had 
persuaded him, that already more than once the sun 
had gone round to the region of Europe ; pursuing 
his diurnal arch as far to the north of Greece as now 
he did to the south ; and carrying in his equipage all 
the changes of every kind which were required to 
make Scythia an Egypt, and consequently to make 



I the Istroa a Nile. J The same annual swelling then 
filled the channel of the Danube, which at present 
gladdens the Nile. The same luxuriance of vegeta- 
tion succeeded as a dowry to the gay summer-land of 
Trans-Euxine and Para-Danubian Europe,. which for 



115 



thousands of years had seemed the peculiar heirloom 

of Egypt. 

154 

HI. — On the Africa of Herodotus. 

159 

Here there is no real difficulty; for the arguments 
of Herodotus arc of two separate classes, and both too 
strong to leave any doubt that his private opinion never 
varied by a hair's breadth on this question. And it 
was a question far from verbal, of which any man 
may convince himself by reflecting on the disputes, at 
different periods, with regard to Maccdon (both Mace- 
donis the original germ, and Macedonia the expanded 
kingdom) as a claimant of co-membership in the house- 
hold of Greece ; or on the disputes, more angry if less 
scornful, between Carthage and Cyrene as to the true 
limits between the daughter of Tyre and the daughter 
of Greece. The very color of the soil in Egypt — 
the rich black loam, precipitated by the creative river 
— already symbolized to Herodotus the deep repulsion 
lying between Egypt on the one side, and Libya, where 
all was red ; between Egypt on the one side, and Asia, 
where all was calcined into white sand. And, as to 
the name, does not the reader catch us still using the 
word 'Africa' instead of Libya, after all our sparring 
against that word as scarcely known by possibility to 
Herodotus ? 



(But, beyond this controversy as to the true marches 
or frontier lines of the two great continents in com- 
mon — Asia and Africa — there was another and a 
more grave one as to the size, shape and limitations 
of Africa in particular. It is true that hoth Europe 
and Asia were imperfectly defined for Herodotus. 
But he fancied otherwise ; for them he could trace a 
l vague, rambling outline. Not so for Africa, unless a 

160 



great event in Egyptian records were adopted for 
true. This was the voyage of circumnavigation ac- 
complished under the orders of Pharaoh Necho. Dis- 
allowing this earliest recorded Periphis, then no man 
could say of Africa whether it were a large island or 
a bou ndless continent having no o utline traceable - by 
man, for (which, doubtless, would have been the 
favorite creed) whether it were not a technical akle 
such as Asia Minor; that is, not a peninsula like the 
Peloponnesus, or the tongues of land near Mount 
Athos — because in that case the idea required a 
narrow neck or isthmus at the point of junction with 
the adjacent continent — but a square, tabular plate 
of ground, ' a block of ground ' (as the Americans 
say) having three sides washed by some sea, but a 
fourth side absolutely untouched by any sea whatever. 
On this word akle, as a term but recently drawn out 
of obscurity, we shall say a word or two further on ; 
at present we proceed with the great African Pcriplus. 
We, like the rest of this world, held this to be a pure 
fable, so long as we had never anxiously studied the 
ancient geography, and consequently had never medi- 
tated on the circumstances of this story under the 



light of that geography, or of the current astronomy. 
But we have since greatly changed our opinion. And, 
though it would not have shaken that opinion to find 
Rennell dissenting, undoubtedly it much strengthened 
our opinion to find so cautious a judge concurring. 
Perhaps the very strongest argument in favor of the 
voyage, if we speak of any single argument, is that 
which Rennell insists on — namclyjthe sole circum-l 



, stance reported by the voyage rs w hich Herodotu s | 
161 



pronounced incredible, the assertion that in one part; 
of it they had the sun on the right hand. ^ And as we 



have always found young students at a loss for the 
meaning of that expression, since naturally it struck 
them that a man might bring the sun at any place 
on either hand, or on neither, we will stop for one 
moment to explain, for the use of such readers and 
ladies, that, as in military descriptions, you are always 
presumed to look down the current of a river, so that 
the 'right' bank of the Rhine, for instance, is always 
to a soldier the Gorman bank, the 'left' always the 
French bank, in contempt of the traveller's position ; 
so, in speaking of the sun, you are presumed to place 
your back to the east, and to accompany him on his 
daily route. In that position, it will be impossible for 
a man in our latitudes to bring the sun on his right 
shoulder, sirice the sun never even rises to be verti- 
cally over his head. 

174 



-JBut the questions are endless which grow out of 
Herodotus. Pliny's Natural History has been usually 
thought the greatest treasure-house of ancient learning. 
But we hold that Herodotus furnishes by much the 
largest basis for vast commentaries revealing the 
archaeologies of the human race : whilst, as the eldest 
of prose writers, he justifies his majestic station as a 
brotherly assessor on the same throne with Homer, j 




114 





J I / 



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JlL c) 



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£ 



Or a DISCOURSE of 




H :H"F 



AND THE 



PROPAGATION of TIMBER 

In His M A J E S T I E S Dominions: v 

As it was Deliver'd in the %Q XAL S0C1ETJ the xv th of OElobef, 
MDCLXII. upon occafion of certain <$u<znes propounded to that llhftri- 
ous Jjfentbly, by the Honourable the Principal Officers, and Commiffioners of the Navy. 



T E 



5 







(philofophkal EJfay 'o£'EA%TH, being a Letiure in Courie*. 

- To which is annexed 

A- 

OR, AN 

'Jppendix concerning Fruit-Trees in relation to CIDE^ j 
The Makings and feveral ways of Ordering it. 

PublifhedbyexprefsOr^rofthe ROYAL SOCIETY. 

ALSO • 

KALEHDARIVM HORTENSE; 

OR, THE 

GARD'NEKS ALMANAC; 

Directing what he is to do Monthly throughout the Tear.. 

All which feveral Trentifes are in this THIRD EDITION much Itilarged, and Improved. 

BY 

70HN EfffpTJ^EJE^ Fellow of the: (^OT^L SOCIETY. 

■ ■■■-■ ■ - * * ■ ■ ■ i i '■ -^ ^- ■ ■ - ■ ■ — — ■ — ***•" " * * ■- —- — — ■ . i — ■,..., 

Tibi res antique laudit & art is 

Ingrcdior, pantos aufut recludmfonteii. Virg. 

_ - ■ ■ i ' i ■ i ■ ■ ■ i ' i 

LO N.DON, 

Printed for John i^lartyn, Printet to the Royal Society, and are to £>e fold at 
ih^Bet/mSt Paul's Churchward* MpCLXXIX. 



115 



A 




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Gfth( 



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sylva; 

Chap. Pag. 

Introduction .... 

i 0//A<? .S07/ 4»^ Seed. 6 

2 Of the Seminary. 9 

3 Of the Oa!{. 1$ 

4 0//£e £/*/. 30 

5 0/*/je £ecd>. 37 

6 of the Ajl). 40 

7 0//£e Chefs-nut. 44 

8 O/f/je Wall-nut. 47 

9 O/V/je Mulbery. 52 

10 Of the Service, arid Blac^ 
Cherry-tree. 58 j 

11 0/7 /jc jZ/<2/>/<\ 60' 

12 Of the Sycamore. 65 

13 0/"//6e Horn-beam. ibid. 

14 0/fZ>e Lime tree. 65 

15 Of the Quick:beam. ' 6'd 

16 Of the Birch. ibid. 

17 Of the Ha fe I. 76 

18 Of the Poplar, A fp en and A- 
bele. 78 

19 O/^e jf/dfor. 8i 
OO Of the Withy, Sallow, O^ier, 

and Willow. 83 

2 1 Of Fences, ghiic^-fetsfccgi 

22 Of the Fir, Pine, Pinafler, 
Pitch-tree, Sec. 102 

23 Of the Larch, Platanus> Lo- 
tus, Cor mis, &C. 1 16 

24 Of the Cyprcfs-tree, and Ce- 
dar. 119 

25 Of the Cork_, ilex, Alater- 
nns, Phillyrea,Granad, Lett- 



Chap. Pag. 

///<:, O/i^e, Myrtil, Jafmine, 
Sec. 126 

26 Of the Acacia, Arbutus , 
Bays, Box, Eugh, Holly, Ju- 
niper, and Laurel-trees. 130 

27 Of the Infirmities of Trees. 

140 

28 OfCopp'ces. 146 

29 Of Pruning. 150 

30 0/ J^e ^ge, Stature, and 
Felling of Trees. I 57 

3 1 OfTimber,the Seafoning and 
Vfes, and of Fuel. 1 97 

32 Aphorifms, or certain general 
Precepts, 0/w/e f# the forego- 
ing Chapters. 223 

33 Of the Laws and Statutes for 
the Prefervation ^//^Improve- 
ment of Woods, Sec. 226 

34 The Paranefis and Conclufion^ 
Containing fome encourage- 
ments and Propofals for the 
Planting, and Improvement 
of his Majeflies Forejis, and 
other Amenities for fljade 
and Ornament. 234 

35 An Hiflorical account of the 
Sacrcdnefs, and uje of flan d- 
ing Groves. 252 



Rapini Nemus. 



276 



T E R R A, . or a Philofophical 
Dijcourfe of Earth. 287 

POMONA. 

Chap. Pa S' 

The Preface 339 

1 Of the Seminary. ■ 345 



2 Of Stock/. 34 8 

3 Of Grafs and In fit ions. 349 

4 Of Variety and Improvements. 

351 

5 Of the Place and Order. 358 

6 Of Tranfplanting and Di- 
flance. 359 

7 Of Fencing. 3^° 

8 Of Pruning and the ufe of 
Fruit-trees. 3° 2 

CIDER. 

General Advertifements con- 
cerning Cider by Dr. Beale. 

367 

Sir Paul NeMe's Difcourfe of Ci- 
der. 377 

Obfervations concerning the ma- 
king and Preferving of Cider ; 
by John Newburgh, Efo 390 

Concerning Cider, by Dr. Smith. 

396 

Of Cider, by Capt. Taylor. 397 

An Account of Terry and Cider 

imparted by Daniel Coll wall 

Efp 4 CI 

For making of 'Cider tf«* 0/ il/r. 

Cook. ; 403 

Another Account of Cider, &c 

404 

Another by Sir T. Hanmer. 405 

KALENDARIUM 
HORTENSE. 



Introduction. 
January. 
February. 
March, 
April. 
May. 
June. 
July. 
Augnft. 
September. 
OClober. 
November. 
December. 



p. 5. 

8,9 
10, 11 
12,13 
14,15 

16, 17 
18, 19 

20,21 

22, 23 
24, 25 

26,27 

28, 29 
30,3l' 



The Catalogue ^/Plants, &c. to 

befet into the Conferve, or 

other wife defended in Winter. 

3 2 ,33- 



116 

Chap. III. A Difcourfe of Fore ft- Trees. 29 

which minds mc of a certain Oal{ found buried Ibmcwherc 
in Tranfhania? near the Salt-pits? that was intirely converted in- 
to an hard fait, when they came to examine it by cutting. This 
experiment (if true) may pofTibly encourage feme other attempts, 
for the multiplying of Salt. Of the Galls is made the ground and 
bafts of Inkj and fevcral Die/, especially (adder colours, and area 
great revenue to thofe who have quantities of them. The verv 
Mofdu the Oak_? ■ viz. that which is whit*? commies the choice! 1 : 
Cyprefi-poxcder? which is efteemed good for the head: but Impo- 
fiors familiarly vend other Moffes under that name, as they do the 
Fa»^zforthe true Agaric? to the great fcandal oi?hy(lck. Youn^ 
red Oaken. leaves decoded in' wine? make an excellent gargle for a 
fore mouth 5 and al moft every part of this Tree is ic-vcraign agamft 
Fluxes in general. [The dew that impearls the leaves in Mayl inio-') 
flatcd, meteori zes and fends up a liquor? which is of admirable effect) 
\ m Ruptures : f hud. a water dritilTd From the Acorn's is good again.: 
the -Phthijtckfi Stitch in the fide, and Iicl.1l inwarc. 'Vlcers? breaks 
the Stone, and refrigerates inflammaylj—, being applied with Lin- 
nen dip'd therein \ nay, the Acorns themfelves ea:en fading, kill 
the worms, provoke urine, and (TorneaffirmJ break even the Stone 
kfelf. The Coals of Oak, beaten and mingled with honey? cures 
the Carbuncle 5 to fay nothing of the Fij1'us\ Folypods? and o- 
ther Excrescences, of which innumerable Remedies are compofed, 
noble Antidotes? Syrups? &c. Nay, 'tis reported, that the very 
fljade of this tree is fo wholefbme, that theJ2eepijg t or lying under 
it becomes a prefent remedy to Paralyticus; and recovers thole 
whom the miftaken malign influence of the Wah-:at-tree has iivritten : 
nay I read in one Vaults a Vkyfcian of Denmark? That an hand- 
ful or two of imall Oal^ buttons, mingled with Oats? given to'Hor- 
fes which are blac\ of colour? v/iil in few days eating alter it toi 
fine Dapple-grey, which he attributes to the Vitriol abounding in 
this 'Tree. 

Chap. VI A Difcourfe of Fort ft- Trees. 43 

But the JJjade of the .4/6 is not to be endur'd, be- 
caufeit produces a noxious InfeU 3 and icr difpi.::. in; themfelves 
lb very late? and falling very early., net ;:•;. be »; anted for £>»> 
^r^e, or Ornament ■> efpecially near the Garde?:, llnce ("beiides 
their predatitious Roots ) the deciduous leaves dropping with Co 
long a Stalky? are drawn by clufters into the Worm holes, which 
foul the Allies with their falling Keys? and fuddenly infec": the 
ground. Note? that the Seafon for /eZ 7 ^ of this Tree muft be 
when the Sap is fully at reft } for if you cat it down too early, or 
over late in the year, it will be fo obnoxious to the yZorm? as great- 
ly to prejudice the timber 5 therefore to be fure, fell not till the 
three Mid-winter Months, beginning about Njvimbcr : But in 



117 

Lopping of Pollards ("as of foft Woods J Mr. ^^adviicsit (hould 
be towards the spring , and that you do not differ the JL^pj- to 
grow too great : Alfo, that fb foon as a Vollard comes to be con- 
siderably hollow at the head, you fuddainly cut it dzwr^ the body 
decaying more than the head is worth: the fame he pronounces of 
taller Ajbes, and where the Wo od-p sellers make holes ( wh o con- 
ffomtly indicate their being faulty ) to fell it in the V/intcr. { 1 an? 
f altonilh'd at trie umverlal Confidence or aii our Botanifts, that a 
Serpent will rather creep into the Fire, than over a twigof Ajh$ 
this is an old Impofiure of P linys, who either took it up upon 
truft, or we miftake the Tree. J 

Chap. XVII. A Difcouirji of Forcft-Trees. 77 

5. The life of the Hafel is for Poles ; ^^r/ , Hoops, Forks ^An- 
gling-rods, Faggots, Cudgels, Coals-) and Spriugcj :o catch Z>7W/ 5 
and it makes one of the bed: Coals, once use for Gnu-powder, 
being very fine and Light, till they found ^/Jer to be more fit; 
There is no Wood which purines Wine ibon er , than the Chios of 
Hafel .-( Alto tor With' s ana 'Bands, upon whicQ, 1 remember ?/i- 
ly thinks it a pretty speculation, that a Wood {hould be ftronger [ 
to bind wi thal, being bruis'd and divided, than when s?/We and 
^ entire 3 j fl he C^a/j are us d by Painters, to draw with liKe thole 
ot Sallow ; laftly, for Riding Switches,, and Divinatory Rods 
for the detecting, and finding-out of Minerals 3 at lead, if that 
Tradition be no impofture. But the moll fignal Honour it was e- 
ver employ 'd in, and which might defervedly exalt this humble, 
and common Plant above all the Trees of the Wood, is that of Hur- 
dles 3 not for that it is generally us g for the Folding of our Inno- 
cent sheepi an Emblem of the Churchy but for making the Walls 
of one of the firft Chriftian Oratories m the World 5 and particu- 
larly in this Jjland, that venerable, and Sacred Fabrick at Glafieu- 
biiry, founded byS.Jofeph of Arimathea, which is ftoried to have 
been firft compos'dbut of a few fmall Hafel-Rods Interwoven about 
certain stakes driven into the ground 3 and Walls of this kind, 
in Head of Laths and Pnnchions, fupsrinducd with a courfe Mor- 
tarmzde of loam and fir aw, does to this day, inclofe divers hum- 
ble Cottages, sheads and Out-houfes in the Countrey, and 'tis 
-«ong, and lafting for fuch purpofes, whole, or cleft, and I have 
leer* ample enclolures of; Courts, and Gardens (6 fecur'd. 

8<5 A Difcourfe of Foreft-TreeS. • Chap. XX. 

16. To ccnclude.there is a way otGrajfing a Sallow trunchion 3 
take it of two foot and half long, as big as your wrifl 3 Graff at 
both ends a Figure, and M-'i berry Cyon of a foot long, and Co, 
without claying, fet the Stocky ft) far into the ground, as the Plant 
may be three, or four inches above the Earth : This (fome affirm) 
will thrive exceedingly the/Tr/? year, and in three, be fit to tranf- 



118 

plant. Trie ler.'.on icr this Curio'ity is February. (of the Sallow 
1 is made the shco-makers carving or Cutting-board? 2& bed to 
Ifervethe edge of their knives, for its equal fbftnefs every wayj 

17. QrJcr:, or the Aquatic Salix, are ot innumerable kinds, 
commonly diftinguifh'd from Sallows,as Sallows are from Withies 5 
being (b much (mailer than the Sallows, and (horter livd, and re- 
quiring more conftant moifiure, yet would be Planted in rather a 
dryiflj ground, than over moifi and fpewing, which we frequently 
cut Trenches to avert : It likewife yields more-limber, and flexible 
twigs for Baskets, Flaskets, Hampers, Cages^ Lattices, Cradles^ 
theBodies of Coaches, and Wagons, For which 'tis of excellent ufe, 
light, durable, and neat, as it may be wrought and cover'd : For 
Chairs, Hurdles, Stays, Bands, &c. likewife for Filh Wairs, and 
to fupportthe Banks of impetuous Rivers : In fine, for all Wicker, 

and Twiggie w?rks : 

Viminibus Salices — 

90 Every- .Are at eleven, or twelve years growth, may yield you 

near an hundred Load of Wood : Cut them in the Spring for dref- 
^ n g, but in the Fall for Timber and Fuel : I have been infonnd, 
?.t a Gentleman in £/7ex, has lopp'd nolejs than 2000 icon -., all 
:.. r his own planting. . (Tt is far the (weetelt ot all our Engliflj FueD 
rcvided it be found and drv r and emitting little Smoak* is the 3 
itteft for Ladies Chambers 3 f ind all thole Woods, and Twiggs 
would be cut either to Plant, Work, with, or jffy/r* in the drye r t 
time of the day. 

27. There is a fort of Willow of a (lender, and long Lea£ refem- 
bling the (mailer Ozier 5 but rifing to a Tree as big as the Sailor^ 
full of knot s, and of a very brittle Jpray, only here rehears' & to ac- 
knowledge the variety. 

28. There is. likewife the Garden-willow , which produces a 
fweet,- and beautiful flower, fit to be admitted into our Hortnlan 
ornament?, and r>.ay '?~ fetfbr partitions of [quarts 5 but they have 
no affinity with other. 

91 JV/ej are alfo made of cleft Willow , Dorfers, Fruit-baskets, 

Canns, Hives for Bees, Trenchers, Trays, and for polifthing and 
whetting Table-Knives, the Butler will find it above any Wood 
or Whct-ftone ; alfo for Coals and Bavin^ nat lorgett-incr t-hp f^fa' 



Roughs, which of all the Trees in nature, yield the mod , chad, 
and cooled shade in the hotted feafbn of the day 5 and this Um- 
brage fo wholefome, that Phyficians prefcribe it to FeaveriJJj per- 
fons, permitting them to bepl ac'd even about their Beds, as a fafe 

jand comfortable refrigerium. f The wood being prefcrv'd dry, win 
dure a very, longtime^ but that which is found wholly putrifi'd, 
andredue'd to a loamy earth in the hollow trunks of Superannuated 
Trees, is, of all other, the fitted to be mingl'd with fine mould, for 
the railing our choiced Flowers, fuch as Anemonies, Ranunculus's, 



119 

Auriculas, and the like. 

What would we more ? low Broom, .and Sallow wild, Qnid majorafequor ? Salices, UmiUfqui gtnifa, 
Or feed che Flock or Shepherds fhade, or Field Aul ill* pecorl frondem, aut paribus umbra* 

Hedges about, or do us Hony yield. Sufjicimt, fepemqne fatls, &fabdi mtlli. 

Georg. 2. 

Chap. XXL A Difcottrfe of Fore/h Trees. 93 

4. The Hei-thorne, (Oxyacantha vulgaris) and indeed the ve- Quick- 
rybefi: ofcommon hedges, is either rais'd o£ Seeds m Plants 5 but f e f S . 
then it muft not be with defpair, becaufe fometimes you do not fee 
them peep the fir ft year 5 for the Haw, and many other Seeds, be- 
ing invefted with a very hard Integument, will now and then fuf- 
fer imprisonment two whole years under the earth 3 and our impa- 
tience at this, does often fruftrate the refurr'e&ion of divers feeds 
of this nature 5 fb as we frequently dig up, and difturb the beds 
where they have been fown, in defpair, before they have gone 
their full time 3 which is alfo the reafon of a very popular miftake 
inoth gr Seeds .•( Especially, that of the Holly, concerning which' 



there goes a tradition 3 that they will "not fprout till they be pafs'd 
through the Maw of a Thruf 3 whence the faying, Turdus cxitium 
fuiwi cacat ^alluding to the Vifcus made thereof not the Mifleto 
ot Oak. J out this is an err our, as I am able to teftiiie on experience ^ 
they come up very well ot the Berries, treated as ( have iiievv'd in' 
Chap. 16. and with patience^ for (as I affirm'd) they will Jleep 
fometimes two entire years in their Graves 3 as will alio the feeds 
o? Tew,- Sloes , Fhillyrea anguftifolia, and fundry 'others, whofe 
fells are very hard about the fmall kernels 3 but which is wonder- 
fully facilitated, by being (as we dire&ed) prepar'd in beds, and 
Magazines of Earth, or Sand for a competent time, and then 
committed to the ground before the full in March, by which fea- 
foh they will be chitting, and fpeedily take Root : 



108 A Difcourfe of Foreft- Trees. Chap. XXII. 

13. That all thefe, efpecially the Fir, and Pine, will profper 
well with, us, is more than probable, becaufe it is a kind of Demon- 
ftration^ that they did heretofore grow plentifully in Cumberland., 
Che fire, Stafford, and Lane afire, if the multitudes of thefe Trees 
to this day found intire, and buried under the Earth, though fup- 
pos'd'tohave been o 'rethrown, and cover dfo ever fince the uni- 
vcrkl Deluge, be indeed of this Species : The Learned Dr. Mer- 
rett, in his Pinax, fpeaks of feveral places of this Nation, where 
fubterraneous-Trees are found 3 as namely, in Cornwal, ad finer,* 
terra , in agris flints 3 in Penbrokj-Jhire towards the fhore, 
where they fo abound, ut totum littus (fays the Dodtor) tanquam 
Sylva cadua applet 3 

For 'tis obferv'd, that thefe Trees are no 
where found fb frequently, as in Boggie places 3 but that the burn- 
ing of thefe Trees fo very bright, fhould be an Argument they 



120 

Were Fir, is not neceilary, lince the Bituminous quality of. fuch 
Earthy may have imparted it to them, and Cambden denies them to 
bejfr-trecs, fuggefting the guerie. Whether there may not pof- 
filtU grow Trees even under the Ground, as well as other things 1 
There arc in Cumberland, on the Sea-lhore, Trees (ometimes dif- 
covcr'd'at Low-water, and at ether times that lye buried in the 
Sand--) and in other Moffie places of that County, 'tis reported, the 
People frequently dig up the Bodies of vaft Trees without Boughs, 
and that by direction of the Dew alone in Summer 3 for theyj 



109 



110 



tbferve it never lyes upon that part., under which thofe Trees dre^ 
interna, f Thefe particulars! had noted by the ingenious Authour 
or the Britannia Baconic-a. How vaft a Forefi, and what goodly 
Trees were once 'Handing in Holland, and thofe Low-countries, 
till about the Tear 860, that an Hurricane obftrudting the mouth 
of the Rhine near Catwic, made that horrid devaluation, good 
Authors mention -> and they to this day find monftrous bodies, 
and branches, (nay with the very Nuts, moft intire) of proftrate, 
and buried Trees, in the Veene, especially towards the South, and 
at the bottom of the Waters : 

15. For the many, and alrr.cft univerfal ufe of thefe Trees, both 
Sea and Land will plead, 



The vkivWin for Ships- 



-imt utile Lignum 



Nz'jigus Finos — - 



Georg. 




Hence Papinius 6. Th eh aid. -calls it audax abiss. They make our 
bed: Ma tt* Sheathing Scaffolds-poles, <&c. heretofore the wh 
Ve ffel : [ It is pretty Qlaith Pliny) to con fid er, that thoje Trees wh 
are fo much fought after for Shipping, Jhould moft delight in the 



highefi of Mountains, as ifitf^d-r of/j_ihe Sea on purpofe and ivere 
afraid to de fiend into the Waters. J With Fir we likewile make all 
zntejtine works, as Wainjcot, Floors, Vales, Balkj, Laths, Boxes, 
Bellies for all Mufical Injlrumcnis in general, nay the Ribs, and] 
Sides of that enormous Stratagem, the fc famous Trojan Horfe, 
may be thought to be built cf this Material^ and if the Poet mi- 
ftake not, 

The Ribs with Dial they fir. . Seftfyui intexunt Abiete coftas. Ami. 2,1 

In Holland they receive their beft Mafls out of Norway,- and 
even as far as Mofcovy, which are beft eftemec, (as confuting of 
long fibers,, without knots) but Deal-boards from the frfi^ 
and though Fir rots quickly in Salt-Water, it does not fo foon 
perim in frejl) ■> nor do they yet refufe it in Merchant- ships, espe- 
cially the upper-parts of them, becaufe of its lightnels : The true 
Pine was ever highly commended by the Antients for Naval Arcbi- 
leftnre, as not fo eafily decaying 5 and we read that Trajan cauf- 
ed Veffels to be built both of the true, and fpurious kind well 
jpitch'd, and over-laid with lead, which perhaps might hint our 



115 



114 



121 

-■■ '* ' I _ 'I 

/i 6. But now whiles I am recking the Vfjs o: thefe beneficial 

Trees, Mr. Winthorp prefents the Royal Society with the Procefs of 
making the Tar, and , Pitch in New-England, which we thus abbre- 
viate. Tar is made out of that fort of ' Pine-tree, from which natu- 
rally Turpentine extilleth 5 and which at its firft flowing out, is 
liquid and clear 5 but being hardned by the Air, either on the 
Tree, or where-ever it falls, is not much unlike the Burgundy 
Pitch ••> and we call them Pitch-pines out of which this gummy 
fubftance tranmdes : They grow upon the moft barren plains, on 
Rock? alfo, and Hills riling amongft thofe Plains, where feveral 
are found blown down, that have lain Co many Ages, as that the 
whole Bodies, Branches, and Roots of the Trees being perifhed, 
fbme certain knots only of the Boughs have been left remaining 
intire (thefe ktiots are that part where the bough is joyn'd to the 
body of the Tree) lying at the fame diftance and pofture, as they 
grew upon the Tree for its whole length. The Bodies of fome 
of thefe Trees are not corrupted through age, but quite confurn d, 
and redue'd to afhes, by the annual burnings of the Indians^ 
when they fet their grounds on fire 5 which yet has, it feems, no 
power over thefe hard knot s^ beyond a black fee rching 5 although 
being laid on heaps, they are apt enough to burn. It is of thefe 
kjiots they make their Tar in New-England, and the Country adja- 
cent, whiles they are well impregnated with that 1 .binthine, and 
^Ufinous matter, whHi like a Balfom, preferves them fb long from 
p ;it refaction. The reft of the Tree does indeed contain the like Te- 
rclinthine Sap, as appears (upon any flight incifion of bark, on 
the ftem, or boughs) by a fmall -cryftalline pearl which will fweat 
out j bur this, fo* being more watery, and urtdigefted by reafbn 
of the porofity of the Wood, which expofes it to the impreflions 
of the Air and Wet, renders the Tree more obnoxious 5 efpecial- 
I)-, if it lie proftrate with the bark, on, which is a receptacle fo^ 
ascertain Inter cutaneous Worm, that accelerates its jecay. The 



*are the knots then alone, which the Tat -makers amais in heaps, car- 
rying them in Carts to fome convenient place not far off, where 
finding C lay, or Loam fit for their turn, they lay an Hearth offuch 
ordinary ftone as they have at hand : This, they build to fuch an 
height from the level of the ground, that a Veffel may ftand a little 
lower than the Hearth, to receive the Tar as it runs out : But firfr, 
the Heart i is made wide, according to the quantity of knots to be 
fet at once, and that with a very fmooth floor otcUy, yetfomewhat 
defending, or dripping from the extream parts to the middle, and 
thence towards one of the fides, where a gullet is left for the Tar 
to runout at. The Hearth thus finilh'd, they pile the knots one 
upon another, after the very fame marine as our Colliers do their 
wood for Char-coal '-, and of a height pro x . ortionable to the breadth 
of the Hearth -, and then cover them over with a coat ofloam, or 
day (which is beft^or in defed of thofe, with the beft, and moft 
tenacious Earth the place will afford 5 leaving only a fmall fpira- 



122 



LARCH 



cle at the top, whereat to put the fire in j and making fbms little 
holes round about at feveral heights, for the admiffion of fo much 
air, as is requisite to keep it burning, and to regulate the fire, by 
opening, and flopping them at pleafure. The procefi is almoft the 
fame with that of making Char-coal, as will appear in due place 5 
for, when it is well on fire-, that middle hole is a'lfo ftopp'd, and 
the reft of the Regifters fo govern'd, as the knots may keep burn- 
ing, and not be fufFoca icd with too much fmoa 4 5 whiles all being 
now through-heated, the Tar runs down to the Hearth, together 
with fbme of the more watry Say-., which hading from all parts to- 
wards the niiddle, is convey'd by the fore-mention d gutter, into 
the Barrel, or Vejfel placed to receive it : Thus, the whole Art of 
Tar-making is no other, than a kind of rude diftillation per defcen- 
fum, and might therefore be as well done in Furnaces of large ca- 
pacity, were it worth the expence. When the Tar is now ail melt- 
ed out, and run, they ftop up ail the vents very clofe 5 and after- 
wards find the /{nots made into excellent char-coal, preferrdby the 
Smiths before any other whatsoever, which is made of wood 5 and 
nothing foapt to burn out when their blafi cczCcth 5, neither do they 
fparkje in the fire, as many other forts of Coal do. 3 fo as, in defect 
of Sea-coal, they make choice of this, as bed for their me, and 
give greater price s for it. Of tnefe knots likewife do the Planters 
fplit out (malljlwerj, about the thicknefs of one's finger, or lcme- 
what thinner, which ferve them to bum in dead of 'Candles 5 gi- 
ving a very good light. This they call Candle-wood, and it is in 
much life both in New-England, Virginia, and amongft the Butch 
planters in their Villages 5 but for that it is fomcthing ofFenfive, by 
1 rcafon of the much fuliginous fmoa 4 which comes from it, they com- 
monly burn it in the chimney-corner, upon a flat ft one or Iron , ex- 
cept* occafionally, they carry a (ingle (lick, in their hand, as ther e 
is need of light to go about the houfe 



Chap. XXM. A Difcourfe of Foreft- Trees. 1*7 

Tiberius wefindbuiltr that famous Bridge to hisA7a«- 
machia. with this wood, and it feems to excel for Beams Doors^ 
Windows, and Mafis of Ships, refifts the worm^ being driven in- 
to the ground, it is almoft petrified, and will fupport an incredible 
Weight 5 which (and for its property of long refe&ing/re) makes 
Vitruvius wifh, they had greater plenty of it at Rome to make 
Goijis of, where the Forum of Augnftus was (it feems) built of 
it, and divers Bridgesby Tiberius 3 for that being attempted with 
Fire, it is long in taking hold, growing only black w ithout. From 
this Tree it is, thatmeful Drug Agaric is gathered 3 f and the tim- 1 
1 ber or it is lo exceedingly tranfparant, that Cabanes made of the 
thin boards, when in the dark night, they have lighted candles, I 
people, who are at a diftance without doors, would imagine the' 
whole room to be on fire, which is pretty odd, considering there/ 
is no material fo unapt to kindle. J The Larix bears policing ex- 



118 



123 

cellently well, and the 'Turners abroad much defire it : Vitruvins 
fays 'tis fo ponderous, that it will fink in the water. That which 
now grows fbme where about Chelmsford in Ejfex, arriv'd to 2 
flourifhing, and ample Tree , does furhciently reproach our negli- 
gence, and want of indufiry, as well as the incomparable, andfrk- 

dy: : __ 

-427 Plat anus, that fo beautiful, and precious Tree, fo doated GnXplatdnuti 
by Xerxes, that JElian and other Authors tell us he made A«/f, and I 
ftop'd his prodigious Army o£ /event een hundred thousand Soul- J 
diers, which even cover'd the Sea, exhaufted Rivers, and thruO: 
Mount Athos from the Continent, to admire the pulchritude, and 
procerity of one of thefe goodly Trees, and became Co fond of it, 
that (polling both himfclf, his Concubines; and great Perfbns of all 
their Jewels, he cover'd it with Gold, Gemms, Nic places, Scarfs' 
and Bracelets, and infinite riches , In fum, wasfoeatiztordoSit^ 
that for fbme days, neither the concernment of his grand Expedi- 
tion, nor intereft of honour, nor the necenary motion of his porJ J 
tentous Army, could perfwade him from it : Ke ftyi'd it his Mi-- 
ftris, his Minion, his Goddefs 5 and when he was fbrc'd to part 
from it, he caus'dthe figure of it to befi:ampt:n a MedkiiQi'GoM$ 
which he continually wore about him; Whereever' they 1 bulk their* 
fumptuous, and magnificent Colleger for the exereiie of Youth in'. 
Gymnajlics, as Riding, Shooting. Wrefiliug, K:mnfotg£%^($&$ 
to our French Academies*) and where the' graver Philofopheri filler 
met to converfe together, and improve their studies, betwixt tha' 
Xifta, and Subdiales ambulations (which' were Porticos opento' 
thoair} they planted Groves, and Waller of vidians^ .to refrefa, 
and made the PaUJlrita vasyou- have therii defcrib'd hyVitmvi:/si 
Uik^.capi ii. and as Claudius Perrduli has z'Kii:cbd"theTex? 9 '\ 
'with a Figure, or Ichnographical plot. Thefe 2*r«« t]ie y Romans-J 
firft brought out of the Levant, and cultivated with fo much in- 
duftry andcoft, for its ftately and proud head only 3 that great Macrob.s* 
Qrators> and States-men, Cicero, w& Hortenftus would exchange \ Urnal ' * 



nowand then a turn at the tf^r, that they might have the pleafiire 
■to ftep to their Villas, and refrefti their Plata ns, which they would 
L often irrigate with Wine inftcad of Water ;/ and lo priz'd the ve-^ 
iy Jbadow or it., that when afterwards they tranfplanted them into 
France, they exacted a Tribute of any of the Natives, who mould, 
prefume but to put his head under it. p//'/y tells us there is no 
Tree whatfoever which fo well defends us from the heat of the Sun 
in Summer 3 nor that admits it more kindly in Winter.; And for 
our encouragement, I do upon experience allure you, that they 
will flouriih, and abide with us, without any more trouble than 
frequent, and plentiful Watering, which from their youth, they 
exceffively delight in, and gratefully acknowledge by their growth 
accordingly, fo as I am perfwaded, that with very ordinary Indu- 
ftry, they might be propagated to the incredible Ornament of the 
Wal^s, and Aavenues to Great-mens houfes. 



; 



124 

isp ADifcaurfe of Foreft-Trees. Chap. XXIV. 

at work for the Materials of one only Temple and a Palace, 'tis a 
pregnant Example what Time, and Negleft will bring to rui ne^ if 
due, and continual care be n ot ta ken to propagate Timber. J we 
leealmolt the whole tract ot Apennines, itnp d of the P/»eJr and 
sFzW (which formerly as Vitruvius teftifies L. 2. C. ic. covered 
thofe Mountains') to that degree, as to render nc&only the CvTj 
of Florence, but .Kfl/^e herfelf fo expos'd to the nipping tramon- 
ane Winds ( as they call the North ) that almoft nothing which is 
fare, and curious, will grow without art and kyemation--, fo as ever) 
in mod of thofe parts of Italy flanker 'd by thofe hiUs,(pxA cover'd 
as now they perpetually are with Snow") they are fain to houfe 
^ their Orange , and other tender Trees as we do here in England.) ' 

4. Nor is it any wonder it we find the whole Species of lome 
Trees fo totally loft in a Couvtrcy, as if there had never been any 
fuch planted in it 5 Be this therefore applied to Fir, Pine.and many 
others with us 5 Jince it was fblong ere Rome was acquainted with 
them, or indeed with any of the Vitc A-bearers we have mention'd. 

5. We had out firft Myrtils out of Greece, and Cyprefs from 
Crete, which was yet a meer ftranger in Italy, as? liny reports, and 
moft difficult to be railed 5 which made Cato to write more con- 
cerning the culture of it, than of any other Tree : Notwithstand- 
ing we have in thhCountry of ours, no lefsthan three forts, 

aco ADifconrfc tfTqreft- Trees. Chap. XXX!. 

9. Fo.- pilules, that Timber is efteernd the beft, which is the 
moft ponderous, and which lying long, makes deepeft imprejfion in 
the Earth, or in the Water being floated 5 alfo what is without 
kjt'ois, yet firm, and free from fap 5 which is that fatty, -whiter, and 
fofter part, call'd by the Antients Alburnum, which you are dili- 
gently to hew away } here we have much ado about the Torulus of 
the Fir, and the <$>?voLcohs ju/xA©. by both Vitruvius and Theo- 
phraftut, which I pais over. You (hall perceive fome which has a 
fpiral convolution of the veins 5 but it is a vice proceeding from 
the Severity of unfeafonable Winters, and defect of good nutri- 

ment^^, , 

__io. My Lord $acon Exp. 658. recommends for tryal ofa found 
or knotty piece of Timber, to caufe one to fpeak at one of the Ex- 
ir earns to his Companion liftning at the other 3 for if it. be knotty, 
the found (fays he) will come abrupt./ . "" ~ 

: 1 1. Moreover, it is expedient that you know which is the Grain, 
and which are the Veins in Timber (whence the term fluviari ar- 
bor cm) becaufe of the difficulty of working againft it: Thofe there- 
fore are counted the veins which grow largcft, and are fofter for the 
benefit of Cleaving, and Hewing 3 that the Grain or Pc&iues 
which runs in waves, and makes the divers and beautiful chamfers 
which fome woods abound in to admiration. 



228 



229 



125 

Chap. XXXIII. A Dilconrh of Foreft-Trees. 2 *7 

Nay, the Wife 
Solon prefcribed Ordinances for the very difiances of Trees } as the 
divine Plato did againft dealing of fruit, and violating of Planta- 
tions : And the interdiction dc Glande legenda runs thus in Vlpi- 
an, AIT PR&TOR, GLANDEM, gVM EX ILL1VS AGRO IN 
TWMCADIT, gVO MINVS ILLI TERTIO gVOgVE DIE 
LEGERE AVFERRE LICE AT, VIM FIERI VETO. And yet, 
though by the Prat or s permiffion he might come every third day 
to gather it up without Trefpaf?, his Neighbour was to (hare of the 
Map which lb fell into his Ground j and this Chapter is well fup- 
plied by Pliny. I.. i.S.C. 5. and Cajus upon the Place, interprets 
Glancfens to fignifie not the Acorns of the Ou^. alone, but all forts 
of fruit whatfoever, /. 136. F. de Verb. Signif. L. Vnis ff. de Glan- 
de leg as by ufage of the Greekj, amongft whom a'jcep'JW* imports 
all kind of Trees. 

Moreover, no Trees might be Planted near Pnblique Aqu£-dntfs t 
left the R o ots (hould infinuate into, and difplace the Stones .-[ Nor! 
'on the very margent of Navigable Rivers, left the Boats and o-J 
thcr Vejfets paffing to and fro, fhould be hindred, and therefore] 
fuch impediments were call'd Ret£, quia Naves retinent, fays the! 
Glofs $ and becauie the falling of the leaves corrupted the Water* 
So nor within fuch a diftance of High-ways (which alio our own ' 
Laws pro hibit') that they might dry the better, and lefs cumber thej 
XTraveUer. ( Trees that obftrufted the Foundation oFHoufeswevcto 
be fell'd 5 Barthol. L. 1. do3. c. de Interdict. Vlp. in L. priore f±. 
de Arborum c&dend. Trees fpreadine their Roots in neighbour- 
ground, to be in common 5 



^_JTo thefel might add the Laws of our King Ina 5 or as the Learn- 
ed Lambert calls them, Apycuovofiia de prijeis Anglorum legibus, 
whofe Title is, Bepupubapnece.* of Burning Trees: The SanSion 
runs thus. 

If any one fet fire of a fell'd Wood, he pall bepuniped, and be- 
tides pay three pounds, and for thofe who clandefiinely cut Wood 
(of which the very found of the Axe Jbatt be fuffichnt Conviction) 
for every Tree he pall be muWed thirty fliillings. A Tree Co fell'd 
under whofe shado w thirty Hoggs can fiand, pall be multfed at 

Ithree pounds, <&c.) 
_J6. I have heard, that in the great Expedition of 28, it wasex- 

jprefly enjoin d the spaniflj Commanders of that fignal Armada -■> 



that if when landed they (could not be able to fubdue our NatTonfS 
and make good their Conqucfi^ they (hou ld yet be fare not toj 
leave a Tree ftandinp; in the For eft of Dean .f it was like the Policy 
of the Philiftines, when the poor Uraelites^ went down to their 
Enemies Smiths to fharpen every man his Tools 5 for as they faid, 
left the Hebrews make them Swords, or Spears } fo thefe, left the 
Englifi) build them Ships, and Men of War : 



126 

230 (In fome parts ot Germany, where a' iingle Tree is obierv'd to bt 

'extraordinary fertile, a conftant, "and plentiful M 'a ft- bearer ^ there 
are Laws to prohibit their fc'Uing without fpecial leave: And it 
was well EnaBed amongft us, that even the Owners of woods 
within C hafes, fhould not cut down.the Timber without view o f J 
Officer^) this - Ati being in affirmance ot the Commo?* Law, an( 



not to be violated without Prcfcription ; See the excited by my 
Lord Cool^'m his Comment on Littleton. Tenure Bur gage. L. 2. Setf. 
170. Or if not within Chafes, yet where a Common-perfon had li- 
berty of Chafe, &c. and this would be of much benefit, had the 
Regarders perform'd their duty, as 'tis at large defcribed in the Writ 

.of the 12 Articles -■>, and that the Surcharge of the Forejls had 
been hon eftly infpected with the due Perambulations, and ancient 
Melesxffhus (hould the Jujiices of Eire difpole of no Woods 

/without , exprefs Commiffion , and in convenient places: Minnti 

[ blaterones quercuum, cult, & cv.rbi, as our Law terms wind-falls, 
dotterels, fcrags, <&c. and no others. 

10. Care is likewife by our 'Laws to betaken that nounnecef- 
hrylmbt&ilment be made by pretences of Repair o£Paling,Lodges, 
Browfe for Deer. <&c.Wind- falls, Root-falls 5 dead, and Sear-trees, 
all which is fubjedt to. the InfpecYion of the Warders, Jujiices, &c. 
and even trefpafles done de Viridi on boughs of Trees, Thickets, 
and the like 5 which ( as has been (hew'd) are very great impedi- 
ments to their growth and profperity, and fhould be duly looked 
after, and punilh'd 3 and the great negled of Swain mote-Courts re- 
formed, &c.SeQConfvet. & AJfif.ForejL Tannagium, or Pafiura 

Ypecorum & de Clandibus, Fleta, &c. Manwoo ds Foreji-lawes : 

\cook_ pla. fol. 166. li. 8. fol. I 38, ] : 
"~ 11. Finally, that the exorbitance, and increafe of devouring 
Iron-mills were looked into, as to their diflance, and number near 
the Seas, or Navigable Rivers 5 And^what if fome of them were 
even removd into another world? 'twere better to purchafe all 
our Iron out of America, than thus to exhau ft o ur woods at home. 
although ( I doubt not ) they might be io order "d, as to be rather 
a means of conferving them. There was a Statute made by Queen 
Eliz. to prohibite the converting of Timber-trees to Coal, or 
other Fuel for the ufe of Iron-mills 3 if the Tree were of one foot 
fquare , and growing within fourteen Miles of the Sea, or the 
greater Fdvers, &c 

Chap. XXXIV. A bifcourfi of Foreft-Trees. *$< 



Ta 



.We find in Ariftotles Politics,x\\t Conftitution otExtra^u?- 

n Magiflrates tobe Sylvarum Cujiodes 3 and fuch were tjie Con- 

\fularcs Sylv<e, which the great C<efar himfelf ( even in a time when 

jjand - 



De collegiis Fi- 
broriim>Centona- 
riornw,&Dcn' 
drophororum, 
I taly did abound in Timber) Inftituted ;/ and was one ot the very Nivicularior. 

hrlfc things which he did, at the fet ling 61 that vaft Empire, after r t ^ lu l tx f"f-~ 

the Civil Wars had exceedingly wafted the Country: Suetonius mimm, 



127 

iunma 



273 



relates it in the Life of Julius 5 and Peter Crimius 111 nis fifth f lu 
Book De honefta difciplina, c. 3. gives this reafon for it, Vt mate- UonesaS 
ries (faith he) non deejfet^ qua videlicet Navigia publico, poftent a i-ipfium inlib. 
frafetfttris jabruw, cpnftci : True it is, that this Office was fome- fij^J?* 
times call'd Prcvincia minora but for the moft part, annex'd, and minfmm, bux- 
ioyn'd to fbme of the greateft Confuls themfelves; that facetious '" tfW ; c »™ n \ 

s* r r 1 *. i • • i_ • • „ f • ~ - - fium,Lugdunenf. 

farcajme or the Comsedian (where Plautus names it Provmcta Ararkorum & 
caudicaria) referring only to fome under Officer ; fubfervient to the Rbodanicor. eo- 
bther : And fuch a Charge is at this day extant amongft the noble ^ToikgTor'm 
Venetians, who have near Triviji ( befides what they nourifh in patronk aetata- 
other places) a goodly Foreft o?Oakj, preferv'd as a Jewel, for the r f^ s 'J' di '" 
only ufe of the Arfcnal, call'd the Montello, which is in length Kubium 1. 1." 
twelve Miles, large five, and near twenty miles in compafs ; care- MJl. Ravennat. 
fully fiipervifed by a certain Officer, whom they name 7/ Capitate 3 drophorU iTi.- 
and we might Inftancem many other prudent States-^ not to in> Theodof.i. 1. 
portune you with the exprefs Laws which Ancus Mariius the*^ '*:*'?#'? 
Nephew of Numa, and other Princes long before C£far, did ordain to .• A^/or. 
for this very purpofe, fince indeed, the care of fo publick, and orb. Maris, u 
honourable an Enterprise as is jhis of Planting, and Improving of l ' c ' 24 ' 
Woods, is a right; #0/>/e, and Royal undertakings as that of the 
Foreft of Z>C4», e^- in particular (wore it bravely manag'd ) an 
Imperial defign --> and I do pronounce it more worthy' of a Prince, 
who truly confults his glory in the highefl later eft of his Subjedts^ 
than that of gaining Battels, or fiibduing a Province :~ 

27a. ADifcourfe of Foreft-Trees. Chap. XXXV. 

18. But left this be charg'd with Superftition, becaufe the In- 
fiances are Be at hen : It was a more noble and remarkable, as well 
as recent Example, when at the Siege of Breda, the late Famous 
General spinola Commanded his Army not to violate a Tree of a 
certain Wood belonging to the Prince of Orange there, though 
a reputed Tray tor, and in open defiance with his Mafter. In fum, 
We read that when Mithridates but deliberated about the cutting 
down of fome ftately Trees which grew near Patara, a City of 
Lycia , though neceflitated to it for the building of Warlike 
Engines with them, being terrifi'd in a Vifiotu he defifted from his 
purpofe. But this, in tcrro- 

rem only, and for Caution to Poftcrity , whiles we leave the 
Guilty, and" thofe who have done the Mifchiefs, to their proper 
Scorpions, and to their Erijicht honian-fate, or that of the inexora- 
ble Panebius, the vengeance of the Dryads, and to their' Tutelar 
better Genius, if any yet rem ain, who love the folid Honour and 
Ornament of their' Country .-{For what could I fay lefs, 'Tto'yjns J 

and* Wood-born as I am, in behalf of thofe Sacred Shades, which * A 
both grace our Habitations^ and protect our Nation <? surrey : For 

.... . ' . .'. ■ fo in silages 

from Treis have been denominated whole Countries, Regions, Cities slid Towns; as CyparLfu in Greece 
drafts in Pdntus, Laurentum in Italy, Myrrhinis in Attica. Ports, ivioiintains and eminent Places •' as the I 



128 



Viminalis, otfcuktum, &c. The reafon is obvious, from d ie fpontaneoas growth and abounding of fuch; 
Trees in die refpeaive Soyles. J ————__—_ ° . —' 



274 



ifijl. S3 . 



20. But whilft we condemn this Exft?/ in them 5 chriftians,zn& 
true Philofophers may be inffru&ed to make «/e of thefe Enjoy- 
ments to.better purpofes, by contemplating the Miracles^ th eir 
Production and ftruaurejJ And what Mortal is there fo peHeeT ™ 



.^- ...... _., _„., - .._,._. , . » an 

^ 4tomijt, who will undertake to deted the thoufandth part, or 
point of fo exile a G><m» 5 as that infenfible rudiment, or rather 
halituous fpirit, which brings forth the lofty Fir-tree, and the 
iprcading Oa& That Trees of fo enormous an height and mag- 
nitude, as we find fomeE/^j-, Planes, and Cyprefes. 5 fome hard as 
//•<?*, and folid as Marble (for fuch the Indies furnifh many) 
foould be lwadl'd, and involv'd within fo fmall adimenfion (if a 



1 

is) 



jptfi#* may be (aid to have any) without- the lealt luxation, confu- 
fion or diforder of Parts, and in fo weak and feeble a fubftance ; 
being at flrft but a kind of tender mucilage, or rather rottennefi 
which fo ealily diffolves and corrupts Subftances fo much harder, 
when they are buried in the moift Womb of the Earth, whilft this 
tender, and flexible as it is, (hall be able in time to difplace and 
rent in fonder whole Rock/ of ftones, and fometimes to cleave 
them beyond "the force of Iron Wedges, fo as even to remove 
Mountains .<? For thus no Weights are obferv'd able to fopprefs 
the victorious Palm } And thus, our Tree (like Man whole inver- 
ted Symbol he is) being fown in corruption, rifes in glory by little 
snd little afcending into an hard erec"fc Stem of comely dimensions, 
into a folid Tower as it were 5 and that which but lately a (ingle 
Ant would ealily have born to his little Cavern, now capable ofj 
refilling the fury, and braving the Rage of the moft impetuous 
ftorms,( Magni mehercle artipcis, claujljfe tot urn in tarn exi^uo 
^to Ule Seneca % expreffion) & horror eft conjideranti. 

2 1. Cpntemplate we again, What it is which begins this mo- 
tion or flame, caufing it firft to radiate in the Earth, and then to 
difplay its Top in the Air, fo different Poles (as I may call them) 
in fuch different Mediums. How it elects, and then intro-fumes its 
proper food, and gives Sue 4, as it were, to its yet tender Infant, 
till it have ftrength and force to prey on, and digeft the more folid 
Juices of the Earth j for then, and not 'till then, do the Roots be- 
gin to harden : Confider how it ajpmilates, feparates, and dijlri- 
butes thefe leveral fupplies 3 how it concoUs, tranfmutes, aug- 
ments, produces and nourifljes wkhout feparation of Excrements 
(at leaft to us vilible) and generates its like, without violation of 
Virginity ; By what exquifite percolations, and fermentations it 
proceeds, for the Hear*, Fibers, Veins, Rind, Branches, Leaves, 
Blojfoms, Fruity for the ftrength, Colour, Taft^ Odour and o- 
ther ftupendious Qualities, and diftinct Faculties, fome of them 
fo repugnant and contrary to others ,. yet in fo uniform, and fac- 
cefiive a Series, and all this Derform'd in the dark, and thofe le- 



129 

cret RecefTes of Nature. guid Foliorum defcribam diver fit at es .<? 
What (hall we fay of the Myfterious forms, variety, and variega- 
tion of the Leaves and Flowers, contriv'd with (uch Art, yet with- 
out Art 5 fome round, others long, Oval, Multangular, indented, 
crifped, rough, fmooth and policed, foft and flexible at every 
tremulous blaft, as if it would drop in a moment., and vetfb obfri- 
nately ac^ring, fas to be able to conteli: againlt the fiercelt Winds^, 
"that prostrate mighty Structures, railing Hurrocanes, the violence! 
whereof whole Fleets and Countries do often feel; yet I fay, con- 
tinually making War, and fometimes joyning Forces with fteeming 
fnowers, againft the poor Lea fijged on by a (lender ftalkf there 
it abides 'till God bids it fall : / For lo the mfe Dijpofer or Things 
has plac't it, not only tor Ornament, but ufe and proteSion both 
of Body 2nd Fruit, from the exceffive beat of Summer, and colds 
even of the fharpefi: Winters, and their immediate impreflions , 

275 22. Let us again examine with what care the Seeds, thofe little 

Souls of Plants, Quorum exilitas (as one fays) vix locum inveniat 
(in which the whole, and compleat Tree, though invifible to our 
dull fenfe, is yet perfectly and intirely wrapped up) arepreferv'd 
from avolation, diminution and detriment ; expose!, as they feem 
to be, to all thofe accidents of Weather, fiorms and rapacious BTirds, 
in 'their fpiny,arm'd and compacted Receptacles 3 where they fleep 
as in their Caufcs, 'till their Prifons let them gently fall into the 
embraces of the Earth, now made pregnant with the Seafon, and 
ready for another Burthen : For at the time of Tear (he fails not to 
bring them forth j and with what delight have I beheld this ten- 
der, and innumerable OiT-fpring repullulating at the Feet of an a- 
ged Tree ! from whence the Suckers are drawn, tranfplanted and 
educated by' humane Jndufiry, and forgetting the ferity of their 
Nature, become civilized to" all his Employments. 



f 23. Can we look on the prodigious quantity of Liquor, which 

rone poor wounded Birch will produce in a few hours, and not be 

I aftonifh'd how f bme Trees fhould in fo fhort a fpace, Weep more 

L than they weigh 1 J and that fo dry, lo feeble and wretched a lr^:£ 

as that which bears the Grape, (hould yield a juice that Cheers bJih 

God and Man .<? That the Tine, Fir, Larch, and other Refmou: 

Trees, Planted in fuch rude, and uncultivated places, amongfi 

Rochj and dry Pumices, (hould tranfude into Turpentine, and pearl 

out into Gums, and pretious Balms ? 

24. There are ten Thoufand Considerations more, befides that 
of their Medicinal and Sanative properties, and the Mechanical 
TJfes mention'd in this Treatife, which a Contemplative Perfonmay . 
derive from the Groves and the Woods -, all of them the Subject of 
Wonder \ 

A Wdojophkd Difcourfe ofEARtH, &c. x %9 

_JThis. furface-Mold is the belt, and (weetelt, 



being enriched with all that the Air, Dews, Showers, and Cele- 



130 



291 

292 
300 



301 



» ■ ~ 

jftial Influences can contribute to it 
~~ excellent Water^ that's the 



' or 'tis with good Earthy as 
which with leaft difficulty 



receives all external qualities 5 for the fatnels of this Vnder-turf 
Mold, being drawn up by the kindly warmth of the Sun to the 
fuperficies, fpends but little of its vigour in the Grafs and tender 
verdure which it produces, and eafily nourifhes without diffipa- 
ting its virtue, provided no rank Weeds, or predatitious Plants 
(confumrnating their Seeds) be fufFered to grow and exhauft it j 
but maintains its natural force, and is therefore of all other uncul- 
tivated Molds the moft grateful to the Husbandman. 

_)My Lord Bacon dire&s to the observation of the Rain-Low; 

where its extremity feems to reft, as pointing to a .more rofcid and 

[fcrule_MoId ; but this, I conceive, may be very fallacious, if ha^ 



living- two horns, or bafes, which are ever oppofae. 1 

There are, I confefs, who fanlie that this long expoiure of Earth 
before it be employed for a Crop, caufes it to exhale, and fpend 
the virtue which it (hould retain? but, provided nothing be fuffer- 
ed to grow on it whilft it lies thus, rough and fallow, there's no 
danger of that; ( there being in truth, no compoit, or UtationX 
'Avharibever comparable to this continual . motion, repafiinaiio^ ) 
and turning of the Mold with the Spade-;/ the pared-oll Turn 
(which is the very fat, and efflorefcence or the Earth*) and even 
Weeds with their vegetable s alts, focollefted into heaps, and ex- 
posed, being reduced, and falling into natural, fweet, and excel- 
lent Mold. I fay, this is a marvellous advantage, and doesin great- 
er meafure fertilize the ground alone, without any other addita- 
ment : For the Earthy which was formerly dull and una&ive, or 
perhaps producing but one kind of Plant, will by this culture difc 
po(e it felf to bring forth variety, as it lies in depths, be it never fo- 
profound, cold and crud , t he nature of the Plant always follow- 
ing the genius of the So il ; [but indeed requiring time, according 
'to the depth from whenceyou fetch it, to purge and prepare it 
fclf, and render it fit for conception, evaporating the malignant 
HaliUis's and impurities of the imprifbned air,' Jaxing the parts, 
and giving eafie deliverance to its off-fpring. 

I do not difpute , whether all Plants have, their primigenial 
Seeds, and that nothing emerges (pontaneoufly, and at ad venture j 
but, that thefe would rife freely, in all places, if impediments were' 
removed (of which fomething has already been fpokenp and toy 



(hew, how pregnant moft Earths would become, were thefe' indif- 
pofitions cured, and that thbfe feminal rudiments, whereever la- 
tent, were free tomovej and exert their virtue,- by taking-off thefe 

Chains and Weights which fetter and deprefs them. P ~" "~ 

It is verily almoft a miracle to fee, how the lame Land, without 
any other Manure or Culture, will bring forth, and even luxuriate ■ 



302 



Dr. siaft. 



303 



131 

and that the bare raking and combing only of a bed of Earth, now. 
oneway, then another, as to the regions of Heaven, and polar 
Afpe&s, may diverfifie the annual production, which is zfecret 
worthy to be confidered : 

I proceed with what 1 cali more natural helps 5 name- 
ly, as we have (hewed, by openings fiirring, and ventilating the 
Earth, and fbmetimes to contrary, by coverture, ftade, reft, and 
f orbearance for a feafon, { as we daily fee it pracYileti in our worn- 3 
fout and exhaufted lay-fields, which enjoy their Sabbaths. \ 'lis cer- 
tain, that tor our Gardens ot Flealure," the iairelt beauties of the 
Parterre, require rather a fine, quick, friable, and well-wrought 
Mold, than a rank or richly dunged : and even all Fruit-Trees 
affect not to ftand upon artificial and loofe Con/pojis, but in natu- 
rally rich, and fweet mold, within the fcent and neighbour-hood 
of well-confiim'd Soil for the next layer under, and above 5 fo as 
the virtue thereof may be derived to it through a coUture of na- 
tural Earth 5 thole forcing mixtures being more proper for Annuals, 
2nd Exotic toys, which having but little time to live, refufe no 
affiftances, whilft Trees of longer durance, care not much for ac- 
celerations. 

I (hall here then begin with ar. sxpesi.,jezt I have beentaujat by 
a learned Perlbn of this illufincus Body, from whom I have long 
fince received the choiceft documents upon this and many curious 
fubjects. And firffc, That amongft the mechanical aids, (wherein 
fiercorction has no hand) that of pulverizing the Earthby con- 
tufioD, and breaking it with Plow or Spade, is of admirable effect 
to difpoie it for the reception of all the natural impregnations we 
nave been difcou rfing upon, as conftant and undenyable, I think 
will be evinced. ( For the Earth, elpecially it frelh, has a certain 
magnetism in it, by which it attracts the Salt , power, or virtue 
(call it either,) which gives it life, and is the Logic of all the la- 
bour and ftir we keep about it, to fuftain us $ all dungings and 
other fordid te mpering.-, being but the vicars fuccedaneous to this 
improvement, ( whicrr ot all other makes its return ot Fruit, or 



whatfbever elfe it bears, without imparting any of thofe ill and 
pernicious qualities,whichwefenfibly difcover from forced grounds,' 
and that not only in the Plants which they produce, "but in the 
very Animals which thev feed andnouriQi. 

For to enumerate iome ot 
its perfections 3 fuch as refufe Dung, and violent applications, have 
here pure Earth $ and fiich as require aid, a mellow and rich mold, 
impregnated with all the bleffings whiGh the Influences of the Hea- 
ven, and efflorefcence of. the Earth can contribute to it j fitted, as 
it is, for Generation, and yet fb reftrain'd from it, a$ greedily to 
receive the firft Seeds, which are commi tted to it, with a paffion, 
_and fervency as it were of animal love. ( What high- and (ufclime 



things are fpoken more upon this, I forbear to profeeute 3 but in 



8) 



132 



Sir Kenelme Digit/ s difcourfe of Sympathetic Powder^ he affirms, 
that the Earth in the years of repofe recovers its Vigor, by the 
attraction of the Vital Spirits, which it receives from the air, and 
thofe fuperiour irradiations, which endow fimple Earth with qua-~> 
ilties promoting ferment at ion.) And indeed, luch a vegetative acti^ 
vity I have often obierv'd in the bare expofure of fome Plants but 
for a few hours only, as has rais'd my admiration, particularly, in' 
the Aloe, and other kinds of Sedums,. which, when to all appear-' 
ance (hrunk, and fhrivel'd up, have rlll'd themfelves in a moment, 
fet out in the Mr, when a very few drops of water (at the fame, 
that is, Winter, time) would certainly have made it rot, and turn 
to a mucilage, as, to my coft, I have experiene'd: 

308 cnclofures or walls and 

mounds, when the land lies in the eye of the weather, and in o- 
ther cafes, meridian expofures, and the warmth of the woolly 
fleeces of sheep as well as manure, folded or paftur'd: And to this 
we may add the very gracing of Cattle, which in fome cafes has 
fucceeded better than the bed dungy -compojtj eipecially for old, 
and decay 'd Orchards, which have been obfer v'd to recover to ad- 
' caiion, when mowing has been pernicious., (for even the bitin; 



'of Cattel gives a gentle looiening to the rools of the herbage, and 
' makes it to grow fine and fweet, and their very breath and tread- 
ling, as well as foil, and the comfor t_of their warm bodies is whol-, 
'fom, and marvelloufly cherifhing : ( But this is to be underltood of 
places where the Items are ot tuil growth, and where the bead: can- 
not reach to crop. 






CHAP. I. 

Of the Seminary. 

Whofbever expefts from the kernel of a rich or peculiar Apple or 
Tear to raife Fruit of the f ame kind, is likely to find many obdru- 
clionsand difappointments:(For the Wilding, (Crab or Tear) Po-1 



24? 



thus Sylvejtris^ being at the bed the natural product of the founded 
kernel in the firmed land, and therefore the gull: of the Fruit more 
ftronglyaudere, fierce, andfharp, and alfb the Fruit lefs and more 
woody 5 and the pleafanur or plumper and larger Apple being the 
efFeft of fome inteneration, which inclines to a kind of rebatement 
of the natural drcngth of the Tree ^ the bed choice of kernels for J 
stockj indefinitely, (and on which we_ may graff what we pleafe) / 
fhould be from the founded Wilding.) For, 

A k? rn el taken trom any graff ca~ Apple, as Pepin,Pear-main, 8cc. 
does mod naturally propend to the wildnefs of the Stock, on which 



133 



382 



383 



394 



395 



'twas inferted, as being the natural mother of the ferzs!, which is 
the very heart of the Apple -, and alfo from a more deep :. -d fecret 
Rea fon, to be hereafter unfolc vL 



>7Q 



Concerning Cider. 



28. The time of drawing Cider into Bottles is bed in March, 
it being then clarified by the Winter, and free from tne heat of the 

Sun. 

f2~9Tln drawing, the befi is ueareft the heart o r middle of the Vef) 
(el, as the Tel/i in the EgR.K : ~~ 

go. Kcd-Jtrakcs are oi divers kinds, but the name is in Here- 
fordflme appropriated to one kind, which is fair and large, of a 
high purple colour, the fmeli Aromatical 

JNow, for knowing when it is fit to Bottle, I know no" certain] 
'Rule that can be given, but to bro ach the Veffel with a fmall Piercer, \ 
and in that hole fit ape?, and now and then (two or three timesin a 
day) draw a little, and fee what finenefs it is of 3 for when it is bot-i 
tied it mud not be perfectly fine 3 for if it be fo, it will not fret in j 



'the bottle, which gives it a fine quicknefs , and will make i? 
mantle and fparkle in the ghifi, when you pour it out : And if it 
be too thick when it is bottled, then, when it hath flood fome time 
in the bottles it will ferment Co much that it may poffibly either 
drive out the Corks, or break the bottles, or at leaft be of that fort 
(which fome call Potgnn-drinkJ) that when you open the bottles it 
Will fly about the houfe , and be lb windy and cutting that it will be 

Jnconvcnient to drink :J For the right temper oi 'Bottle-cider is., that-' 
it mantle a little and Jparkje when it is put out into the glafs-, but if 
it froth and fly, it was bottled too foon : 



the rate which we let upon life-honey (that which in like] 
Irops freely out of the Combs*) above that which renders not J 
(elf without compreffion. f 'In Jerfey they value it a Crown upon 
"an Hogshead dearer than the other : (This I take from the 
Relation of one of my Neighbours, who fometimes lived in that 
Ijland, which for > App les and Cider is one of the moll: famous of 
all belonging to his Majefiies Dominions) 

. Deans-Apple, and the Peleafantinei think, may be mention'd in 
the third place} neither of which need the Addition of other 
Apples to fet off the Relifh, as do the reft of our choiceft Fruits. 
Tepins } fearmains, and Gi l liflours comm ixt, are (aid to make the 
beft Ci der in the world, f in Jerfey 'tis a general oblervation, asl] 
r hear, Tnat the more of red any Apple hath in its rind, the more 
proper it is for this ufe. Pale face t- Apples they exclude as much . 
as may be from their Cider-Vat, f 



134 




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OBSERVATIONS 



on nii: coasts or 



HAMPSHIRE, SUSSEX, AND KENT, 



RELATIVE CHIEFLY TO 



PICTURESQUE BEAUTY: 



MADE IN THE SUMMER OF THE YEAR l?7k 



By WILLIAM GILPIN, M.A. 

PREBENDARY OF SALISBURY, 
AND VICAI1 OF UOLDI1E NEAR LYMINCTO 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR T. CADELI, AND W. DAVIES, IN THE STRAND. 
1804. 



139 



( 2 ) 

smoothness to roughness, and transparency 
to opacity. It accommodates itself also, with 
the same ease, to every form of country by 
the various shapes which its flexibility as- 
sumes. On the plain it rolls majestically 
along, in the form of a deep-winding river. 
In a mountainous country it becomes some- 
times a lake, sometimes a furious torrent 
broken among shelves and rocks ; or it pre- 
cipitates itself in some headlong cascade. 
Again, when it goes to sea, it sometimes 
covers half a hemisphere with moltcnglass ; 
or it rolls about in awful swells: and when 
it approaches the shore it breaks gently into 
curling waves, or dashes itself into foam 
against opposing promontories. 

Water, therefore, is one of the grand ac- 
companiments of landscape. So essential is 
it in adorning a view, that some of the most 
pleasing compositions fall under one or other 
of these three heads, river scenery — lake 



scenery — or sea-coast views. — The characteris- 
tics of these several modes are often blended ; 
but in their simple forms, the first partakes 
most of beauty — the second introduces gran- 
deur, on which the third almost entirely 
depends. 

( 3 ) 

The river view, unless indeed the river be 
very grand, or the country sublime, may be 
merely a- scene of rural pleasure. Flocks and 
herds may pasture on its banks, with shep- 
herds and herdsmen. 

The lake scene, in which wilder ideas pre- 
dominate, rejects these trivial appendages, or 
changes them for such as are more suited to its 
dignity. Flocks and herds are by no means 
unnatural appendages even of such a scene ; 
but banditti, gypsies, soldiers, or other wild 
characters, are more accommodated to it. 

In coast scenery, which is the chief subject 
of the following work, if its character be 
preserved distinct, the ideas of grandeur rise 
very high. Winding bays — views of the 
ocean — promontories — rocks of every kind 
and form — estuaries — mouths of rivers — 
islands — shooting peninsulas — extensive sand- 
banks ; and all these adorned occasionally 
with castles — light-houses — distant towns — 
lowers — harbours — all the furniture of navi- 
gation, and other incidental circumstances 
which belong to sea-coasts, form a rich col- 
le ction of grand and picture sque materials. 

To. al 
the coast 



all these circumstances of grandeur in) 
oast view (to which the lake has little) 



( 4 ) 



pretension) we may add those vast masses of 
light and shade which the ocean exhibits ; 
and which often spreading many leagues 
unbroken and undisturbed, yet gradually 
fading away, give instances of grandeur which 
no land illumination can reach. To this we 
may add the brilliant hues, which are con- 
tinually playing on the surface of a epiiet 
ocean. Beautiful, no doubt, in a high degree 
are those glimmering tints which often invest 
the tops of mountains: but they arc mere 
confiscations compared with these marine 
colours, which are continually varying and \ 
shifting into each other in all the vivid J 



140 



■» — — ■ ■ "X 

splendour of the rainbow, through the s pace] 
j)ften of several leagues.) 



To these grand ideas, which accompany 
the stilhiess of the ocean, we may add the 
sublimity of storms. A raging sea, no doubt, 
breaks the uniformity of light and colour ; and 
destroys, of course, that grandeur in the ocean 
which arises from the continuation of the same 
idea. But it substitutes another species of 
grandeur in its room. It substitutes immense 
masses of water, rising in some parts to an 
awful height, and sinking in others into 
dark abysses ; rolling in vast volumes clash- 

( 5 ) 

ing with each other; then breaking and 
flashing light in every direction. AW this 
is among the grandest exhibitions that water 
presents. 

Now every circumstance of grandeur which 
generally accompanies a sea-coast view may 



be found, I should suppose, in one part or 
other of the shores of Britain. Its bays, 
rocks, and promontories are particularly pic- 
turesque. More magnificent they may be in 
Norway and other northern regions. But 
magnificence, when carried into disproportion, 
is carried too far for picturesque use. The 
human eye is capable only of comparing 
objects within a given circumference. It 
may indeed bring the largest within the 
sphere of vision by removing them to a 
proper distance. But this must necessarily 
diminish their grandeur. 

On the whole, therefore, the coasts of this 
island, perhaps, especially its northern parts, 
are equal to any other in that species of 
grandeur which is most suited to picturesque 
use. 1 have heard indeed that the coasts of 
the Mediterranean, of the Egean, and other 
seas, which are less buffetted by raging storms 
than ours, have more beauty. And this may 







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( « ) 

The village of Nuncham, through which uie 
road pafles, was built by Lord Harcourt for his 
cottagers; and with that regularity, which per- 
haps gives the moft convenience to the dwell- 
ings of men. For this we readily relinquifh 



141 



nz 



the picturefque idea, j Indeed I queftion, whe- 
ther it were poffible for a fingle hand to build a 
picturefque village. Nothing contributes more 
to it, than the various ftyles in building, which 
refult from the different ideas' of different peo- 
ple. When all thefe little habitations happen 
to unite harmonioufly ; and to be connected with 
the proper appendages of a village — a winding 
road — a number of fpreading trees — a rivulet 
with a bridge — and a fpire, to bring the whole 
to an apex' j — the village is compleat. j 



Nuneham-houfe ftands a little out of the 
London road, about fix miles from Oxford. 
The old family-feat of Stanton- Harcourt, where 
Pope, and Gay led the mufes, is now a deferted 
nun. it's fituation was vile, compared with 

( "3 ) 

fliat of the prefent houfe; which commands, 
from a rifing ground, an extenfive profpedt over 
all the intervening flat, as far as the towers of 
Oxford. In another direction it overlooks the 
windings of the Thames towards Abingdon. 
Thefe grand views, terminated by the Berk- 
shire hills, and other rifing grounds, compofe 
the diftance ; and are prefented from different 
places around the houfe; particularly from a 
terrace^ which extends at leaft a mile. The 
accompaniment alfo of noble trees on the fore- 
ground fets off the diftant fcenery to great ad- 
vantage. 

One of the moft ftriking. features in theie 
fcenes, is the parifh-church, which was de- 
signed by Mr. Stuart in the form of a Grecian 
temple of the Ionic order. 

( 29 .) . 

About half a mile beyond this arch is reared a 
triumphal column ; which, tho much criticized, 
I own, gives me no offence; but rather feems 
to carry on the idea of grandeur. (The top is 



crowned with the ftatue of the duke of Marl- 
borough ; and the pedeftal is inferibed — not 
indeed with the terfnefs of a Roman altar — but 
with the lefs claffical, tho more honourable de- 
tail of an act of parliament ; granting the manor 
of W oodftock to th e duke for his eminent fer- 
ivices^r 

All this fcenery before the caftle, is now 
new-modelled by the ingenious Mr. Brown, 
who has given a ipecimen of his art, in a no- 
bler ftyle,i than he has commonly difplayed. 
His works are generally pleafing ; but here they 
are great. 

About a mile below the houfe, he has thrown 
acrofs the valley, a maffy head; which forms 
the rivulet into a noble lake, divided by the 
bridge, (which now appears properly with all 
the grandeur of accompaniments) intotwover 
extenfive pieces of water, jf Brown himfelf ufed 



to fay, " the Thames would never forf 
.*' what he had done at Blenheim."/ 



we 



( 40 ) 
The garden confifts only of a few acres; 
and is laid out by Brown in a clofe walk, 
which winds towards the river; and, fome- 
what awkwardly, reverts into itfelf; taking 
no notice, except in one fingle point, of the 

n oble pile it inverts. 

>The armour, and tilting fpear of the cele- 
brated Guy, earl of Warwick, a rib of the dun 
cow, and other monuments of the prowefs of 
that hero, are fhewn at the porter's lodge. 
Thefe remains, (tho fictitious, no doubt), are 
not improper appendages of the place ; and give 
the imagination a kind of tinge, which throws 
an agreeable, romantic colour on all the veftiges 
of this venerable pile. ( 

Since thefe remarks were made, Warwick- 
caftle hath received great improvement. The 
whole houfe hath undergone a thorough re- 
pair ; and hath been intirely new-furnifhed, in 
a ftyle fuitable to the magnificence of the place. 
But it's richeft furniture is a choice collection 
of portraits by Rubens, and Vandyke. 

The ancient baronial caftle was a fort of 
infulated, independent ftate. Compleat in it- 
felf, it fcorned any connection with the coun- 
try. 



( "7 ) 



142 



The cafcade, which is the next object of 
our obfervation, may be divided into the broken, 
and the regular fall. 

The firfi belongs molt properly to the rock ; 
whofe projecting fragments, impeding the wa- 
ter, break, it into pieces — dafh it into foam— ■ 
and give it all the fpirit, and agitation, which 

that active element is capable of receiving. 

Happy is the pencil, which can feize the varie- 
ties, and brilliancy of water under this circum- 
itance. 

In "the regular fall the water meets no ob- 
ftruction ; but pours down, from the higher 
grounds to the lower, in one fplendid fheet. 

Each kind hath it's beauties ; but, in gene- 
ral, the broken fall is more adapted to a fmall 



( »8 ) 



^body of water ; and the regular to a large one 
The fmall body of water has nothing to re- 
commend it, but it's variety and buftle : where-, 
as the large body has a natural dignity of cha 
rafter, that fupports it. To fritter it in pieces 
would be to deftroy in a degree the grandeur of 
it's effect. Were the Niagara thus broken, at 
leaft if fome confiderable parts of it were not left 
broad and fheety, it might be a grand fcene of 
confufion j but it could not be that vaft, that 
uniform, and fimple object, which is mod ca- 
pable of expreffing the idea of greatnefs 



As there are few confiderable rivers in the 
romantic country, we are now examining, the 
raoft beautiful cafcades, (which are innumera- 
ble) are generally of the broken kind. The 
regular falls (of which alfo there are many) 
are objects of little value. Tho they are fome- 
tirrjes four or five hundred feet in height ; yet 
they appear only like threads of filver at a 
diftance ; and like mere fpouts at hand ; void 
both of grandeur, and variety. — And yet, in 
heavy rains, fome of them rauft be very hoble, 
if we may judge from their channels, which 
often (hew great marks of violence. — But \ 
was never fortunate enough to fee any of them 
in thefe moments of wildnefs. 

( "9 ) 
Thefe two kinds of cafcades, the broken, 



and the regular, may be combined. If the 
weight of water be fmall, it is true, it will 
admit only the broken fall: !> it if it be large, 
it may with propriety admit a combination of 
both : and thefe combinations may be multi- 
plied into each other with endh fs variety. 

The regular fall admits alfo another mode of 
variety by forming itfelf into what may be 
called the fuccejjtve fall ; in which the water, 
inftead of making one continued fhoot, falls 
through a fucceffion of different ftories. Of 
this kind are many of the mountain-cafcades 
in this country, which are often very beautiful ; 
efpecially where the ftages are deranged ; and 
the Water feeks it's way from one ftage to ano- 
ther. 

OBSERVATIONS, 

RELATIVE CHIEFLY TO 

PICTURESQUE BEAUTY, 

Made in the Year i 7 7 2, 

On feveral Parts of En gland j 

PARTICULARLY THE 

MOUNTAINS, and LAKES 

O F 

CUMBERLAND, and WESTMORELAND. 



SECOND EDITION. 

VOL. II. 
By WILLIAM GILPIN, M. A. 

PREBENDARY OF SALISBURY } 

AND 

YICAR OF BOLDRE, IN NEW-FOREST, NEAR LYMINCTON. 

LONDON; 

PRINTED FOR R. BLAMIRE, STRAND, 
M.DCC.LXXXVIII, 



( «) 

The vale of Lorton is of the extended 
kind, running a confiderable way between 
mountains, which range at about a mile's 
diftance. They are near enough to fcreen 
it from the ftorm ; and yet not fo impending 
as to exclude the fun. Their fides, tho not 
fmooth, are not much . diverfified. A few 
knolls and hollows juft give a little variety 
to the broad lights and fhades, which over- 
fpread them. 

This vale, which enjoys a rich foil, is 
in general a rural, cultivated fcene ■, tho in 
many parts the ground is beautifully broken, 
and abrupt. A bright ftream, which might 
almoit take the name of a river, pours along 
a rocky channel ; and fparkles down numbcr- 
lefs little cafcades. It's banks are adorned 
with wood ; and varied with different objects ; 
a bridge ; a mill ; a hamlet ; a glade over-hung 
with wood ; or fome little fweet recefs ; or 
natural vifla, through which the eye ranges, 
between irregular trees, along the windings 
of the ftream, 

Except the mountains, nothing in all this 
fcenery is great ; but every part is filled with 
thofe fweet engaging paffages of nature, which 

( 9 ) 

tend to footh the mind, and inftill tranquil- 



145 



lity. 



-The paflions to divine repofi: 



'Perfnaded yield : and love and joy alone 
Are waking: love and joy, fuch as await 
An angel's meditation — — 



{Scenes of this kind, (however plsafing) in 
which few objects occur, either of grandeur 
or peculiarity, in a Angular manner' elude 
the powers of verbal defcription. They al- 
moft elude the power of colours. The foft 
and elegant form of beauty is hard to hit : 
while the ftrong, harm featu re is a ma rk, 
which every pencil can fcrike.\ 



But, tho a peculiar difficulty attends the 
verbal defcription of thefe mild, and quiet 
haunts of Nature ; yet undoubtedly all her 
fcenery is ill-attempted in language. 

Mountains, rocks, broken ground, water, 



and wood, are the fimple materials, which 
flie employs in all her beautiful pictures : 
but the variety and harmony, with which 
flie employs them are infinite. In defcription 
thefe words ftand only for general ideas : 

{ 44 ) 

Moral, and pidiurefque ideas do not al~\ 
ways coincide. In a moral light, cultivation, 
in all it's parts, is p leafing ; the hedge, and 
the furrow ; the wi.ving corn field, and rov/s 
of ripened {heaves. But all thefe, the pictu- > 
refque eye, in quefr. of fcenes of grandeur, and 
beauty, looks at with difgufi. It ranges after I 
nature, untamed by art, a nd burfting wildly , 
(into all it's irregular forms J 



-Juvat arva videre 



Non raftris hominum, non ulli obnoxia curae. 

) It is thus alfo in the introduction of figures. 
In a moral view, the induftrious mechanic is 
a more pleafing object, than the loitering 
peafant. But in a picturefque light, it is 
otherwife. The arts of induftry are rejected; 
and even idlenefs, if I may fo fpeak, adds 
dignity to a character. Thus the lazy cow- 
herd refting on his pole ; or the peafant lol- 
ling on a rock, may be allowed in the grandefr. 
fcenes ; while the laborious mechanic, with 
Jus implements of labour, would be repulfed. 

( 45 ) 



^The fifherman, it is true, may follow his 
calling upon the lake: but he is indebted 
for this privilege, not to his art ; but to 
the picturefque apparatus of it — his boat, and 
his nets, which qualify his art.) They are the 



objects : be is but an appendage. Place him 
on the fhore, as a fingle figure, with his rod, 
and line; and his art would ruin liim. In a 
chearful glade, along a purling brook, near 
fome mill, or cottage, let him angle, if he 
pleafe: in fuch a fcene the picturefque eye 
takes no offence. But let him take care not 
to introduce the vulgarity of his employment 
in a fcene of grandeur. 

At the fame time, wc muft obferve, that 
figures, which thus take their importance 



144 



merely from not mixing with low, mechanic 
arts, arc at beft only pifturefque appendages. 
They are of a negative nature, neither adding 
to the grandeur of the idea, nor taking from 
it. They merely and fimply adorn a fcene. 



yThe characters, which are moil Jutted to 

thefe fcenes of grandeur, are fuch as imprefs 

us with fome idea of greatnefs, wildn efs, or 

[ferocity; all which touch on the fublfrne. 

( 46 ) 



Figures in long, folding draperies j gypfies ; 
banditti ; and foldiers, — not in modern regi- 
mentals ; but as Virgil paints them, 

• ■ ' longis adnixi haflis, et fcuta tcnentes ; 

are all marked with one or other of thefe 
characters : and mixing with the magnificence, 
wildnefs, or horror of the place, they pro- 
perly coalefce ; and reflecting the fame images, v 
add a deeper tinge to the character of the ) 
fcene. 



For the truth of all thefe remarks I might 
appeal to the decifive judgment of Salvator 
Rofaj who feems to have thoroughly ftudied 
propriety in figures, efpecially in fcenes of 
grandeur. His works are a model on this 
head. We have a j book of figures, particu- 
larly compofed for fcenery of this kind, and 
etched by himfelf. In this collection there 
is great variety, both in the characters, groups, 
and dreffes : but I do not remember, either 
there, or in any other of his works, a low, 
mechanic character. All his figures are either 
of (what I have called) the negative kind ; 
or marked with fome trait of greatnefs, wild- 
nefs, or ferocity. Of this lafi: fpecies his 

( 47 ) 

figures generally partook: his grand fcenes 
being inhabited chiefly by banditti. 

I met with a pafTage, not a little illuftra- 
tive of thefe remarks on figures, in the tra- 
vels of Mr. Thicknefs through Spain. 

" The worfl: fort of beggars, fays he, in 
Spain are the troops of male, and female 
gypfies. They are of the genuine breed, and 
differ widely from all other gypfies ; and I 



may fay, from all other human beings. I 
often met troops of thefe people ; and when 
an interview happens in roads very diftant 
from towns, or dwellings, it is not very plea- 
fing : for they afk, as if they knew they were 
not to be refufed ; and I dare fay often com- 
mit murders, when they can commit them 
by furprize. They are extremely fwarthy, 
with hair as black as jet ; and form very pic- 
turefque groups under the fhade of the rocks 
and trees of the Pyraenean mountains, where 
they fpend their evenings : and live fuitably 
to the climate - y where bread, and water, and 
idlenefs, are preferable to better fare, and 
hard-labour." / 20I \ 

jMarfden-moorJ j Sir Richard GrahamJ 

carried into his chamber : and 
Cromwell found his wretched lady weeping 
over the mangled corpfe of her hufband, yet 
fcarce cold. 

Such a fight, one would have imagined, 
might have given him — not indeed an emo- 
tion of pity — but at leaft a fatiety of revenge. 
The inhuman mifcrearit flill felt the. vengeance 
of his foul unfatisfied; and turning round 
to his troopers, who had ftalked after him 
into the facred receffes of forrow, he gave 
the fign of havoc j and in a few moments 
the whole houfe was torn in pieces : riot even 
the bed was fpared, on which the mangled 
body was extended : and every thing was 
defixoyed, which the hands of rapine could 
not carry off. 

n this country we met with another cu- 
rious memorial of the battle of Marfden-moor. 
A carpenter, about two years ago, bought 
fome trees, which had grown there. But 
when the timber was brought to the faw-pit, 
it was found very refractory. On examining 
it with more attention, it appeared, that great 



( 202 ) 

/numbers of leaden bullets were in the hearts 
of feveral of the trees ; which thus recorded 
the very fp ot, where the heat of the battle 
had raged.; 



145 



OBSERVATIONS 



ON THE 



11 I V E n WYE, 

AND SEVERAL PARTS OF 

SOUTH WALES, &c. 

RELATIVE CIIIEFLY TO 

PICTURESQUE BEAUTY: 
MADE IN THE SUMMER OF THE YEAR 1770. 



By WILLIAM GILPIN, M. A. 

PREBENDARY OF SALISBURY, 
AND VICAR Of BOLDRE NEAR LYMINGTON. 



THE FIFTH EDITION. 



LONDON: 

Printed by A. Strahan, Printers-Street, 

FOR T. CABELL JUNIOR AND W. DAVIE3, STRAND. 

1800. 



( 28 ) 

The picturesque eye also, in quest of 
beauty, finds it almost in every i ncident and 
jimdcr every appearance of nature. ] Even the 1 
rain gave a gloomy grandeur to many of the 
scenes ; and by throwing a veil of obscurity 
over the removed banks of the river, intro- 
duced, now and then, something like a 
pleasing distance.J Yet still it hid greater 



ocautics ; and we could not help regretting 
the loss of those broad lights and deep sha- 
dows which would have given so much 
lustre to the whole, and which ground 
like this is in a peculiar manner adapted to 
receive. 



The first part of the river from Ross, is 
tame. The banks are low ; and scarcely an 
object attracts the eye, except the ruins of 
Wilton-castle, which appear on the left, 
shrouded with a few trees. But the scene 
wants accompaniments to give it grandeur. 

The bank, however, soon began to swell 
on the right, and was richly adorned with 
wood. We admired it much ; and also the 



( 29 



vivid images reflected from the water, which 
were continually disturbed as we sailed past 
them, and thrown into tremulous con- 
fusion by the dashing of our oars. ) A' 



disturbed surface of water endeavouring to 
collect its scattered images and restore them 
to order, is among the pretty app earances of 
nature. J 

( 47 ) 

From Monm outh we reached, by a late 
breakfast-hour, [the noble ruin of Tintern - 
abbey,^ which belongs to the Duke of Beau- 
fort; and is esteemed, with its appendages, 
the most beautiful and picturesque view on 

th e river. 

(Castles and abbeys have different situations^ 
^agreeable to their respective uses. The castle, j 

( 48 .) 



meant for defence, stands boldly on the hill ; 
the abbey, intended for meditation, is hid in 
the sequestered vale. 






Ah ! happy thou, if one superior rock 
Bear on its brow the shivered fragment husre 
Of some old Norman fortress: happier far, 
Ah I then most happy, if thy vale below 
Wash, with the crystal coolness of its rills, 
Some mould'ring abbey's ivy-vested wall. 



Such is the situation of Tintern-abbey. It 
occupies a great eminence in the middle of 
a circular valley, beautifully screened m\ all 
sides by woody hills, through which the river 
winds its course ; and the hills, closing on its 
entrance and on its exit, leave no room for 
inclement blasts to enter. 



REMARKS 



ON 



jforest f^cenerp, 



AND OTHER 



WOODLAND VIEWS, 

RELATIVE CHIEFLY TO 

PICTURESQUE BEAUTY 

7 
ILLUSTRATED BY 

THE SCENES OF NEW FOREST 
IN HAMPSHIRE. 

IN THREE BOOKS; 



By WILLIAM GILPIN, A.M. 

PREBENDARY OF SALISBURY ; AND VICAR OF BOLDRE IN 
NEW-FOREST, NEAR LYMINGTON. 



• Happy he, 



Whom what rft views of beautiful, or grand, 
In nature, from the broad, majeftic oak 
To the green blade, that twinkles in the fun, 
Prompt with remembrance of a prefent God. 

Cowper's Poems. 

THE THIRD EDITION, IN TWO VOLUMES. 

VOL. I. 

r LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR T. CADELL AND W. DAVIES, STRANB. 
l8o8. 



146 



( 96 ) 

After the pine, and fir tribes, the yew 
deferves our notice. The yew is a pure native 
of Britain, and was formerly what the oak 

( 97 ) 

is now, the bafis of our ftrength. Of it the 
old Eriglifli yeoman made his long-bow ; 
which, he vaunted, nobody but an English- 
man, could bend, j ln (hooting he did not/ 
as in other nations, keep his left hand (ready, 
and dray/ his bow with his right : but keeping 
his right at reft upon the nerve, he preffed 
the whole weight of his body into the horns 
of his bow*. Hence probably arofe the Eng- 
lifli phrafe of b ending a bow ; and the French 
of dr awing one.\ 



Nor is the yew celebrated only for it's 
toughnefs, and elafticity; but alfo for it's 
durable nature. Where your paling is moft 
expofed either to winds, or fprings ; ftrengthen 
it with a poft of old yew. That hardy veteran 
fears neither ftorms above, nor damps below. 
It is a common faying among the inhabitants 
of New-foreft, that a poft of yew v/ill out- 
laft a poft of iron. 

* See Bp. Latimer's fcrmons. Scrm. VI. 
( 268 ) 

In the wane of autumn however there are other 
defects. The afh, and fome other trees, have 
deferted their ftation in the foreft : they 
have flied their leaves, and left a chcerlcfs 
blank. — — Befides, the verdure of the foreft 
is too much wafted ; and the brown, and 
yellow tints, beautiful as they are, become too 
predominant : for the prevalence of thefe hues 
in autumn, fatigues the eye no lefs than the 
prevalence of green in fummer. Only indeed 
the autumnal tints will ever be more varied. 



The intermediate time is the feafon of pic- 
turefque beauty ; when the greens, and the 
browns, and the yellows, are blended together 
by a variety of middle tints, which often create 
the moft exquifite harmony. f 



Of all the hues of autumn, thofe of the oak 
are commonly the moft harmonious. As it's 
vernal tints are more varied, than thofe of 
other trees ; fo are it's autumnal. In an 
oaken wood you fee every variety of green, 
and every variety of brown ; owing either to 
the different expofure of the tree ; it's different 
foil ; or it's different nature : but it is not my 
bufinefs to enquire into caufes. 

( 269 ) 

The hues however of the dijl ant foreft, when 
moft difcordant, are often harmonized by the 
intervening trees on the foreground. We can 
bear the glow of the diftant beech-wood, 
when it is contraffed at hand by a fpreading 
oak, whofe foliage hath yet fcarce loft it's 
fiimmer-tint — or by an elm, or an afh, whofe 
fading leaves have affumed a ycllowilh hue. 



147 



THREE ESSAYS: 



ON 



PICTURESQUE BEAUTY; 

ON 

PICTURESQUE TRAVEL; 

AND ON 

SKETCHING LANDSCAPE: 

WITH A POEM, ON 

LANDSCAPE PAINTING. 

TO THESE ARK NOW ADDED 

TWO ESSAYS, 

01V1NO AN ACCODNT OF THE PRINCIPLES AND MODE IN WHICH THE 
AUTHOR EXECUTED HIS OWN DRAWINGS, 



By WILLIAM GILPIN, A.M. 

?REBENDARY OF SALISBURY; AND VICAR OF BOLDRE IN 
NEW-FOREST, NEAR LTMINCTON, 



THIRD EDITION. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR. T. CADELL AND W. DAVIES, STRAND. 

l8o8. 



( 



no 



) 



View her varied range : 
Each form that charms is there ; yet her bed forms 
Mud be/elecled. As the fculptured charms 310 

Of the famed Venus grew, fo mud thou cull 
From various fcenes fuch parts as bed create 
One perfect whole. If Nature ne'er arrayed 
Her mod accompliflied work with grace compleat, 
Think, willdie wade on defert rocks, and dells, 315 
What die denies to Woman's charming form ? 

And now, if on review thy chalked defign, 
Brought into form by Difpofition's aid, 
Difpleafe not, trace thy lines with pencil free j 
Add lightly too that general mafs of made, 
Which fuits the form and fafliion of it's parts. 
There are who, dudious of the bed effe&s, 
Fird fketch a flight cartoon. Such previous care 



320 



Is needful, where the Artid's fancy fails 

Precifely to forefee the future whole. 325 

This done, prepare thy pallet, mix thy tints, 
And call on chade Simplicity again 
To fave her votary from whate'er of hue, 
Difcordant or abrupt, may flaunt, or glare. 

Yet here to bring materials from the mine, 330 

From vegetable dies, or animal, 
And fing their various properties and powers, 
The mufe defcends not. To mechanic rules. 
To profe, and pradice, which can only teach 
The ufe of pigments, the refigns the toil. 335 



( 



ill 



) 



34o 



345 



f One truth me gives. j that Nature's fimple loom 
Weaves but with three didinft, or mingled, hues, 
The ved that cloaths Creation. Thefe are red, 
Azure, and yellow. Pure and undained white 
(If colour judly called) rejefts her law, 
And is by her rejected. Dod thou deem 
The glofiy furface of yon heifer's coat 
A perfeft white ? Or yon vad heaving cloud 
That climbs the didant hill ? With cerufe bright 
Attempt to catch it's tint, and thou wilt fail. 
Some tinge of purple, or fome yellowifh brown, 
Mud fird be blended, e'er thy toil fucceed. 
Pure white, great Nature wifhes to expunge 
From all her works ; and only then admits, 
When with her mantle broad of fleecy fnow 
She wraps them, to fecure from chilling frod ; 
Confcious, mean while, that what fhe gives* to guard, 
Conceals their every charm : the dole of night 
Not more eclipfes : yet that fable dole 
May, by the fkilful mixture of thefe hues, 355 

Be fhadowed even to dark Cimmerian gloom. 

Draw then from thefe, as from three plenteous fprings, 
Thy brown, thy purple, crimfon, orange, green, 
Nor load thy pallet with a ufelefs tribe 
Of pigments : when commix'd with needful white, 360 
As fuits thy end, thefe native three fuffice. 
But if thou dod, dill cautious keep in view 
That harmony which thefe alone can give. 



350 



( 129 ) 



336 One 




'e gives, Sec. { From thefe three 



lours, red, blue, and ye llow, all 
of nature are compofed. \ Greens 

( 13? ) 

of various hues, are compofed of blue, 
and yellow : orange, of red, and yellow : 
purple and violet, of red, and blue. The 



148 



tints of the rainbow) fc em to be compofed 
alfo of thefe colours. J They He in order 
(thus ; violet — red — orange — yellow — green 
— blue — violet — red : in which aflbrtment 
we. obferve that orange comes between 
red, . and yellow j that is, it is compofed 
of thofe colours melting into each other. 
Green is in the fame way compofed of 
yellow and blue ; and violet T or purple of 
J>lue t and red.j — Nay even browns of all 
kinds may, in a degree, be effe&ed by a 
mixture of thefe original colours : fo may 
grey ; and even a kind of black, tho not 
a perfect one. As all pigments how- 
ever are deficient, and cannot approach 
the rainbow colours, which are the purefl 
we know, the painter mult often, even in 
his fplendid tints, call in different reds, 
blues, and yellows. Thus as vermillion, 
tho an excellent red on many occafions, 
cannot give a rofy, crimfon hue, he muft 
often call in lake, or carmine. 



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THE 



BIRDS OF LONC ISLAND. 



BY J. P. GIRAUD, Jr., 

MEIH Or THX LTCEDM OF NATURAL HISTORY, HIW-TORK, CORRlSrOSDIirO 
HEMBIR OF THE ACADEMT Or NATURAL SCIENCES, PHILADELPHIA, «C. 



NEW-YORK : 

rTTBLISTtED BY WILEY fc PUTNAM, 161 BROADWAY. 

Tobitt'i Print, 8 Sprue* tt. 

1844. 



86 

The Screech Owl is found in almost every part of the United 
States. In the Southern States it is quite rare. Mr. Audubon states 
that during a long residence in Louisiana he met with but two spe- 
cimens. With us it is very common ; it is usually found in the 
woods and orchards ; its food is chiefly mice and small birds. 

One of the few errors made by the lamented Wilson, was in de- 
scribing the young of this bird as a distinct species. Considering 
all the disadvantages under which he labored, it isr surprising that 
in his excellent work so few mistakes should have occurred. 
Had he lived to complete his laudable, and at that period (in this 
country) novel undertaking, no doubt the corrections that have fall- 
en to the task of others, would have been made with his own pen. 

Frdm the very satisfactory observations made by the distinguish- 
ed author of the Birds of America, I supposed it to be a received 
opinion among Ornithologists, that the young of the Screech Owl 
is red. In a recent publication, the author has described the bird in 
red livery as a distinct species, and has stated that the young of the 
Screech Owl is of similar color as the adult. Shortly after this pub- 
lication, I received from J. G. Bell, of Rockland County, the follow- 
ing communication : 



149 



"Deak Sir— 

M In looking over Mr. Nuttall's late edition of the Land Birds, I 
notice that he has, on the authority of Dr. Michener, repeated, in 
my opinion, the error committed by Wilson, by describing the Red 
Owl, Strix naevia of Wilson, as a distinct species, which I consider 
as the young of Strix asio. This opinion I have not hastily arrived 
at — it is the result of several years' close observation. I have taken 
the young birds from the nest soon after they were hatched, and 
found them covered with grayish down. As soon as the feathers 
begin to form, they assume a reddish appearance, the color becoming 
deeper as the bird advances in age. How long they remain in this 
plumage I cannot say, but am inclined to the opinion that in some 
instances they do not appear in full plumage until the second or third 
ear — as I have taken the female from the nest, she being in mature 
gray plumage, and at the same time I have shot the male, he being 
perched a few feet above her on the same tree, and in the red livery. 
On the first occurrence of this, I supposed the plumage of the fe- 
male to be gray, and that of the male red. Subsequently, however, 
I was obliged to abandon this position, for directly the opposite oc- 
curred ; and I have shot both male and female in either dress, and 
am well persuaded that they mate before arriving at maturity. 

J.G.Beli." 



~ft\ Yours truly , 



89 



TURDtJS WILSONII— BONA?. 



WILSON'S THRUSH. 



Tawny Thniah, Turdos muatelinas, Wila. Amer. On). 

Turdua WiUooii, Bonap. Syn. 

Merale minor, (Swainson) Little Tawnv Thrnah, Sw. & Rich. 
Wileon's Thruab, or Veery, Turdua Wileonii, Nutt. Mm. 
Tawny Thrush, Turd us Wilaonii, Aud. Ora. Biog. 

Specific Character — Adult with the entire upper parts including 
the tail feathers uniform tawny brown ; fore neck and a small por- 
tion of the breast, pale yellowish-brown, marked with spots of dark- 
er brown ; sides of the body ash ; rest of the lower part3 grayish- 
white. Length seven inches, wing four. 

This species was first described by Wilson. He states that it 
makes its appearance in Pennsylvania from the South about the be- 
ginning of May, stays a week or two, and passes on to the north- 
ern and high mountainous districts to breed. It visits us In the 
spring, and continues with us during the summer. Although not 
possessing the solitary habits of the former, it is by no means soci- 
able, being rather shy and timid. It resorts to the shady woods, 
where it passes the most of its time on the gro und, searching for in- 
sects, which form the chief jart of its food J Its note is a sharp) 
(chirrup, occasionally in a strain approaching a song, j 



TURDUS MINOR— GMEL 



HERMIT THRUSH. 

Harmit Thraah, Tarda* sotitarias, Wila. Amer. Om. 
Hermit Thruab. Turdua minor, Aud. Oro. Biog. 
Turdua minor, Bonap. Syn. 

LiuU or Hermit Thrush, Tardus minor, Nutt. Man. 
Merula eolilaria, Hermit Thruab, Sv». <Sr. Rich. 

Specific Character — Adult with the upper farts deep olive brown; 
rump, upper tail coverts and tail brownish-red ; throat, fore neck 
and fore part of the breast approaching to cream color, and marked 
with brownish-black spots, which become more faint on the lower 
part of the breast, which, with the abdomen is white ; lower tail 
coverts and sides of the rump pale buff; the sides of the body 



tinged with olive. Length seven inches, wing three and three 
quarters. 

In the Southern States the Hermit Thrush is a constant resident. 
About the middle of May it arrives on Long Island, and takes up 
its abode during the summer in the deep and shady parts of the 
woods. It is generally seen alone, hopping about on the ground, or 
among the low bushes, in search of berries, on which it feeds, or 
perched, on a low bough uttering its plaintive note. By a casual 
observer this species might be mistaken for the Wood Thrush, 
which it somewhat resembles in plumage. It can, however, be 
readily distinguished by its s maller size. The plumage is duller^ 
and it differs in its manners. J At times the Hermit Thrush is heard 



chanting a low and musical song, but it is destitute of those sweet, 
I clear an d rich tone3 which characterise the song of the Wood 
Thrush. J Its nest is usually placed on low branches, and is formed 
of grass and weeds of different kinds, with great attention to the 
neatness of the interior. The eggs, from four to five and some- 
times six in number, are pale greenish blue, spotted with olive. 

98 



Crhe Snow Bunting) inhabit3 during summer the northern reigons 
of both continents, migrating at the approach of winter to warmer 
parts. According to Montagu, "these birds appear in the north of 
Scotland in ' large flocks during winter, and some few are said to 
breed upon the highest mountains with the Ptarmigans; but in the 
south of England it is rarely seen." 

On Long Island, as in other parts of the middle districts of the 
United States, it arrives in the early part of December. It is ex- 
tremely hardy, and prefers the colder climates of both hemispheres, 
its migrations depending entirely on the supply of food, which to 
obtain it has sometimes proceeded in the U. States as far south as 
Maryland. On its first arrival it is very lean, but soon becomes fat 
from feeding on the seeds of dried rank weeds and withered grasses. 
When in good condition its flesh is much esteemed; it graces the 
table of the epicure, and by some of its admirers it is termed Orto- 
lan, but it is more generally known by the name of "White Snow 
Bird." The Snow Bunting inhabits situations similar to the Lark, 
like which it displays much activity when collecting its food, and is 
often seen running with great nimbleness. It alights on fence-rails, 
the roofs 6T the out-buildings, and if a convenient opportunity offers, 
enters the barn, and picks up the refuse seeds. It seldom alights on 
trees, but occasionally on starting a flock, it will rise and settle on 
a near tree, in the manner of the common Snow Bird. This spe- 
cies keep in flocks, and w hen migrating, fly in close bodies and at 
a considerable eleva tion. ( On Mount Saddleback, one of the highi^ 

'est peaks in the Stateof Massachusetts, Mr. Edwards — from whom) 
I have received the eggs — informed me, that in company with oth-J 

| era, he found, in the month of July, eleven nests.f They were plac- 
ed on the ground, and formed chiefly of dry grass, lined with hair . 
the eggs, four in number, are thirteen-sixteenths of an inch long' 
dull white, spotted and marked with reddish-brown, which mark- 
ings are darker and confluent at the great end. 

108 

( emberiza savanna— bqnapT ) 



(2 



SAVANNAH BUNTING 



9 



Savannah Finch Fringilla savanna, Wila. Amer. Om. 
Fringilla aavanna, Bonap. Syn. 
Savannah Sparrow, Fringilla aavanna, Nutt. Man. 
Savannah Finch, Fringilla aavanna, Aud. Oro. Biog. 

Specific Character — A yellow line from the nostril over the eye ; 
medial band the same color, but paler ; shoulders of the wings 



150 



white. Adult with the upper parts light grayish-brown, streaked 
with dusky ; upper part of the head dusky brown, with a narrow 
pale yellow band ; a line over the eye yellow ; a line of dusky 
from the bill down the sides of the neck ; a similar marking on the 
sides of the throat, which, with the fore neck, a portion of the 
breast, and sides of the body, are streaked with dusky ; rest of the 
lower parts white"; quills dark brown, the secondaries and their 
coverts broadly edged with lighter brown ; tail feathers dark brown, 
edged with dull white. Length five inches and a half, wing two 
and five-eighths. 

103 
EMBERIZA PASSERINA— WILSON. 

YELLOW-WINGED BUNTING. 

Yellow-winged Sparrow, Fringilla passerina, Wils. Amer. Orn. 

Fringilla paaaerina, Bonap. Syn. 

Yellow-winged Sparrow, Fringilla pasaerina, Aud. Orn. Biog. 

Specific Character — Bill very stout ; loral band yellow ; medial 
band dull yellowish-white ; wing at shoulder bright yellow ; tail 
emarginate, the feathers narrow and pointed. Adult with the up- 
per part of the head dusky, intermixed with grayish-white; a ring 
round the eye and a band behind the eye of the same color ; "medial 
band yellowish- white ; a band from the nostrils to the eye yellow ; 
hind neck ash gray, intermixed with dusky ; back brownish-black, 
marked with bright chestnut ; quills and tail feathers dark brown/ 
margined with dull white ; inner secondaries and their coverts 
darker and more broadly margined ; edges of the wings at flexure 
bright yellow ; sides of the neck, breast, lower tail coverts, and 
■ides of the body, pale yellowish-gray, with a few touches of dus- 
ky on the latter ; throat grayish-white. Length four inches and 

three quarters, wing two and a half. 

^_5Thi9 species can be readily distinguished from the former by the j 
difference in the coloring of the lower parts, which in this bird are 
pale yellowish-gray, those parts of the preceding being white, with 
the fore part of the breast and sides streaked with dusky, the yel- 
low line over the eye more extensive, and the ta il feathers are nar- 
rower and more pointed. [The favorite resort of the Yellow-winged 



Bunting is the grass-fields — more especially the clover — where, 
sitting on a stone or stump, it is observed sitting for hours together, 
singing cheerfully and pleasantly. It is quite a common species, 
and was first introduced to notice by Wilson. The nest, which is 
formed of loose, dry grass, and lined with hair and fibrous roots, is 
placed on the ground ; the eggs, five in number, are grayish-white, 
sprinkled with brown. 

108 

NYPHjEA HYEMALIS— LINN. 

COMMON SNOW BIRD 

Snow Bird, Fringilla nivalis, Will. Amer. On. 
Fringilla hyemaljs, Bonap. Syn. 
Fringilla byemalia. Black Finch, Sw. &. Rich. 
Common Snow Bird, Fringilla Hudaonia, Nutt. Mao. 
Snow Bird, Fringilla hyemalia, Aud. Orn. Biog. 

Specific Character — Head, neck all round, back, fore part of the 
breast and sides grayish-black ; abdomen white ; wings and tail 
feathers black, the quills margined externally with dull white ; the 
outer two tail feathers white — a spot of the same color on the third 
next to the shaft, extending an inch or more from the end of the 
inner web. Female with the plumage lighter, tinged with brown 
on the neck and head. Length six inches and a quarter, wing 
three and one-eighth. 

About the middle of October these birds appear on Long Island 
in large flocks. They resort to the open, neglected fields, and are 
observed along the roadside, feeding on the seeds of various species 



of rank, uncultivated plants. It is an exceedingly numerous 

109 
species, and in open winters they remain with us in large num- 
bers until the latter part of April. In severe weather the large 
majority retire towards the South — though during the coldest 
weather, even when the ground is covered with deep snow, the 
trees loaded with ice, and scarcely a vestige of vegetation to be 
seen, a few remain ; at such times they become quite tame, fre- 
quent the door-yard, visit the out-buildings, attend the feeding of 
the cattle for the purpose of collecting the scattered seed, and 
in addition to their scanty subsistence, approach the threshold, 
and by their piteous manner ask for charity, when they could 
join their kindred in more hospitable regions, where food is abun- 
. dant, and independently obtained. 

The Snow Bird spends much of its time on the ground ; it 
also alights on trees and fence-rails, and like the Chipping Bunting 
and other familiar species, visits the towns and villages, and is not 
■infrequent in the private gardens and public grounds of our large 
cities. When food is readily obtained, it gets quite fat, and is shot 
and caught in traps of various kinds, and sent to market. It meets 
with ready sale, and by many persons is considered excellent. 

Usually by the first of May, all of this species have departed 
from the Island, its northward migrations extending to the Fur 
countries, where it is said that the majority pass the summer, 



A few have been found breeding on the Cattskill Mountains, and in*} 
the woods at Greenbush, opposit e Albany, as well as in the more / 
immediate vicinity of that city, J 



158 



CROW 



Having nothing to recommend it in plumage, unfit for food; 
and being a notorious pest, this much despised and abundant spe- 
cies would have long since become extinct, were it not for its vigi- 
lance and sagacity, which it possesses in a degree unsurpassed by 
any of the feathered tribe. Its thieving propensities are not only 
directed against the husbandman, but it delights in robbing the 
nests of other birds of their eggs, for which it is attacked by the 
injured party, until compelled to abandon its piratical design. 
Among its assailants, none are more formidable than the renowned 
King-bird, from whose fury and courage it seldom escapes without 
paying dearly for its intrusive visits. 

The only redeeming trait of character which we can relate in 
the history of this mischievous and noisy bird, is the removing of 
thousands of destructive insects previous to the season of planting. 
Yet branded an outlaw, it roams about, receiving favor from none, 

and despised by all 

_fln the month of April, and sometimes in the latter partofMarchA 
f the Crow com mences building its nest For this purpose it retires J 
[to the woods. ( The nest, which is formed of a variety nf mut*™!., 
such as sticks, hair, wool, and moss, is usually placed among the 
higher branches of the tallest trees ; the eggs, which are four, and 
sometimes five in number, are of a brown color, tinged with green, 
and marked with small spots and blotches of blackish-brown. Du- 
ring the time of hatching, the male is very attentive to his mate 

and occasionally shares with her the task of incubation. From the 
time it commences preparing its nest until the young are able to fly, 
its loud and coarse cry is seldom heard — no doubt adopting this si- 
lent manner that its nest may escape observation. 
189 



^^The flight of the Partridge is performed by a quick flapping of 
the' wings, and it is capable of sustaining itself in the air for a con- . 
tiderable time. There is a notion 'prevailing among some of our I 

_sportamen that the Partridge is not capable of continuing its flight I 

190 
over thirty or forty rods without alighting, anal in conversation they 



151 



have illustrated their remarks by stating that they had seen it, when 
attempting to cross a stream not over half a mile wide, fall in and 
perish. Such occurrences may have taken place when families 
were about changing their location. The younger birds becoming 
tired, hare induced the older ones to alight with them, and not be- 
ing able to arise from the water, nor having sufficient strength to 
swim to the shore, have perished. In autumn, after the crops are 
gathered, it gets in fine condition from feeding on the scattered 
seeds ; its flight is then strong and swift, and at this season it re- 
quires an active gunner to shoot it. J I think I can say with certain- ' 



ty, that I have seen it move off at least one mile without halting, 
judging from the ground I went over before putting it up again.— - 



The gun is not the only means used for its destruction ; traps and 
snares of various kinds are set all over the Island, by persons who 
♦re eager to profit by the ready sale of these resident birds. Its 
flesh is white, tender, and rather dry, and in general highly es- 
teemed, though as game it is quite inferior to the Woodcock or Wil- 
son's Snipe. In severe winters it suffers by deep snows, and at such 
times it becomes quite tame, approaches the barn, and shares with 
the poultry. A few years since, a bevy of sixteen was in daily at- 
tendance at jhe farm at which I was staying. They were fed with 
corn and wheat, of which they are fond, as well as buckwheat, ber- 
ries, and insects. In a few days they became very familiar, walked 
into the barn, and ran about the floor to pick up the refuse grain. 
After having made their repast, they went to roost on the snow, at 
a short distance from where they were fed, with apparently as little 
timidity as the domestic fowls. When roosting, they adopted the 
form of a ring, with their heads out, and lying thus in a close body, 
received the mutual warmt h of each other. 
193 

( g*he Ruflfed Grouse is capable of rapid flight) In the autumn of 
1839, while two of my friends were in pursuit of the American 
Partridge, their dog put up a Ruffed Grouse. Both gentlemen 
fired at the same instant — and seeing the bird lodge in a tree, both 
claimed the prize — each supposing th at his shot had taken effect. 
On arriving at the spot, they found the bird impaled on a small dry} 



branch, without having received a single pellet, j Un one other oc- 
easion, a gentleman started a Grouse near Weehawken, New Jer- 
sey ; before he could fire, the bird dropped dead — on taking it up,;, 
he found the skull broken, it having flown ag ainst a limb of a tree / 



e 



with such force as to produce instant death. , 

Its food consists of seeds an d berries of v arious kinds^ JDuring 
winter, when the ground is covered with snow, it resorts to the 
orchards, and feeds on the buds of apple trees. I have frequently 
heard it stated, that at the season mentioned above, when the Ruffed 
Grouse is u budding," as it is termed, six or eight, or as many as 
should alight on the same tree, could b esuccessively killed, by 
commencing with the lower most one. ( This 1 have as frequently 
heard contradicted, and shall offer my own observations on the 
subject Several years since, while spending a winter in the north- 
ern part of Massachusetts, a section of country where this species 
abound, I devoted a large portion of my time to Grouse-shooting. — 
On the farm where I was residing, there was an extensive apple- 
orchard, situated at the foot of a mountain. During a deep snow, 
large numbers of the present species of Grouse, would early in the 
morning, and again toward evening, descend from the mountain 
on the trees in the orchard, for the purpose of procuring the birds. 
Hither I repaired, for the purpose of obtaining the desired 
game ; and having heard my host speak of shooting from ten to 
twelve from one tree, by taking them in rotation, I of course reck- 
oned on rare sport — and was not a little disappointed on finding, 
that after having shot one or two, the rest had flown to their secure 
retreat in the mountain. Communicating the result to my host, he 
Questioned me as to the mode of procedure — and then informed me, 



that instead of walking through the orchard after the birds had 

194 
settled on the trees, or after having shot one down, advance to take* 
it up, I should take my station in the orchard before they commenced 
flying— placing myself where I should be least likely to be ob- 
served, in such a position that I could load and fire without rising, 
and let those that I shot lie till the sport was over. With these in- 
structions, at an early hour on the following morning, I again 
repaired to the orchard — and the result proved satisfactory. When 
alighting on the tree, they appear exceedingly timid, and spend 
several minutes in looking widly around them. Not seeing any 
thing to excite suspicion, they commence filling their crops with the 
buds— and after waiting until they become fairly engaged in col- 
lecting their food — then, by commencing with the lowermost one, 
all on the tree can be successively shot At the report of the gun, 
those above your mark merely start— do not quit the tree — but im- 
mediately recommence their occupation. This manner of shooting 
I do not recommend, nor would I practice it ; at the present day it 
is unsportsmanlike — and at such times, from the scarcity of food, 
the birds are in very poor cofltiition. 
868 

When flushed, the Woodcock rises to the height of the bushes or 
undergrowth, and quickly drops behind them again, usually run- 
ning a short distance as soon as it touches the ground. Being very 
tender but little force is required to kill it, and as it presents only 
a momentary mark, none but practised sportsmen can succeed. 

I once heard a gentleman boast of having a day of fine sport in 
cover, - which was so close, that in the ordinary mode of shooting 
from the shoulder, he could not have bagged a bird. He shot 
from the hip — a mode but little practised among us. I have 
heard sportsmen assert that they have shot three species of Wood- 
cock These differnces are attributable to sex and age. 



The whistling noise when rising, is produced by the action of its 
wings. Its note is a sudden quack, which is not often heard except 
in spring, when at that season toward dusk it mounts in the air, 
Uttering whist ling notes, which a re conti nued till a late hour du- 
ring evening./ In its habits, it is said to be allied to the European 



Woodcock. On comparing the two species, I find the European 
bird to be much larger, with the lower parts dull yellowish-wlitoe, 
and barred with black ; while those parts of our bird are light 
red without the black markings. 

349 

The Common Tern arrives on the shores of Long Island about 
the middle af April, and continues in great numbers until the ap- 
proach of winter, when they all retire beyond the southern limits 
of the Union. It is a noisy, restless bird ; passes most of its time 
in the air, coursing over the beach and meadows in search of in- 
sects, or skimming swiftly over the surface of the water in pursuit 
of small fishes, which it sometimes seizes without apparently check- 
ing its flight. At other times it is observed hovering over a shoal 
of fry — the instant they appear at the surface, it dashes headlong, 
falling like a weight upon its prey, submerging the head in the ef- 
fort. It never dives, and although web-footed,' is seldom seen 
swimming, and seems to have an aversion to alight on the water. 
At the reflux of the tide, it resorts to the bars and shoals, mingling 
with the Gulls, gleaning minu te shell-fish and marin e insects which 
abound in such places, f it is of a lively, sociablo disposition, niov-\ 
ing about in parties, and keeping up a continual chattering. It also] 
appears to havo a fondness for the society of the Black-headed Gulll 
— with which it is often seen associate dJ'and, like its companion, 



though not pursued by the gunner, is extremely timid and watch- 
ful ; but when any of their number meet with accident, those with- 
in hearing of its shrill cry flock to the spot, and hover round their 
wounded companion until driven off by the repealed discharge of 
the sportsman's gun. 



152 



HUNTING ADVENTURES 



NORTHERN WILDS; 



A TRAMP IN THE CHATEAUGAY WOODS, OVER HILLS, 
LAKES, AND FOREST STREAMS. 



BY S. H. HAMifOND 



"For mysclfl prefer the quid of the country, a ramble alon* the rivrrs and brook's- 
"> 9 "„ ul1 . "»" wUd fore,, dell, wbn/iha birds are merry al "he d.y™t5[ 
where no unseemly revelry breaks Ihe stillness of nifrllt." ' ' 



NEW YORK: 

DERBY & JACKSON, 119 NASSAU STREET. 

ckcixnati :— n. w. derbt. 

1856. 



23 



The next day we started for /Bradley's pond,Ja 
little lake some five miles deeper in the forest, and 
midway between the Shazee and the Upper Chatau- 
gay. On the bank we built a temporary shantee, and 
I tlrrew my fly for a few minutes — but it was wasteful 
to take trout as I caught them there, and I desisted. 
We coasted this little sea before evening. It is per- 
haps two miles in circumference, but has little that is 
attractive about it, save that it lays there all alone in 
the forest, and great trees hem it in on all sides. Its 
shores are low and marshy, and I cannot recommend 
it for its beauty. In the evening we prepared a torch, 
and struck out on the water in pursuit of deer. It is 
marvellous, the number there were, along the shores 
of this little lake. It affords, however, abundant pas- 



f 

these lakes, . differs from any I have ever seen else- 
where. It grows up from the bottom, sometimes from 
a depth of fifteen feet, with a great rough stem like a 
cabbage-stalk, of the same pithy and fibrous texture, 
as large as a man's arm, until it reaches the surface, 



84 



and there shoots out a hundred tendrils all round, at 
the end of each one having a great round leaf. From 
each of these great stems, the leaves thus arranged, 
and connected with it by the small tendrils, spread 
over a surface of four or six feet in diameter. It is 
upon these large stems that the deer feed. They 
manage to loosen them in some way from the bottom, 
and feed upon them as they float upon the surface. J 
We could hear them stamping in the water, and the 
grating sound of their teeth, as they bit into the stems 
of the pond-lilies. Every few rods, double lights 
would glisten before us, and strange to say, the stupid 
beasts would stand until the canoe approached within 
six feet of them, gazing in apparent amazement at the 
strange light that was advancing upon them, but when 
we looked out from the shadow and showed them our 
faces, Lord ! how they would snort and run. "We had 
no occasion for venison, and we did them no harm 
that night. In the morning we packed up again, and 
dove deeper into the forest. 

The Bake Canoe. 29 

On this lake we found no 
boat ; few amateur fishermen have had the courage to 
visit its seclusion ; and the hunter, as he ranges the 
-wilderness, finds no use for a water craft. But my 
guide was a man of experience, and of vast resource 
in all that related to wood craft, f " We will," said he,l 



"coast this lake as we have done the rest, and that in 
a vessel of our own construction."/ 



ture for them.J Pond-lilies and grasses grow in the 
( shallow water in great profusion. The pond-lily, in 



In the neighborhood of the lake are scattered/fir 
"trees of large growth, one of which my guide selected 
for his purpose, and with his axe felled it to the 
ground. From the bark stripped from the trunk of' 
this tree, we had, long before sundown, constructed a 
canoe which, by the exercise of great caution, and by 



153 



keeping " our chew of tobacco precisely in the middle 
of the mouth," enabled us to navigate the lake. 
It was a curiosity in its way, — small saplings or 
"staddlcs," as my guide termed them, cut first some 
six feet in length, then being nearly severed in the 
middle, were bent together like clamps, confined and 



30 



held in contact the ends of the bark ; these formed 
the bow and stern ; tow, which had found a place in 
the pack of my guide, was stuffed into the crevices ; 
over this was poured melted gum, gathered from 
around the knots of the tree we had felled, and from 
cracks in the unsound trunks of others around us; 
sticks stretched across from side to side gave it shape, 
and slim "staddles" laid lengthwise in the bottom, 
gave it strength to sustain our weightr Paddles were 
hewn from slabs, split from the trunk of the tree we 
had felled. Being all prepared, we launched our 
homely vessel, and seating ourselves in the bottom on 
a cushion of boughs, we shoved from the shore. 

" She -walked the water like a thing of life." 

So long as we remained seated on the bottom, it 
was steady enough, but when, from our cramped 
position, it became necessary to change our posture, 
it required the skill of a rope dancer to preserve 
our equilibrium, and prevent one's self from being 
plumped into the cold waters of the lake. 



Shooting Partkidges. 



51 



our dinner. Upon gathering them up, an d turning 
towards the spot where I had left my guide,(l saw him 



'with my rifle in his hand, walking around, and look- 
ing into the brandies of a half-grown hemlock, whis- 
tling all the time most furiously. Presently I saw him 
taking aim at some object in the tree. He fired, and 
clown tumbled a partridge. He fell to loading again, 
all the time whistling most vociferously. Again he 
fired, and again a partridge fell from among the, 
branches. J 

" Halloa ! old fellow," said I, " that will do. Fish 
and fowl will answer for a dinner for hungry men, — 



so leave the rest, if there's more of them there." A 
fire was soon struck, and in half an hour we sat down 
to a dinner which, with our appetites, an epicure 
might well envy. 

" Look here, Tucker," said I, while stowing awaj 
a leg of partridge, " tell me why you kept up such a 
confounded whistling, while you were looking for 
those birds in the tree." 



"It was to keep them from flyin' away," he re- 
plied. " Off here in the woods, they ain't so shy as 
they are down in the settlements ; and when they 
^ake to a tree, so long as you keep up a sharp whis-^, 



52 



'tlin', a partridge will sit still within fifteen feet of yoiu\ 
You may shoot half a dozen from tho same tree, pro- 
vided there's so many there, and you keep on whistlin'." 
" That's something new," said I, " and all I've got 
to say about it is, that if they're charmed by such 
music, they have a delicate ear and a singular taste." 

15-i Signs of 11 ain. 

"You, now, though you may be a smart lawyer at 
home, don't know that we shall want a shelter afore 
mornin', and won't leave it until noon to-morrow, un- 
less we agree to be out in the rain — but I know it, 
and if you wan't to know how I know it, Til tell you. 



Just listen to the tree-frog, how merrily he pipes all 
along the shore, up among the branches of the scrub- 
by trees that grow out of the rocks ; well, he says, 
' it'll rain.' Listen again to the loon — hear, with what 
a loud, clear voice he speaks, and how it quavers and 
sinks away into silence ; you havn't heard that voice 
since we left Indian Lake. That loon says, 'it will 
rain.' Hark again, and you'll hear not a rustling among 
the leaves and brandies of the trees, but a kind of 
deep far-off moaning ; not the creaking of one tall tree 



185 



/'against another— a sour.d that don't seem exactly to 
be a sound either — a sound that we seem to hear but 
can't describe ; you can't tell what way it comes from, 
whether from the right hand or left, that seems to. bo 
far off, and yet you can't say it isn't close by ; yet it's 



154 



in the forest, all around you. Well, that mysterious 
voice says, ' it will rain.' Look at that brood of young 
ducks, scampering about, dipping their heads under 
the water, and lettin' it run down their backs — see the 
old one, how often she sits up on eend, and flaps her 
ivings, as if about flyin' away — those ducks are sayin', 
plain as day, 'it will rain.' Look at that baswood 
tree on the point before you — see how fan-like it lifts 
its leaves, turnin' their under side to the sun, makin' 
the tree-top shine all over like silver; that tree is 
tellin' us 'it will rain.' Even Shack, there, in the 
bow of the canoe, by his uneasy motions, curling him- 
felf up in a heap at the bottom, and then as soon as 
he's fairly settled, gettin' onto his feet again, and 
nosin' out over the water, he says ' it'll rain.' 



216 



PARTRIDGE 



^Presently lie straightened himself up, on tip-] 

toes, beat his wings not against the log on which lie 

jstood, but against his sides, slow at first, and then! 

[faster and faster until the " dramming" was for a few 

i seconds a continuous sound./ I saw him thus drum 



some eight or ten times during the half hour that I 
was watching him. lie did not discover me and I 
did not disturb him. I was anxious to learn, if I could, 
his object in thus beating a tattoo on his own ribs, and 
thought I discovered it when I saw a hen partridge 
hop on the other end of the log, and walking leisure- 
ly up to the drummer, seat herself quietly by his side. 
They sat together a few minutes, and then left the log 
and sauntered away among the bushes. 



ffinuua ®werfc&twtt 



A DESCRIPTION 



MMWW& 



INHABITING NORTH AMERICA. 



BY RICHARD HARLAN, M. D. 

PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE ANATOMY TO THE PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM. ; 

MlXUKll OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY ; OP THE 

ACADEMY OK NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA;' 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER. OF THE LYCEUM Op 

•NATURAL HISTORY OP NEW YORK, 

&C. &C. 



" The manor of livine; nature is so ample, that all may be allowed to iport on it freely ; 
{lie mnitjealoui proprietor cannot entertain any apprehension that the game will be ex- 
hausted, or even perceptibly thinned." 



PHILADELPHIA: 

HUm.lSIIED nV ANTHONY FINLEV. 

J. HARH1MI, rlllNTL'K. . 



1 825 



11 



Genus....!. Homo.' 



CHARACTERS. 



C Incisor 4. 
5. < Canine 2. 
C Molar 10. 



f superior 16 

Dental formula.— Teeth 32.< 

.1 f Inciso 

L- inferior 16. < Canin. 

C Molar 



Incisor 4. 
e2. 
10. 



13 



Species....!. , Homo Sapiens." ^ 

Characters of the species, are those peculiar to 
the genus. 

> Inhabit all parts of the earth, omnivorous, dis- 
puting for territory ;' uniting together for the ex- 
pre ss purpose of destroying their own 6pecies. j~ 

76 

J. Canis familiar is, Linn. Erxleb. Bodd. Desm. 
p. 130. Encycl. pi. 98, fig. 3. pi. 99, 100-^1, 2, 3, 4. 
Le C/iien, Buff. hist. Nat. torn. 5. 
The Dog, Penn. Brit. Zool. p. 23. 

77 
./The same observations will apply with nearly 
equal force to the domestic dog of the East 
Indies; with this difference, viz. in the latter 
there exists a strong resemblance to the Jackull, 
to which also it is further allied in its howl, and 
other less observable particulars; indeed a suc- 
cessful union of the dog and jackall has repeat- 
edly taken place. 

In corroboration of the above, wc may add that 



7t 

^« — ■ ^ 

prolific hybrids have been produced by the 

I union of animals genetically distinct, between the 
[martin, (Muslcla marlcs) and the domestic cat. 
An account of which is published in one of the 
early numbers of the New Edinburgh Philoso- 
phical Journal.* 



155 



* Mr. Sabine Mates, that during Parry's expedition to the 
North Pole, the dogs pertaining to the ship, were observed to 
copulate with the savage wolf; which circumstance he con- 
ceives a^ a convincing proof of identity of species ; but the same 
argument would apply almost equally to prove the identity of 
the dog and hog. 





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NEEEIS 




BOREAL I-AMERICAN A: 


w 

n 
w 


OR, 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO A HISTORY OP THE MARINE ALGiE 


o 

W 


OF NORTH AMERICA. 


o 

E* 
W 

o 

1-1 


BY 

WILLIAM HENRY HARVEY, M.D., M.R.I. A., 


fc> 

' m 

« 
E-i 

O 


REEFER or THE HERBARIUM OF THE UNIVERSITY OF DUBLIN, AND PROFESSOR OF BOTANY TO THE R. D. S. 




PART I.— MELANOSPERME.E. 


W 

EH 

09 


WASHINGTON CITY: 




PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 




JANUARY, 1882. 




NEW YORK: Q. P. PUTNAM. 



156 

18 jMoisture and I 



air are The only essentials to the development of Algae. It has even been sup- 
posed that the minute Diatomacece whose bodies float through the higher regions of 
the atmosphere, and fall as an impalpable dust on the rigging of ships far out at 
sea, have been actually developed in the air ; fed on the moist ure semicondensed 
in clouds ; and carried about with these " lone ly" wanderersj 

When this atmospheric dust was first noticed, naturalists conjectured that the 
fragments of minute Algaa of which the microscope showed it to be composed, had 
been carried up by ascending currents of air either from t he surface of pools, or 
from t he dried bottoms of what had been shallow lakes. j But a different origin] 

Tias recently been attributed to this precipitate of the atmosphere by Dr. F. Cohn,l 
Professor Ehrenberg, and others, who now regard it as evidence of the existence of' 
organic life in the air itself ! This opinion is founded on the alleged fact, that 
atmospheric dust, collected in all latitudes, from the equator to the circumpolar 
regions, consists of remains of the same species, and that certain characteristic forms 
are always found in it, and are rarely seen in any other place. Hence it is inferred 
that the dust has a common origin, and its universal diffusion round the earth 
points to the air itself as the proper abode of this singular fauna and flora, — for 
minute animals wo uld seem to accompany and doubtless to feed upon the vegeta- 

[ ble ato ms. ) If this be correct, and not an erroneous inference from a misunderstood 
phenomenon, it is one of the most extraordinary facts connected with the distribu- 
tion and maintenance of organic life. 

If Alga) thus people the finely divided vapour that floats above our heads, we shall 
be prepared to find them in all water condensed on the earth. The species found 
on damp ground are numerous. These are usually of the families PalmclUcece and 
Nostochaceai. To the latter belong the masses of semi-transparent green jelly so 
often seen among fallen leaves on damp garden walks, after continued rains in 
autumn and early winter. These jellies are popularly believed to fall from the 
atmosphere, and by our forefathers were called fallen stars. 

19 

In certain moist states of the atmosphere, accompanied by a warm temperature, 
the Nostoc grows very rapidly ; but what seems a sudden production of the 
plant has possibly been long in preparation unobserved. When the air is dry the 
growth is intermitted, and the plant shrivels up to a thin skin, but on the return 
of moisture this skin expands, becomes gelatine s, and continues its active life. 
And as this process is repeated from time to time, it may be that the large jelly 
which is found after a few days rain is of no very recent growth. A friend of 
mine who happened to land in a warm dry day on the coast of Australia, and 
immediately ascended a hill for the purpose of obtaining a view of the country, was 
overtaken by heavy rains ; and was much surprised to find that the whole face of 
the hill quickly became covered with a gelatinous Alga, of which no traces had been 
seen on his ascent. In descending the hill in the afternoon, on his return to the 
ship, he was obliged to slide down through the slimy coating of jelly, where it was 
impossible to proceed in any other way. No doubt, in this case, a species of Nostoc 



157 

which had been unnoticed when shrivelled up had merely expanded with the 



mornings rain. 



Where water lies long on thcTsurface of the ground, as happens in cases of floodsJ 
it quickly becomc sfilled with Conferva? or Silk-weeds, which rise to t he surface in) 
vast green strata. ] These simple plants grow with great rapidity, using up the 
materials of the decaying vegetation which is rotting under the inundation, and 
thus they in great measure counteract the ill effects to the atmosphere of such 
decay. f When" the water evaporates, their filaments, which consist of delicate mem 
branous cells, shrivel up and become dry, and the stratum of threads, now no longer 
green, but bleached into a dull white, forms a coarsely interwoven film of varying 
thickness, spread like great sheets of paper over the decaying herbage. This natural\ 
paper, which has also been described under the name of water flannel, sometimes 
covers imm ense tra cts, limited only by the extent of the flood in whose waters it 
originated. \ 






Till I _. - ' S. 

But though Algae abound in all reservoirs of fresh water, the waters of the sea\ 

^are their peculiar home ; whence the common name " Seaweeds," by which the 

whole class is frequently designated. Very few other plants vegetate in the sea, 

seawater being fatal to the life of most seeds ; yet some notable exceptions to this 

law (in the case of the cocoa nut, mangrove, and a few other p lants) ser ve a useful 

purpose in the economy of nature. \ 

~ The sea in all explored latitudes has a vegetation of Algae. Towards the poles, 

this is restricted to microscopic kinds, but almost as soon as the coast rock ceases 

to be coated with ice, it begins to be clothed with Fuci : and this without reference 

to the mineral constituents of the rock, the Fucus requiring merely a resting place. 

Seaweeds rarely grow on sand, unless when it is very compact and firm. 

34 

jProbably one half of the species of Algffi of the east coast of North Amen< 

are identical with those of Europe — a very large portion when we contrast it 
the st rongly mark ed difference between the marine animals of the two shores 
testaeea, an d to a great extent even the fishes of the two continents, Tb cin< 
dissimilar.J The European species, on the same length of coast, are greatly the more" 
numerous, which appears to be owing to the prevalence of sands, nearly destitute 
of Algae, along so great a length of the American shore, and particularly along 
that portion which, from its latitude, ought to produce the greates t variety of, 

^Algoe, were the local c ircum stances favourable to their growth, f 

As Algae are little indebted for nourishment to the soil on which they grow, 
merely requiring a secure resting place and a sheltered situation, their number 
generally bears a proportion to the amount of indented rocks that border the 
coast. Stratified rocks are more favourable to their growth than loose boulders or 
stones ; but if the upper surface be smooth without cavities, it is either swept by 
the waves too rapidly to allow the growth of a vigorous vegetation ; or, in quiet 
places, it becomes uniformly clothed with some of the Fuci, or other social species, 
which cover the exposed surface with a large number of individuals, to the destruc- 
tion of more delicate species. The rocks, then, most adapted for Algae arc those 



158 

in which, here and there, occur deep cavities affording shelter from the too 
boisterous waves. In these, on the recess of the tide, a tide pool or rock basin 
preserves the delicate fronds from the action of the sun. The rare occurrence of 
such situations on the American coast is doubtless a reason of the comparative 

p overty of the mari ne flora. 

This comparative poverty is observable even in the common littoral Fuci or Rock) 



SS' 



31 



The part committed to the Alga? in the household of nature, though humble 
when we regard them as the lowest organic members in that great, family, is not 
only highly important to the general welfare of the organic world, but, indeed, 
indispensable. This we shall at once admit, when we reflect on the vast prepon- 
derance of the ocean over the land on the surface of the earth, and bear in_mind 
that almost the whole submarine vegetation consists of AIga3. (The number of 1 
species of marine plants which are not Alga? proper is extremely small. These on 
the American coast are limited to less than half a dozen, onl y one of which, the 
common Eel Grass (Zostera marina), is extensively dispersed, j 

All other marine plants are referable to Alga? ■ the wide spread sea would there- 
fore be nearly destitute of vegetable life were it not for their existence. Almost 
every shore — where shifting sands do not forbid their growth — is now clothed with 
a varied band of Alga; of the larger kinds ; and microscopic species of these vege- 
tables (Diatomacece) teem in countless myriads at depths of the ocean as great as 
the plummet has yet sounded, and where no other vegetable life exists. It is not, 
therefore, speaking too broadly to say that the sea, in every climate and at all 
known depths, is tenanted by these vegetables under one phase or other. 

The sea, too, teems with animal life, — that " great and wide sea, wherein are 
things creeping innumerable, both small and great beasts," affords scope to hordes 
of animals, from the "Leviathan" whale to the microscopic polype, transparent as 
the water in which he swims, and only seen by the light of the phosphoric gleam 
which he emits. Now this exuberant animal creation could not be maintained 
without a vegetable substructure. It is one of the laws of nature that animals 
shall feed on organized matter, and vegetables on unorganised. For the support 
of animal life, therefore, we require vegetables to change the mineral constituents 
of the surrounding media into suitable nutriment. 

In the sea this office of vegetation is almost exclusively committed to the Alga?, 
and we may judge of the completeness with which they execute their mission by 
the fecundity of the animal world which depends upon them. Not that I would 
assert that all, or nearly all, the marine animals are directly dependant on the Alga? 
for their food ; for the reverse is notoriously the case. But in every class we find 
species which derive the whole or a part of their nourishment from the Alga?, 
and there are myriads of the lower in organization which do depend upon them 
altogether. 

33 

As being the first vegetables that prey upon dead matter, and as affording 
directly or indirectly a pasture to all water animals, the Alga? are entitled to notice. 
Yet this is but one-half of the task committed to them. Equally important is the 



159 

influence which their growth exerts on the water and on the air. The well known 
fact that plants, whilst they fix carbon in an organized form in extending their 
bodies by the growth of cells, exhale oxygen gas in a free state, is true of the 
Algee as of other vegetables. By this action they tend to keep pure the water in 
which they vegetate, and yield also a considerable portion of oxygen gas to the 
atmosphere. I have already stated that whenever land becomes flooded, or whcre- 
ever an extensive surface of shallow water — whether fresh or salt — is exposed to 
the air, Confervas and allied Al gae quickly multiply. _j E v ery pool, eve ry stagnant) 
[ditch is soon filled with their green silken threa ds.^ " These threads cannot grow 
without emitting oxygen. If you examine such a pool on a sunny day, you may 
trace the beads of oxygen on the submerged threads, or see the gas collect in 
bubbles where the threads present a dense mass. It is continually passing off into 
the air while the Confervas vegetate, and this vegetation usually continues vigorous, 
one species succeeding another as it dies out, as long us the pool remains. 

87 



Several Algoe are used in the arts m a minor way. Thus, according to Dr. 
Patrick Neill, knife-handles are made in Scotland of the stems of Laminaria digi- 
tata. " A pretty thick stem is selected, and cut into pieces about four inches long. 
Into these, when fresh, are stuck blades of knives, such as gardeners use for pruning 
or grafting. As the stem dries, it contracts and hardens, closely and firmly em- 
bracing the hilt of the blade. In the course of some months the handles become 
quite firm, and very hard and shrivelled, so that when t ipped with metal they are , 
\hardly to be distinguished from hartshorn."J 

On the authority of Lightfoot,f the stems of Chorda filum, which often attain the 
length of thirty or forty feet, and which are popularly known in Scotland as "Lucky 
Minny's lines," " skinned, when half dry, and twisted, acquire so considerable a 
degree of strength and toughness," that the Highlanders sometimes use them as 
fishing lines. The slender stems of Nereocystis are similarly used by the fishermen 
in Russian America. f . p 

Here the Sea Otter (Lutra marina) has his favourite lair, resting himself on the 
vesicle, or hiding among the leaves while he pursues his fishing. The stem which 
anchors this floating mass of fronds, though no thicker than whip-cord, must be of 
considerable strength and flexibility ; and accordingly we find it employed as 
a fishing line by the rude natives of the coast. But great as is the length of this 
seaweed, it is exceeded by the Macrocystls, whose stems are calculated by Dr. 
Hooker* occasionally to reach 700 feet, while Bory St. Vincent attributes to them 
a length of 1500 feet. These are the longest fronded of the Order, and indeed the 
longest vegetables that are known. Others, as the Lessonia? of the Pacific and 
Southern Oceans, though of less height have stems of much greater bole, and a 
habit that reminds us of some large endogenous arb orescent plan ts, as the Aloe 
dichotoma or as the Dracama Draco^ (These gigantic Alga? have trunks of con-1 



siderable diameter and height, branched dichotomously, each branch bearing at its 
summit bunches of long ribbon-like leaves. Torn from the submerged rocks on 
which they grow, these marine trees are driven ashore on the rocky coasts of the 



160 



Falkland Islands in great numbers, and lie, as Dr. Hooker well describes, rotting 
for many a mile, in banks several yards in breadth and three or four feet in depth. 
The trunks, from which the leaves have been washed, resemble drift-wood, and 
" on one occasion" (as related by Dr. Hooker) " no persuasion could prevent the 
captain of a brig from employing his boat's crew, duri ng two bitterly cold days, in 
collecting this incombustible weed for fuel."/ Another noble £cnus of the Southern 



Ocean (Ech lonia) may be c o mpared to the Palm in habit, having pinnated fronds of 
largesize^JOne of the best known species, the Trumpet-weed (Ecldonia buccinalis) oV 



the Cape of Good Hope, has a stem often more than twenty feet in height, crowned 
with a fan-shaped cluster of leaves, each twelve feet long or more. The stem of 
this scaAvecd which is hollow in the upper portion is, when dried, often used in the 
colony as a siphon ; and by th e native herdsmen is formed into a trumpet for 
collecting the cattle at evenin 



;: 




90 



VI. LAMINARIA, Lamour. 

*■ ■ 

Frond stipitate, coriaceous or membranaceous, flat, ribless, undivided or irregu- 
larly cleft. Fructification, cloud-like patches of spores, imbedded in the thickened 
surface of some part of the leafy expansion. 



jThe plants commonly known as Oarweed, Tangle, DeviVs Apron, Riband-weed, 
Sok-kather-lcelp, fyc. belong to this genus, which is more numerous in species, and 
possessed of a wider geographical range than any other of the Order. With the 
exception of L. Fascia, which is only a few inches long, they are all plants of a lar^e 
size, varying from three to twelve, or twenty feet in length. They commence to 
grow about low-water jaark, and descend, beyond that limit, to the de pth of five/ * 
to ten fathoms. 



93 



5. Laminaria longicruris, De la Pyl. ; Stipes very long, slender at the base, hollow 
and inflated in the middle, and gradually tapering to the apex ; frond undivided, 
ovato-lanceolate, membranaceous, obtuse. J. Ag. Sp. Alg. vol. 1, p. 135. Kiltz. 
Sp. Alg. p. 576. Harv. Phyc. Brit. t. 339- (Tab. VI.) 

Hab. In deep water, from five to ten fathoms (or more?). Very abundant on 
the American shores, from Greenland to Cape Cod. Newfoundland, De la Fylosie. 
Bahama Islands, Chauvin. (v. v.) (""" 



most abundant species on the| 
northern coasts, and gradually diminishes, in the number of individuals, and in the J 
size and luxuriance of growth, as it extends southward. In Boston Bay it is still ( 
plentiful, though of much smaller dimensions than at Halifax, where it is the chief 
ornament of the sub-marine flora. I have seen no specimen from a more southern 
locality than Cape Cod ; but M. Chauvin is said to have received it from the 
Bahamas. In Europe it is scarcely known to grow beyond the limits of the Arctic 
Sea, whence water-wo rn specimens o ccasionally reach th e coasts of Scotland, a nd of 
the north of Ireland. 



e 

c 
V 



161 



THE EMIGRANT. 



SIR FRANCIS B. HEAD, Bart. 



'SEND HER VICTORIOUS, HAPPY AND GLORIOUS, 
LONG TO REIGN OVER US, GOD SAVE THE QUEEN I" 

Old Song. 



SECOND EDITION. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1846. 



Chapter I. 



the gigantic and beautiful features of the new 
world seem to correspond very wonderfully 
with the increased locomotive powers and 
other brilliant discoveries which, under the 
blessing of an Almighty power, have lately 
been developed to mankind. 
6 

Now, it is curious to reflect that while every 
backwoodsman in America is occupying him- 
self, as he thinks, solely for his own interest, in 
clearing his location, every tree — which, falling 
under his axe, admits a patch of sunshine to 
the earth — in an infinitesimal degree softens 
and ameliorates the climate of the vast con- 
tinent around him ; and yet, as the portion of 
cleared land in North America, compared with 
that which remains uncleared, has been said 
scarcely to exceed that which the seams of a 
coat bear to the whole garment, it is evident, 
that although the assiduity of the Anglo-Saxon 
race has no doubt affected the climate of North 
America, the axe is too weak an instrument to 
produce any important change. 

(But one of the most wonderful character- \ 
istics of Nature is the manner in which she 
often, unobservedly, produces great effects from 
causes so minute as to be almost invisible, and 
accordingly while the human race — so far as 
an alteration of climate is concerned — are 



A NEW SKY. 



However deeply prejudiced an Englishman 
may be in favour of his own country, yet I 
think it is impossible for him to cross the At- 
lantic without admitting that (in both the 



northern and southern hemispheres of the new 
world Nature has not only outlined her works 
on a larger scale, but has painted the whole 
picture with brighter and more costly colours 
than she used i n delineatin g and in be autifying^ 

the old world. \~ 

fThe heavens of America appear infinitely^ 
higher — the sky is bluer — the clouds are whiter 
— the air is fresher — the cold is intenser — the 
moon looks larger — the stars are brighter — the 
thunder is louder — the lightning is vivider — 
the w ind is stronger — the rain is heavier — the 



mountains are higher — the rivers larger — the 
forests bigger— the plains broader ; Tin short, 



\ labouring almost in vain in the regions in 
question, swarms of little ilies, strange as it 
may sound, are, and for many years have been, 
most materially altering the clim ate of the 
great continent of North America ! 

The manner in which they unconsciously 
perform this important duty is as follows : — 



They sting, bite, and torment the wild 
animals to such a degree, that, especially in 
summer, the poor creatures, like those in Abys- 
sinia, described by Bruce, become almost in a 
state of distraction, and to get rid of their 
assailants, wherever the forest happened to be 
on fire, they rushed to the smoke, instinctively 
knowing quite well that the flies would be 
unable to follow them there. 

The wily Indian observing these movements, 
shrewdly perceived that by setting fire to the 
forest the flies would drive to him his game, 
instead of his being obliged to trail in search 



163 



passing 

" Here 's a bird for you, Harry," said Nash 
to Patterson, as standing up in the skiff he took 
the frightened captive out of his hat, " and if 
it sings as well in a cage as it did just now 
in the air, it will be the best you have ever y 
Jieard/j 

Patterson, descending a few steps from the 
gangway, stretched out his hand and received 
the bird, which he immediately called " Char- 
ley" in remembrance of his faithful friend 
Nash. > 

In the Gulf of St. Lawrence the vessel was 
wrecked, almost every thing was lost except 
the lives of the crew and passengers, and ac- 
cordingly when Patterson, with his wife hang- 
ing heavily on his arm, landed in Canada, he 
was destitute of every thing he had owned on 
board excepting Charley, whom he had pre- 
served and afterwards kept for three days in 



the foot of an old stocking./ 

After some few sorrows, and after some 
71 

litt le time,( Patterson settled himself at Toronto, , 
fm the lower part of a small house in King) 
Street, the principal thoroughfare of the town, 
where he worked as a shoemaker. His shop 
had a southern aspect ; he drove a nail into the 
outside of his window, and regularly every 
morning, just before he sat upon his stool to 
commence his daily work, he carefully hung 
upon this nail a common skylark's cage, which 
had a solid back of dark wood, with a bow or 
small wire orchestra in front, upon the bottom 
of which there was to be seen, whenever it 
[ cou ld be procured, a fresh sod of green turf. ( "" 
As Charley's wings were of no use to him in 
this prison, the only wholesome exercise he 
could take was by hopping on and off his 
little stage ; and this sometimes he would con- 
tinue to do most cheerfully for hours, stopping 
only occasionally to dip his bill into a small 
square tin box of water suspended on one side, 
and then to raise it for a second or two towards 
the sky. As soon, however, as (and only 
when his spirit moved him) this feathered 
captive again hopped upon his stage, and 
there, standing on a bit of British soil, with 

his little neck extended, his small head slightly 

i 
78 



turned, his drooping wings gently fluttering, 
his bright black eyes intently fixed upon the 
distant deep, dark-blue Canada sky, he com- 
menced his unpremeditated morning so;/*;, his 
ex tempore m atin prayer ! 

_f The effect of his thrilling notes, of his shrilD 
joyous song, of his pure, unadulterated English 
voice upon the people of Canada cannot be 
described, and probably can only be imagined 
by those who cither by adversity have been 
prematurely weaned from their mother country, 
or who, from long-continued absence from it, 
and from hope deferred, have learned in a 
foreign land to appreciate the inestimable 
blessings of their father-land, of their parent 
home. All sorts of men, riding;, driving 
walking, propelled by urgent business, or 
sauntering for appetite or amusement, as if 
by word of command, stopped spell-bound 
to listen, for more or less time, to the inspired 
warbling, to the joyful hallelujahs of a com- 
mon homely-dressed English lark ! The loyal 
listened to him with the veneration with which 
they would have listened to the voice of their 
Sovereign; reformers, as they leaned towards 
him, heard nothing in his enchanting melody, 

73 



which even they could desire to improv/e. I 
believe that in the hearts of the most obdurate 
radicals he reanimated feelings of youthful 
attachment to their mother country; and that 
even the trading Yankee, in whose country 
birds of the most gorgeous plumage snuffle 
rather than sing, must have acknowledged 
that the heaven-born talent of this little bird 
unaccountably. warmed the Anglo-Saxon blood 
that flowed in his veins. Nevertheless, whatever 
others may have felt, I must own that, al- 
though I always refrained from joining Charley's 
motley audience, yet, while he was singing, 
I never rode by him without acknowled(>'in»- 

" too' 

as he stood with his outstretched neck looking 
to heaven, that he was (at all events, for his 
size) the most powerful advocate of Church and 
ate in Her Majesty's d ominions; land that 
his eloquence was as strongly appreciated by 
others, Patterson received man 
proofs. 



iy convincing 



74 



,three times was he interrupted in hisS 



164 



work by people who each separately offered 
him one hundred dollars for his lark : an old 
farmer repeatedly offered him a hundred 
acres of land for him ; and a poor Sussex 
carter who had imprudently stopped to hear 
him sing, was so completely overwhelmed with 
affection and maladie du pays, that, walking 
into the shop, he offered for him all he pos- 
sessed in the world .... his horse and cart ; 
but Patterson would sell him to no one. 



all the while the Imperial Parliament were, 
framing and agreeing to an Act by which even 



On the evening of the — th of October, 
1837, the shutters of Patterson's shop-windows 
were half closed, on account of his having that 
morning been accidentally shot dead on the 
island opposite the city. The widow's pro- 
spects were thus suddenly ruined, her hopes 
blasted, her goods sold, and I need hardly 
say that I made myself the owner — the lord 
and the master of poor Patterson's lark. 

It was my earnest desire, if possible, to 

better his condition, and I certainly felt very 

proud to possess him ; but somehow or other 

this "Charley-is-my-darling " sort of feeling 

- evidently was not reciprocals ) Whether it was 

/that i n the conservatory of G overnment House 

75 

fat Toronto Charley missed the sky — whether 
I it was that he disliked the movement, or 
rather want of movement, in my elbows — or 
whether from some mysterious feelings, some 
strange fancy or misgiving* the chamber of 
his little mind was hung with black, I can 
only say that during the three months he 
remained in my service I could never induce 
him to open his mouth, and that up to the 
last hour of my depar ture he would never sing, 

to me. J ~ 

/On leaving Canada I gave him to Daniel 
'Orris, an honest, faithful, loyal friend, who 
had accompanied me to the province. His 
station in life was about equal to that of poor / 
Patterson ; and accordingly, so soon as the bird 
was hung by him on the outside of his humble 
dwelling, he began to sing again as exquisitely 
as ever. He continued to do so all through 
Sir George Arthur's administration. He sang 
all the time Lord Durham was at work — he 
sang after the Legislative Council — the Execu- 
tive Council — the House of Assembly of the 
province had ceased for ever to exist — he sang 



76 

the name of Upper Canada was to cease to 
exist — he sang all the while Lords John 
Russell and Sydenham were arranging, effect- 
ing, and perpetuating upon the United Pro- 
vinces of Canada the baneful domination of 
what they called " responsible government ;" 
and then, feeling that the voice of an English 
lark could no longer be of any service to that 
noble portion of Her Majesty's dominions — he 

died! 

JOrris sent me his skin, his skull, and his\ 
J legs. I took them to the very best artist in 
London — the gentleman who stuffs for the 
British Museum — who told me to my great 
joy that these remains were perfectly unin- 
jured. After listening with great professional 
interest to the case, he promised me that he 
would exert his utmost talent; and in about a 
month Charley returned to me with unruffled 
plumage, standing again on the little orchestra 
of his cage,fw"ith his ^nouth open, looking 
upwards — in short, in the attitude of singing, 
just as I have described him. 

I have had the whole covered with a large 
glass case, and upon the dark wooden back of 
the cage there is pasted a piece of white 

77 
paper, upon which I have written the follow- 
ing words: — 

THIS LARK, 

TAKEN TO CANADA BT A POOR EMIGRANT, 

WAS SHIPWRECKED IN THE ST. LAWRENCE, 

AND AFTER SINGING AT TORONTO FOR NINE YEARS, 

DIED THERE ON THE 14TH OF MARCH, 1843, 

UNIVERSALLY REGRETTED. 



82 



Home I Home ! Sweet Home ! 



THE LONG TROT. 



Chap. VI. 



I resolved to inspect every dis- 
trict in the province, and accordingly, during 
the two summers I was in Canada, I employed 

mys elf in this duty. 

jThe plan I pursued was, to give notice of the 

f time and place at which I proposed to enter 

each district; and accordingly, on my arrival, 

I generally found assembled, on horseback, 

people of all conditions, who, generally from 



165 



good feelings, and occasionally from curiosity, 
had determined to accompany me through 
their respective townships./ _ _^, 

^JThe pace I travelled at, from morning till 
five or six o'clock in the evening, was a quiet, 
steady, unrelenting trot ; and in this way I pro- 
ceeded many hundred miles, listening some- 
times to one description of politics and some- 
times to another — sometimes to an anecdote 
and sometimes to a complaint — sometimes to 
a compliment and sometimes, though very 
rarely, to observations evidently proceeding 
from a moral region "on the north sideofj 
friendly/y ~~~~ 



I thus visited all the cities, towns, and 




/ -> 

;.1.,» .» PORTRAIT PUNTED AT Vt £ A1E o T FOP.TT. 



largest villages : all the principal locations — 
99 

__3The flooding of the wilderness was a sen- 
tence of death to every tree whose roots re- 
mained covered with water ; and yet no sooner 
was this operation effected than Nature ap- 
peared determined to repair the injury by con- 
verting the fluid which had created the devas- 
tation into a verdant prairie ; and accordingly 
from the hidden soil beneath there arose to the 
surface of these artificial lakes a thin green 
scum, which gradually thickened, until the 
whole surface assumed the appearance I have 
described. I 



NARRATIVE 



MISSION OF THE UNITED BRETHREN 



AMONG THE 



DELAWARE AND MOHEGAN INDIANS, 



FROM ITS COMMENCEMENT, IN THE YEAR 1740, TO THE 
CLOSE OF THE YEAR 1808. 



COMPRISING 

ALL THE REMARKABLE INCIDENTS WHICH TOOK 

PLACE AT THEIR MISSIONARY STATIONS 

DURING THAT PERIOD. 

INTERSPERSED WITH 

ANECDOTES, HISTORICAL FACTS, SPEECHES OF IN- 
DIANS, AND OTHER INTERESTING MATTER. 



BY JOHN HECKKWELBKR, 

Who was many years in the ffruta of that Mitjton, 



PHILADELPHIA: 

PUBLISHED BY M'CARTY & DAVIS. 

1820. 



166 



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168 



FRANK FORESTER'S 

FIELD SPORTS 



UNITED STATES, 



BRITISH PROVINCES, OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Th<*n I .■« exhilaration to the chair - 
Not bodily only, * * • • • 

It torn minfled rapture, and we find 
The bodily spirit mounting to the mind. 

Sir Egerton Brydget. 



HENRY WILLIAM HERBERT; 

AUTHOR OF "MY SHOOTING BOX," "THE WARWICK WOWDLAND,,' 

" MABMASTTKE WYVIL," " CROMWILL," " THE BRDTHER9," 

"THE EOMAN TRAITOR," fcC, 4.0 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. I. 

NEW- YORK: 
STRINGER & TOWNSENP. 

(Late Burgess, Stringer & Co ) 

SSIS IEOADWAY. 

1849. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME ONE. 

Pass. 
Introductory Observations ........ 1 

The Game or North America 30 

Utland Shooting . , . ■ 45 

The Pinnated Grouse ........ 49 

The Ruffed Grouse . . .64 

The Canada Grouse . . .... 7] 

American Quail . ....... 80 

The Woodcock . 86 

Common Snipe .... ...... 91 

Bartram's Tattler 94 

The American Hare ......... 100 

The Northern Hare 103 

The Mallard 106 

The Dusky Duck .110 

The Blue-Winged Teal . . . / . . . 1 . . .115 

The Green-Winged Teal , . 119 

The Summer Duck 193 

The Pintail Duck 138 

Sr-Rma Snipe Shooting ......... 137 

Summer Woodcoce Shooting 169 



Upland Plover Shooting 309 

Autumn Cock Shooting • 310 

■ Quail Shooting • 319 

Ruffed Grouse Shooting ........ 340 

Grouse Shooting ........ 348 

Autumn Shootino 357 

Rail ; and Rail Shootino 368 

Duck Shootino, on Inland Waters . . • • • ■ 393 

Sporting Dogs 313 

The Setter .313 

The Pointer 328 

The Cocking Spaniel .333 

Kennel Management 335 

Alteratives 343 

Laxatives and Purgatives . . . . . . • • 344 

Distemper 347 

Worms 350 

Poisons 351 

Mange 351 

Ophthalmia 353 

Sore Feet 353 

Field Management of Dogs .... ... 354 

30 
THE GAME 

OF THE 

UNITED STATES AND BRITISH PROVINCES. 




AME is not every thing which ex- 
ists in the shape of birds or beasts 
3 t in a state of nature, Jerez naturd,m 
the woods, the wastes, or the wa- 
ters. 

This, to sportsmen, self-evident 
proposition is by no means gen- 
erally admitted or applied by the 
gunners of the United States, or 
the recorders of their feats ; as will 
be readily seen by those who peruse the registers of game killed, 
in the great hunting parties which are constantly occurring in 
the more remote districts of the Eastern and Midland States — 
registers in which we shall find Owls, Hawks, Bluejays, Robins, 
Pigeons, Squirrels ; nay, even Skunks, Ground-hogs, and Opos- 
sums enumerated as game. 

Game is an arbitrary term, implying, in its first and most 
correct sense those animals, whether of fur or feather, which 
are the natural pursuit of certain high breeds of dogs, and 
^rhich such dogs, whether they have ever met with the animal 
before or not, will instinctively follow and take. 

Thereafter, it comes to signify all animals which are so pursued 
by dogs for the purpose of sport, not of obtaining food, or of 
destroying a noxious animal merely, and to which certain cour- 
tesies, if I may so express myself, are shewn, and certain semi- 
chivalrous usages extended. 

SI 

At the same time, with but two exceptions that occur to me, 
no animal can properly be game which is not fitted for the table, 
and the flesh of which is not delicate, and esteemed a rarity. 



169 



38 

Of the first, second and third of these genera, there are but 
three species found on this continent, one of each. 

(/The Bison, Bos Americanus, peculiar to North America. >. 
The Rocky Mountain Sheep, Ovis Montana ; and I 

The American Antelope, or Pronghorn. 

Cj Of the Deer there are five varieties found in the territories of 
the United States and the Provinces, namely — 

The Moose, Cervus Alces ; 

The Elk, Cervus Canadensis ; 

The Cariboo, American Reindeer, Cervus Tarandus ; 

The Common Deer, Cervus Virginianus ; and 

The Black-tailed Deer, Cervus Macrotis. 

Of the Hare there are two varieties known on this continent : 
The Common Hare — vulg. Rabbit — Lepus Americanus ; and 
The Northern Hare, Lepus Virginianus. 

Of the Bear also there are two varieties : 

The Common Brown Bear, Utsus Americanus; and 
The Grisly Bear, Vrsus Horribilis. \ 



\ 



38 

All the game birds, proper, of this continent, then, belong to 
three orders ; one of land, and two of — as they are called — wa- 
ter birds ; although several species of the latter are found inland 
and on uplands. 

All our game, coming under the head of land-birds, proper, 
are of the order termed by ornithologists Rasores ; and belong to 
two families, Pavonida, and Tetraonida ; or birds following the 
types of the Peacock, and of the Grouse. Of these again we 
have three subdivisions — Meleagris, or Turkey ; Ortyx, or Ame- 
rican Quail ; and Tetrao, or Grouse. 

Of the second* family Pavonida, and first genus Meleagris, the 
United States possess but one species. 

The Wild Turkey. Meleagris Gallipavo. 
36 



1. The Common American Quail, 

2. The Californian Quail, 

3. The Plumed Quail, 

4. The Welcome Quail, 

5. The Painted Quail, 

6. The Douglass Quail, 



^6. 1 



Ortyx Virginiana ; 
Ortyx Calif ornica; 
Ortyx Plumifera ; 
Ortyx Neoxena ; 
Ortyx Picta; 
Ortyx Douglasii 



The ten American species of Grouse are as follows' : 

1. The Common Ruffed Grouse, Tetrao Umbellus ; 

2. The Pinnated Grouse — or the Heath-Hen, Tetrao Cupido , 
) 3. The Canada Grouse — or Spruce Grouse, Tetrao Cana- 

l densis ; 
j 4. The Dusky Grouse, Tetrao Obsatrut ; 



37 



5. The Cock of the Plains, Tetrao Urophasidnus ; 

6. The Sharp-tailed Grouse, Tetrao Phasianellus ; 

7. The Willow Grouse, Tetrao Saliceti ; 

8. The American Ptarmigan, Tetrao Mutus ; 

9. The Rock Ptarmigan, Tetrao Rupestris ; and 

10. The White-tailed Ptarmigan, Tetrao Leucuras. 



38 



flit. The Common American Coot, Fulica Nigra, which is a^ 

and salt j 



(marshes from Pennsylvania eastward. 



Of the Rail, three species are well known to all our sports- 
30 

list. The Virginia Rail, Rallus Virginianus ; > 

/2nd. The Clapper Rail — Vulg. Meadow, or Mud, Hen — 

alius Crepitans ; 

3rd. The Common Sora Rail, Rallus Carolinus, which is the 
bird killed in such abundance on the flats and reed-beds of the 
Delaware in autumn. 



The fourth family, Scolopacida, contains almost all our best 
and most delicious species for the table, and those which are 
most eagerly pursued and most highly prized by the genuine 
i portsman. _____ 

All the genera of this family are game, and scarcely one but 
contains some favorite species. 

The first is Tringa, Sandpiper, of which we have eight or nine 
varieties, classed indiscriminately with the next two genera, as 
Bay birds, by our gunners. 

The second, Totnnus, Tatler, contains seven species, all of 
ich are common along the Atlantic seaboard, and four, at 
least, of which are universally known and general favorites. — 
The first I regard, myself, as the best bird that flies, in an epi- 
curean point of view, not excepting even the world-famous can- 
vass back. The varieties are — 

1. The Upland Plover, Grass Plover, or Frost Bird, Tota- 
%ut Bartramius ; 

2. Semi-palmated Snipe, or Willet, Totanus Semipalmntus • 



40 



3. Spotted Tatler, Totanus Macularvs ; 

4. Solitary Tatler, Totanus Solitorius ; 

5. Yellow Shanks Tatler, Lesser Yellow Leg, Totanus 
_Flavipes ; 

6. Telltale Tatler, Greater Yellow Leg, Totanus Vodfc- 
^rus; and f — 

7. Green Shanks Tatler, Totanus Glottis. J 



common autumnal visitant of all the coasts, bays and 



Of these the Upland Plover, the Willet, and the two Yellow 

Legs are very general favorites. The first is an excellent bird ; 

the others, me judice, are, nine times out of ten, uneatably fishy 

or sedgy. 

The third genus, IAmosa, Godwit, has but one species which 

v isits us. 

J The Great Marbled Godwit, or Straight-billed Curlew, ' 
tLimosa Fedoa, frequently killed with the Sandpipers, Plovers and 
^Tatlers on th e Long Island bays, and the shores of New Jersey ., j 
jThe fourth genus, Sco/opax, has three species known to every 

sportsman ; two his most chosen game. They are — 

1. Wilson's Snipe — vulg. English Snipe — Scolopax Wil- 
sonii ; 

2. Red-breasted Snipe — vulg. Quail Snipe — ScohpaxNo- 
veboracensis ; and 

3. The American Woodcock, Scolopax Minor. 

The other genera, each containing one species, are the 
Recurvirostra, Avosets ; Himantopns, Stilt ; and Numenivs, 
Curlew ; all of which are well known to our fowlers, though, 
^with the exception of the last, all falsely termed Bay Snip ed 
41 

\ We now arrive at the last order, Natatores, swimmers, of 
[which, to take cognisance, under the head of its second family, 



\ Anatida. The second genus of this family, Anser, Goose, gives 
jus four species, though two, the third and fourth, are far from 
J common. The first and third are decidedly the best of our sea 
I fowl. 

1. The Canada Goose — Wild Goose — Anser Canadensis; 

2. The Barnacle Goose,* Anser Leucopsis ; 

3. The Brant. Goose — Brant — Anser Bernicla ; / 
4.' The White-fronted Goose, Anser Albifrons ; and 
o. The Snow Goose, Anser Hyperboreus. f ' 



170 



h 



The third genus, Swan, affords two species to North America, 
but the second only belongs to the Eastern States ; the Trump- 
eter ranging only through Northern California to the fur coun- 
tries, from westward of the Ohio. 

1. The Trumpeter Swan, Cycnus Buccinator ; and] 
^2. The American Swan, Cycnus Americanus. 



The fourth genus, .Anew, Duck, contains ten species, every one 
of which, with the exception of the fourth, is well known to all 
sportsmen ; they are of the finest quality for the table, and pre- 
ferable to all others, with the exception of the Canvass Back, 
and perhaps the Red Head. They are as follows : 
\ 

1. The Mallard — vulg. Green Head — Anas Boschas ; 

2. The Dusky Duck— vulg. Black Duck— Anas Obscura ; 

3. The Gadwall, Anas Slrepera ; 

4. Brewer's Duck, Anas Brewerii ; 

5. The American Widgeon, Anas Americana ; 

6. The Pintail Duck, Anas Acuta; 

7. The Wood Duck, Summer Duck, Anas Sponsa ; 

8. American Green-winged Teal,! Ana s Carolinensis. 



42 



9. The Blue-winged Teal,* Anas Discor's, and 
10. The Shoveller, Anas Clypeata. 

The fifth genus, Fuligula, Sea Duck, contains sixteen species, ' 
several of which are well known, and the two first prominent 
I above their race. They are — 



I se 



I 1. The Canvass Back Duck, Fuligula Valisneria; 
, — I 2. The Red-headed DvcKf — vulg. Red-head — Fuligula 
]MariM ; 

^ 3. The Scaup Duck, Fuligula Marila ; 

J 4. The Ring-necked Duck, Tufted Duck, Fuligula Rufi- 
\torques ; 

A 5. The Ruddy Duck, Fuligula Rubida ; 

6. The Pied Duck, Fuligula Labradora ; 

7. The Velvet Duck, Fuligula Fusca ; 

8. The Surf Duck, Fuligula Perspiculata ; 
J 9. The American Scoter, Fuligula Americana ; 

10. The Eider Duck, Fuligula Mollissima ; 

11. The Golden-eye Duck, Fuligula^Clangula ; 

12. The Buffel-headed Duck, Fuligula Albeola ; 

13. The Harlequin Duck, Fuligula Histrionica ; 

14. The Long-tailed Duck — vulg. South-southerly — Fu- 
Hgula Glacialis ; 

V15. The Kino Duck, Fuligula Spectabilis ; and 
Il6. The Western Duck, Fuligula Dispar. 

The sixth genus, Mergus, Merganser, contains three well known 
species, which, commonly shot and of rare beauty, are all nearly 
worthless as articles of food, so rank and fishy is their flesh. 
They are, as follows 

1. The Goosander — vulg. Sheldrake — Mergus Merganser ; 

2. The Red-breasted Merganser, Mergus Serrator ; and 

3. The Hooded Merganser, Mergus Cucullatus. 



46 
UPLAND SHOOTING 



NORTHERN STATES AND BRITISH PROVINCES. 
138 



__£Now the shooting of these birds in spring, as they are either 
pairing here preparatory to breeding, or moving northward pre- 
paratory to pairing, or even actually breeding — as is the case 
when they are shot in May — is precisely what it would be to 
shoot Woodcock in February, March, and April, or Quail so late 
as to the middle of May ; the destruction of the breeders, and con- 
sequent diminution of the number of the next year's young, being 
the same in both cases. The American Snipe lays four eggs ; 
the death, therefore, of every Snipe during spring shooting is 
equivalent to the death of five of these beautiful and sporting 
Jittl e bird s. 

This, one would suppose, would be conclusive against the 
practice ; but if he venture to break ground in favor of the abo- 
lition by law of this unfair, and I must think, unsportsmanlike 
practice, he is met and silenced by some such exquisite reason as 
this — that if spring Snipe-shooting were prohibited, we should 
have no spring shooting at all ; and the same exquisite reason is 
adduced against the only step which can save the Woodcock 
from extermination, I mean the abolition of summer cock- 
shooting; 

To return, however, to spring Snipe-shooting, as it is. 

So soon as the spring is fairly broken, and the frost — to use 
a common phrase — entirely out of the ground, the Snipe 
begins to appear upon our meadows. This breaking of the 
spring, and disappearance of the subterranean frost is, as is well 
known, very uncertain as regards the time of its occurrence. 




169 

SUMMER WOODCOCK SHOOTING. 



HE wisdom of our game laws lias 
decided that Woodcock shall be kill- 
ed and taken, by all and sundry, in 
the State of New- York, on and after 
the first, in the State of New Jersey 
on and after the fifth day of July ; 
although in the latter State the prac- 
tice of the sovereign people has de- 
termined that the fourth is the day intended by the enactment, 
and on the fourth, accordingly, the slaughter commences. In 
Pennsylvania, and Connecticut, practice at least, if not law — 
and until recently, if there be now, there was no statute on the 
Subject — has prescribed the same, or nearly the same period, 
for the commencement of Cock-shooting ; and even in those 
counties of New- York to which the enactment of these game 
laws, such as they are, does not extend, tacit agreement has 
prescribed the same regulation, at least among sportsmen. 

So far, indeed, has this practice been carried, that by means 
of a convention of this sort, the shooting of Woodcock is ta- 
booed, until the fourth of July, even in the islands of the Great 
Lakes and the Detroit River. Tho example was set by the 
officers, I believe, of the American and British garrisons at 
Detroit and Amherstberg, acting in concert, and the practice 
has almost become common law. 

The fact is, therefore, that everywhere through the United 
States and the British Provinces, whether there is or is not any 
distinct law on the subject, the commencemect of July is as 



170 

On the first of July, then, Woodcock shooting legitimately 
commences ; although before that day hundreds, nay thousands, 
are killed along the sea-board, and notoriously offered for sale 
by almost all the restaurateurs and hotel-keepers in New- York, 
the utmost efforts of the Sportsman's Club to the contrary not- 
withstanding. 

At this period-, about four-fifths of the birds — the young 
birds, of course, I mean — are half grown or thereabout, some 
only being a few weeks old, and others, in late and adverse 
seasons, scarcely hatched. 

SOI 
UPLAND PLOVER SHOOTING. 



171 




ITH the end of July, all that can 
properly be called shooting, as a gen- 
uine sport, is at an end. The Wood- 
cock, as I have already stated, is no 
longer to be found, whether he be 
lying perdu on the mountain tops, or 
off on a wilder wing for the far north. 
rFHtfluufcl ||i jJ'JlgS; The Snipe has not yet begun to re 
turn from his arctic breeding places ; the Quail is still busy 
with her eggs, or her fledgling cheepers; and the Ruffed Grouse, 
I although her young are already two-thirds grown, is protected 
l_ by the gam e-laws until the first d ay of November.^ 

203 

In the meantime, however, while there is no legitimate 
upland shooting to be had — by legitimate, I mean that, which 
is followed with dogs, whether Setter, Pointer or Spaniel, in a 
legitimate and scientific manner — there comes into play, at the 
very critical moment, the " Bartramian Sandpiper," better 
known as the "Upland Plover" — " Grass Plover" — "Field Plo- 
ver," or " Frost Bird" — which as far as a bonne bouche for the 
epicure goes, is inferior in my judgment to no bird that flies, 
unless it be the Canvass-Back; and there, with the Chancellor, 
J doubt ! 

This bird, which by the way is not a Plover, though very 
nearly allied to that species, is stated by Mr. Aububon to arrive 
in the Middle States, early in May, to reach Maine by the mid- 
dle of that month, to breed from Maryland northward to the 

S ashatchewan. and to winter in Texas an d Mexico. / 

f it is shot, in the Eastern and Middle States, from Massachu-J 
I setts to Pennsylvania, during the months of August andl 
1 Septe mber, and in fact, until it is ' driven southward by the ' 
I frosts;! 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME TWO- 

Pmi, 

Bat Shooting ... ... 7 

, Bay Snipe 9 

Wild Fowl 44 

Wild Swam 44 

WUd Geese 57 

Sea Ducks .... 74 

Bay Shooting 1 13 

Fowl Shooting on Lono Island 123 

Chesipf.uk Bay Shooting 133 

Wild Sportino of tiii Wildernes< 146 

The Bison 149 

The Elk 159 



The Moose 

The Reindeer, Cariboo 
The American Deer 
The Black-tail Deer 
The American Antelope 
The Rocky Mountain Goat 
The American Black Bear 
The Grizzly Bear 
The Wild Turkey . 
Forest Sports 

Moose and Cariboo Hunting 
Deer Hunting 

Prairie Sports 

Bison and Eik Hunting 

Antelope Hunting 

Bear Hunting 
Mountain Sports 



Goat Hunting 

Turkey Shooting 

L'Envoy 

Appendix A: — The Fish and Fishing of North America 
Appendix B : — Sporting Nomenclature . . 
Appendix C: — A few Memoranda for Sportsmen 
Appendix D : — Canine Madness ■ 

History of Rabies 

Symptoms of Ral> es . . . . 

The Taciturn Rabies 

Medical Treatment of Rabies .... 

Appendix E : — Game Laws 

Note 

General Index 

307 



166 
172 
173 
176 
178 
183 
184 
186 
195 
199 
204 
239 
253 
254 
263 
267 
292 
293 
297 
300 
303 
307 
511 
318 
320 
327 
334 
341 
353 
356 
357 



SPORTING NOMENCLATURE. 

It has been suggested to me by a friend, from whom no sug- 
gestion is to be disregarded, William T. Porter, Esq., of the 
Spirit of the Times, -that the appropriate sporting nomenclature 
and terms are so little understood, or so much neglected here, 
that a brief compilation of the most remarkable in general use, 
would be an addition to this work, not unacceptable to the 
sporting world of America ; and agreeing with him in the fact, 
I have readily fallen into his views. 

I shall proceed, therefore, to give first, the technical name for 
a single hatching of young from every game bird — that I mean 
which we call a brood, when speaking of chickens — I shall then 
go on to the technical term for larger collections of game birds, 
such as we should call flights or flocks, if speaking of small 
birds ; and, lastly, I shall point out to what birds, or animals, 
the words brace, leash, and couple, are properly applicable. 

Turkeys, a single hatching of, is a brood. 

•Pheasants, " " " nide. 

^Partridges, " " " covey. 



ItGROOSE, 


before they can fly, 


brood. 


I " 


afterward, 


pack. 


Quail, 




bevy. 


Woodcock, 




brood. 


Snipe, 




brood. 



• Observe here, that neither Partridge nor Pheasnnt exiting in America, 
the words nide and covey are useless. What is generally called, (herefore, a 
cover/ of Partridges is a pack of Ruffed Grouse- 

t When we use the term Grouse alone, the Pinnated Grouse is understood 
to be intended. 



308 



172 



I For largo flocks of Wild-fowl, we say of — 
Swans, a whiteness. 
Geese, a gaggle. 
Brent, a gang. 

Duck, a team, — smaller number, a plump. 
Widgeon, a company, or trip. 
Teal, aflock: 
Snipe, a whisp. 

Plovers, and all Snore Birds, a flock. 
Bitterns and Herons, a sege. 
Larks, an exaltation. 
Grouse, \ 

Partridge, > several hatchings united, a pack. 
Quail, ) 

The young, not full-grown, of Grouse are cheepert, of Quail 
iqtiea kers, of Wild-duck fl appers. [ ^ ™~ ' ————,- — 
s many as go together of — 
Bison, vulgo Buffalo, 



1 



. herd. 



a gang. 
a drove. 



Stags, 

Moose, 

Cariboo, 

Elk, 

Wolves, 
The female of the — 

Bison, \ 

Moose, > is a Cow. 

Cariboo, ) 

Elk, Doe Elk. 

Stag, or Hart, Hind. 

Buck, Doe. _ 

' The terms Stag or Hart, and Hind, are applied to the Red Defr. 

" Buck, ' and Doe, " Fallow Deer. 

The Deer of America is nearly akin to the Red Deer, and 
has no relation to the Fallow Deer ; therefore, unless as ap- 
plied to the Goat, or Antelope, as a qualification of sex, the 
words Buck and Doe are misnomers in American Sporting. 



309 



are a brace, — three are a leash. 



are a couple, — three are a 
couple and a half. 



' Two Grouse, 

" Pheasants, 

" Partridge, 

" Quail, 

- Hares, 

" Leverets, 
Two Woodcock, 

" Snipe, 

" Wild-fowl of all kinds, 

" Plover, and Shore Birds, 

" Rabbits, 

And the applying these terms vice versd is a bad sporting 
blunder. All large game, as Deer, Swans, Geese, Herons, are 
numbered numerically, as one, two, three, &c. 
Two Hounds, \ 

" Harriers, > are a couple, — three are a hurdle. 

" Beagles, ) 
Two Pointers, 

" Setters, 

" Spaniels, 

" Greyhounds, 

" Terriers, 
All other dogs are reckoned numerically. 
By apack of hounds, five-and-twenty couple is generally undor- 
itood, though it is not usual to take out, except where the woods 
re very large and dense, above eighteen or twenty couple. 



• are a brace, — three are a leash. 



When a Stag breaks covert the cry is tayho ! 

" Fox " |_ talliho ! whoop 



2) 



I " Hare, found sitting with Harriers, tantaro ! 

' " " " with Greyhounds, soho ! 

To make Pointers, or Sktters, stand, toho ! 

" " drop to shot, charge ! 

" " " come beliiml, heel ! 

" " " careful, steady ! 

" " " rise from the charge, hold vp ! 

" " " hunt for killed game, seek dead I 

« " " when found, fetch! 

310 

When any animal is killed before hounds, the death halloo is 
invariably who-whoop I 

When any animal turns on the hounds, he is at bay ! 

When a Stag is driven by hounds to water, he soils ! 

When a Fox " " to ground, he earths I 

When an Otter, after diving, breaks water, he vents ! 

And, lastly, to correct some ver y common errors of parlance, 
— A Horse never runs ; he walks, ambles, trots, paces, canters, ) 
gallops. These are all his paces. ^ 

A Horse- is by his sire, and out o/Tiis dam. Not vice versd, as 
the common phrase goes here. 

A male Horse is a stallion. 

A collection of Horses is a stud. The application of the latter 
term to the male Horse, is not merely vulg ar squeamishness, but 

sh eer nonsense. 

CThe female of a Fox is a vixen ; of a Dog, a bitch, n ot a slut ; J 
and the use of the latter word is far the more objectionable of 
the two, as implying an improper consciousness. 



HISTOKY 



WESTERN MASSACHUSETTS. 



THK COOXT1EH or 



HAMPDEN, HAMPSHIRE. FRANKLIN, AND BERKSHIRE. 



EMBRACINO AN OUTLINE, OR OENERAL nTSTOIlY, OF TnE SECTION, AN 

ACCOUNT OF ITS SCIENTIFIC ASPECTS AND LEADINQ INTERESTS, 

AND SEPARATE HISTORIES OF ITS ONE HUNDRED TOWNS. 



JOSIAH GILBERT HOLLAND. 

Sn <Ejio ftotnmts anil <fl)ttt ^Jmts. 

VOL. LT,— Part ITJL 



SPRINGFIELD: 

PUBLISHED BT SAMUEL BOWLES AND COMTANT. 
1855. 



376 



173 



Dexter Marsh, the collector of the foss ils, of Connccti- 
?l!L.^il£ r il!i£^ April 2, 1853, aged £ 7. 

"of the history of those fossils will De proper in this place. I 
A discovery, indicating thai birds and other animals in- 
habited the earth during the deposition of the New Red I 
Sand-stone of the Connecticut River, was made in 1835, 

! in the South-west part of Montague. Their footprints arc 
impressed upon the .strata of this rock, in a very perfect 
state of preservation. The importance attached to these 

I vestiges, lies in the fact, that they reveal the existence of 
air-breathing, warm-blooded animals, in a period of thc^ 

[earth's antiquity, immensely remote.; 'lhc discovery oF 
such indications of the Higher gracJCof animal life so low 
down in the geological series, conflicted with established 
doctrines, and there was not a geologist in this country, or 
in Europe, who would admit the manifest con clusion at 
first drawn from tin • se eloquent inscriptions. j Tlm first? 
practical observer ol these foot-marUs, ami the discoverer 
of the fact that they were the foot-marks of birds, was Dr. 
James Deane of Greenfield; and it was by his efforts, 
through the means of descriptions, plaster casts, ice, that 
the attention of eminent scientific men was drawn to the 
subject. Dr. Edward Hitchcock of Amherst gave them 
the first thorough scientific investigation, and first publish- 
ed the discovery to the scientific world. He pursued the 
investigation of the subject with such care, such nice 
intelligence, and such thorough method, as forever to iden- 
tify his name with the discovery and the philosophical con- 
clusions of which it forms the basis: <{ 



377 

ATa later day the subject attracted the attention of Mr. 
Marsh, who pursued it with extraordinary vigor and suc- 
cess. Although the gentleman did not possess the advan- 
tages of education, yet by untiring activity, and by the 
acuteness of his judgment, he has been justly regarded as 
the Hugh Miller of the jS'cw Red Sandstone. lie was sus- 
tained by a singular enthusiasm until, by discovery upon 
discovery, he contributed a collection of inestimable value 
to this single department of paleontological science. His 
cabinet contained the record of innumerable birds, reptiles 
and fishes ; a record of unmistakable truth, that three 
classes of the animal kingdom flourished in al lluent abun- 
danc e during the sandstone era of the worlds /At his exe- 
cutor's sale in Sept., 1853, this magnificent collection real- 
ized nearly three thousand dollars, a significant evidence 
of its appreciation by the scientific public. Mr. Marsh 
originated in Montague, but lived in Greenfield for many 
pears previous to his death^j" 





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176 



« Familiar in their Months as HOUSEHOLD WORDS."— Suakispexri. 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 



51 Wnkk 3tamwL 



CONDUCTED Br 



CHARLES DICKENS. 



volume ni. 



NEW-YORK: 
ANGELL, EINLJEL & HEWITT, PRINTERS & PUBLISHERS. 

1851. 



378 



SOUTH AMERICAN SCRAPS. 

LA PLATA. 

It was in 1848-1849 that I made my visits 
to the Sierra or mountain, the Pampas or 
plains, and the Pampas-Indians of the vast 
province of Buenos Ayres — also called the pro- 
vince of La Plata. I was not thoroughly un- 
acquainted with the general nature or the 
principal features and remarkable aspect of 
the scenery and native population of the South 
American provinces ; neumhelcss, in the 
course of these visits, I was struck with as 
much of novelty and interest by the remark- 
able objects everywhere around me, as if my 
mind had not been previously impressed with 
any preconceived ideas of any of those objects, 
by means of the general information I pos- 
sessed. I expected to see an immense river, 
and many considerable rivers of less magni- 
tude, but whoso size, in many European 



TT=r^ 



177 



i Charles Pickens J 



SOUTH AMERICAN SCRAPS. 



379 \ 



countries would he estimated ns large; but I 
had conceived no expectation of beholding any 
co immense as the River Plate, or even as the 
Uruguay, or the Parana. I likewise expected 
to view a vast extent of plains proceeding 
from along the banks of La Plata further 
than eye could reach — but not an expanse so 
vast and characteristic as the Pampas. So of 
the mountains running in the interior of the 
province, I had no adequate conception of the 
Sierra. 

As an old traveller, I always feel more 
comfortable, if. before taking a journey into 
any unexplored region, I ascertain as much as 
possible of its geography. Possessed of such 
information, some obstacles have been cleared 
away from any line of route I may choose : 
and I certainly feel the safer and more con- 
fidence as I proceed through the unknown 
country. Let me, therefore, before taking 
you to the Sierra, or beyond, just lead you by 
the band, and proceed at a gentle pace to take 
a bird's eye view of La Plata. 

Look first on La Plata as much as you 
can see of its breadth and its length, and 
whatever your notion of it may be, I must 
confess that the more I behold in reality, or 
in memory, or in description, of this magnifi- 
cent river, its vastness impresses me more 
and more with that inexpressible feeling 
which I think no other object in nature, not 
even the wildest grandeur of the highest 
mountains, so powerfully inspires one with, 
after the first view, as the sublime expanse of 
waters, though peacefully slumbering in their 
might, c ommandinrr the majesty of silence 
around, t In breadth. La Plata equals that ol 
fthe" Amazons, and is navigable by vessels of 
/ considerable tonnage, even to the distance of 
four hundred leagues from its mouth. Of its 
vastness the European traveller will be able 
to form some idea from the fact, that one of 
the many tributary rivers flowing into La 
Plata, the Uruguay, is itself in magnitude 
one that surpasses the Rhine or the Elbe. 
In speaking of the Uruguay, it must not be 
forgotten that at its mouth its breadth is so 
great that the eye cannot fro n any point take 
in both its banks at one view — not even from 
the centre of the river ; and that proceeding 
two hundred leagues higher up, it requires 
inn hour to cross it./ 

In flholllCT tributary of La Plata, the 
Parana, itself an immense river, is the great 
Cataract (situated in the twenty-fourth degree 
of latitude, not far from the city of Gnayra), 
which, over the extent of twelve league*, hurls 
itself with ever-increasing rapidity and impe- 
tuosity over and amongst numberless rocks of 
very singular and startling forms. Of all the 
tributary rivers, the largest by far, it is 
asserted, is the Parana ; hence the natural 
designation of La Plata by the natives as 
the Parana, comprising all the aggregate 
rivers of I<a Plata and its tributaries. The 
Spanish designation, however, appears for 
geographical purposes the more suitable for 



adoption. The Parana — regarding it as a sepa- 
rate, though a tributary river — springs from 
the environs of Villa del Carmen, to the 
north of Rio dc Janeiro, and in its course flow- 
ing through a mountainous country, augments 
itself immensely, receiving, in its downward 
progress to the vast plains, numerous other 
streams. It likewise there receives the Para- 
guay, which originating in a plain in the 
north, called Campos-Paresis, that during the 
rainy season forms the Lake of Xaraves, is 
greatly augmented before it disembogues 
itself into the Parana, by receiving the Pil- 
comayo — itself a large river — which, having 
its source near Potosi, is the channel of all 
the inland navigation from the mines. The 
Vermeigo and the Salado also flow into La 
Plata from the side of the Andes, and the 
Uruguay from the side of Brazil. 

Bearing in mind, as far as you can, this 
assemblage of magnificent rivers, and the 
thousand minor streams perpetually rolling 
down the divers mountains of the far-extend- 
ing Sierra, picture an apparently interminable 
expanse of pampas, or plains not verdant, 
nor prairie-like in appearance, whose scarcely 
undulating surface forms a line of horizon 
scarcely broken, save by abrupt and almost 
perpendicularly rising mountains of extra- 
ordinary form and aspect, and numberless low 
hills among the intermediate valleys, inter- 
sected by innumerable rivers and streams, 
and covered by multitudes of wild cattle, — and 
you will then have a very inadequate idea of 
the vastness, the wildness, the magnificence, 
and the dreary and awe-inspiring peculiarities 
of those regions, thus possessed of so many of 
the grandest elements of picturesque beauty 
in its more savage aspects. 

The apparently interminable Pampas of 
Buenos Ayres are at a distance of one 
hundred leagues (three hundred English 
miles) south from the town of Buenos Ayres, 
almost equally divided by the remarkable 
chain of mountains termed the Sierra, which 
runs from east to west. Taking the south 
frontier of the Pampas to be the river 
Colorado, as it is usually considered, but with- 
out sufficient reason, we should find that the 
distance thence to the Sierra is little more 
than one hundred leagues. 

Before I proceeded to the Sierra, I had 
frequently heard and laughed at one of those 
trivial little superstitions which the gossips 
of every country delight in circulating. It 
is believed that, immediately on the arrival of 
every stranger who never before has seen the 
Sierra, it will infallibly rain. Let the learned 
in meteorology discuss this question if they 
please ; I can, at least, throw in one fact, 
namely, that for many weeks prior to my 
arrival at the Sierra, tho weather had been 
continuously dry. I approached the Sierra 
in the afternoon when it was decidedly fine 
and dry, as the glass would indicate ; never- 
theless, very soon after I had reached the 
Sierra, the heavens becamo covered with 



LAND, LABOR AND GOLD; 



OR, 



TWO YEARS IN VICTORIA: 



VISITS TO SYMEY AND VAN DIEMEN'S LAND. 



WILLIAM HOW ITT. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 



VOL. I. 



BOSTON: 

TICKNOR AND FIELDS. 

MDCCCLV. 



160 

It is curious that Dampicr in his Voyage round the 
World in 1688, never mentions the annoyance of flies 
anywhere but in Australia, though he had been in the hot- 
test regions of the West Indies, South America and the 
Indian Ocean ; which shows that here they are an un- 
exampled plague. Speaking of the natives he says : — 
* Their eyelids are always half-closed, to keep the flies out 
of their eyes ; they being so troublesome here that no fan- 
ning will keep them from coming to one's face ; and with- 
out the assistance of both hands they will creep into one's 
nostrils and mouth if the lips are not shut very close. So 
that from their infancy, being thus annoyed with these 
insects, they do never open their eyes as other people, and 
therefore they cannot see far, unless they hold up their 
heads as if they were looking at somewhat over them.' 

On Futter's Ranges we encountered too, for tho first 
time, the Australian nuisance of grass-seeds. When these 
become ripe, they arc like so many needles ; and it is a 
point to get the sheep washed and clipped before these 
seeds are ripe, or they fill the wool and ruin the fingers of 
all who attempt to clean, spin, or weave it. They seem 
furnished with little barbs or scales, which continually 



178 

push them forwards on the least motion, so that they 

~i ^t are forced through the ship's skins by thousands, and even 

1^ penetrate to the lungs ; for so long as there is any motion 

*•* GRASS-SEED NUISANCE 

where they are, they keep travelling forward till they 
meet with something too hard to penetrate. I have had 
Bkins shown to me after the sheep were killed, regularly 
bristled inside with the points of those vegetable needles. 
There are cranesbill geraniums also, the seeds of which 
penetrate the bodies of the sheep, only working forward 

in corkscrew fashion. 

^__JThe grass on these hills was up to the waist, and the) , 
seeds penetrated our light trousers in all directions, like! 
so many pins. It was intolerable. You could not walk] 
without agony, and we hastened back to the road as fasti 
as possible. Boots, they say, are the only defence against/ 
this nuisance, and the ladies in the bush wear tall lacedj 
ones. But to be secure from them, men must wear bootsj 
to the hips. I 



The hot weather has spoiled all the water. It is tepid 
and vapid and bitter. There are no rocks up this road, 
whence cool water gushes, no deep shaded springs ; the 
only places to get water from are the creeks, and in them 
the powerful sun drives off all the carbonic acid gas, which 
should give sharpness and freshness to it ; and the thou- 
sands of tons of gum-trees lying and rotting in these 
creeks, make it bitter and unwholesome. We hear that 
there is fine cool water at the Ovens. 
192 

All the meat that we get at the diggings is intolerably 
tough, partly because, the diggers say, the squatters arc 
killing off first what they call their hospital flocks — the 
scabbiest sheep, and those worn to skeletons with foot-rot ; 
and partly because it is obliged to be eaten immediately 
on account of the heat and the flies, which are truly de- 
scribed by a Melbourne advertiser of wire-gauze dish- 
covers, as j the insect pests of Australia.' / As for the little I 
black devil fly, I give up all attempts to convey any idea of I 
it as a perpetual torment; and the blow-flius we are t i uiie| 
contented with if they don't fly-blow ourselves. \ They blow 



your blankets or anything that has a particle of woollen in 
it. The other day, Charlton was skinning a flying squirrel 
just shot, and it was crawling with live maggots before he 
had finished. The other day we saw an ox in a dray, 
which had its eye burst, and there were actually dozens of 
maggots in it, eating it out. But stranger still, a gentleman 
in a party working near us, hurt his eye with the handle 
of a windlass ; and the next morning feeling a strange 
creeping sensation in it, he got up, and to his horror actu- 
ally saw it alive with maggots. 

In truth, this country seems the favorite home of insect 
life ; insects here are endless in numbers and form. Many 
are most singular and curious ; but the ants, the flics, the 
centipedes, and the scorpions are a terrific nuisance. The 
bite of all these is severe and venomous. There is a red 
spider too, whose bite is said to be deadly ; but the ants 
arc the most numerous, next to the flics. They cover the 

its 

whole surface of the ground, I might almost say of the 
whole colony, of all colors and sizes, and almost every 



179 



variety of them stings keenly. Nor is it llie ground only 
on which they swarm ; there is not a log lying on the 
ground, nor a tree standing in the forest, up and down 
whieh they arc not creeping in myriads. Trains of them 
are constantly ascending to the topmost twigs of the loftiest 
gum-trees, two hundred and fifty feet high, and other trains 
descending. They appear to be a main cause of the prev- 
alent hollowness of the trees, as they pierce to the centre 
of the youngest ones, and eat out and make their nests in 
their hearts. They eat the wood of the boughs, so that 
immense arms often fall off, with a sudden snap, just as if 
they had been cut asunder by an axe. The other day we 
cut down a young stringy-bark tree, and split it to make 
some trestles, and the heart of it was all eaten out and 
occupied by ants. These insects, many of them an inch 
long, fiercely contest the ground with us, when we are 
pitching our tent in any fresh place, and their sting is as 
severe as that of a wasp. 

333 

That night we encamped in a fine park-like situation, 

about two miles to the left of Kilmore, and were scarcely 

settled when it set in heavy rain. All night it was a 

perfect tempest of violent wind roaring through the woods, 

and of drenching, driving rain. The next morning it 

rained till eight o'clock, when it began to snow ; and it 

snowed ha rd the whole day till three o'clock . fAt the 

[commencement, the flakes of snow were the largest I ever 

'saw in my life. They were as large as the palm of my 

hand ; and one that I took up from the back of Buff would 

certainly have weighed half an ounce. As the storm 

1 proceeded, the flakes diminished to their ordinary size 



3y the time it cleared up the snow was three inches deep ; 
and in the defiles of the hills near, the settlers say it was 
three feet deep in some places. The most remarkable 
circumstance was the way in which the loads of snow 
crashed down whole trees, and the huge heads and branches 
of others. These evergreens, catching and retaining the 
whole weight of it (and the weight of this heavy, moist 
snow being great), when well loaded, they began to break 
off with tremendous reports. All round us in the forests 
these crashes were heard like repeated vollics of artillery. 



VOLUME TWO 



77 



TOHMUNT OF SAND-FUliS. 



fin our ride through the iron-bark woods here, our 
horses were tormented with one of tho greatest nuisances 
of the colony, the sand-flics. These flies are a kind of 
midge — small, filmy things, like the midges at homo; 
but they are not only extremely keen, but excessively 
venomous. They are as numerous as the grains of sand 
in the sterile iron-bark ranges. They cover the whole 
ground in spring ; and, as you advance, they rise up, and 
cover your horses' legs and chests, and puncture them in 
such a manner, that their legs arc totally covered, in a 
very few minutes, with blood. The horses, of course, 
become quite frantic with them, not being able to stand 
still for a moment; so that it is no trivial matter to go into 
a wood with them at this season. As the summer proceeds, 
I expect the birds cat them up ; but in spring they arc 



countless. Their effect on men is much worse than on [ 
horses. Wherever they bite the part swells excessively, 
and becomes a great, livid boil, as large as a walnut. I 
was bitten on the wrist last summer, in riding on the 
Sydney border, by one. The next day my hand was 
enormously swelled ; and then the swelling settled into 
one of these boils, which arc very sluggish and difficult to 
cure. This took more t han a month, an d would not heal 
t tjll treated with caustic. \ Another, tins sprint;, lias bitten 
The other hand ; and the venomous bite has gone exactly 

112 
LETTER XXVIII. 



Beautiful Birds and Flowers - ^Battles of Severed Bull-dog Ants— } 
Australian Porcupine — Enormous Amount <>:' Digging since Last 
Year — Diggers Grown Very Calculating — Summaries of Argus 
for England — Don't want Intellectual Wen here — Suffering of 
Immigrants from Want of Land — United States growing on our 
Folly — History of the Land Question — Grog Monopoly in 
Sydney, and Expulsion of Governor Bligh — Fresh Land Regula- 
tions from 1823 to 1847 — Squatting System completed by Orders 
in Council of 1817 — Lord John Russell's Town-allotment Regu- 
lations — Consequent Speculative Mania and General Ruin in 
■1842 — Present Position of the Land Question — Effects of Influx 
of Two Hundred Thousand People where no Land was to be Had 
— Draft of the New Constitution — "\Vhnt Victoria would be with 
Land. 

• Upper YackanJaai'la, December 18, 1853. 

This country is certainly a splendid field for the natur- 
alist. The animals arc most curious ; the birds are almost 
endless in variety, singular in habits, and the notes of 
many of them are peculiarly musical. We find fresh 
ones in every new part of the country that we visit. The 
Blue Mountain parrot, a splendid bird of deep red and 
brilliant blue, has many very musical notes. The flow- 
ers of the colony are immensely numerous in species ; 
and, though generally small, many of them are very beau- 
tiful. There grows in the woods here a clematis which 
we have seen nowhere else (Clematis appcndiculata) ; a 
very beautiful thing, with large white and very fragrant 
blossoms. This clematis hangs on the bushes and young 

113 
trees in lovely masses. There is a plant of it near our 
tent, running over the fallen bole of a huge blue gum-tree 
like a garland. It is worthy of a painter. There is also, 
.in the wet places of the woods, a yellow-flowered rush, 
which smells exactly like pine-apple (Xerotcs longifolia). 

The insects, as I have often said, are countless ; swarm 
everywhere and over everything. Their tenacity of life 
is most amazing. 1 have told you of the manner in which 
one half of a bull-dog ant fights the other if cut in two. I 
saw an instance of it just now, j Our giant cut one in twcTl 
that was annoying him. The head immediately seized tho 
body with its mandibles, and the body began stinging away 
manfully at the head. The fight went on for half an hour 
without any diminished sign of life ; and this is what they 



always do.j Instead of dying, as they ought to do, they 



set to and fight away for hours, if some of the other ants 
do not come and carry them away J whether to eat them 
or bury them we know not. But the flics immediately cat 
flies that are crushed, and ants cat the remains of crushed 
ants. 



180 



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181 



ure of the first Cliincsc Missionaries — Prosperity of the Religion 
under the Emperor Khnng-hi — Persecution under the Emperor 
Young-tching — Abandonment of the Missions — Numerous Depart- 
ures of the new Missionaries — Glance at the Present State of Chris- 
tianity in China — Motives of Hostility in the Government toward 
Christians — IndifFcrentism of the Chinese in matters of Religion — 
Honors paid to us on our Road — Halt at a Communal Palace — Trick- 
ery on the part of Master Ting — Navigation of the Blue River — Ar- 
rival at Kicn-tchcou 151 



CHAPTER V. 

Disputes 'with the Mandarins of Kien-tcheou — Intrigues to prevent us 
from going to the Communal Palace — Magnificence of this Palace — 
The Garden of Sse-ma-kouang — Chinese Kitchen — State of the 
Roads and Channels of Communication — Some Productions of the 
Province of Ssc-tchoucn — Use of Tobacco, in Smoking and taking 
Snuff — Tchoung-tching, a Town of the first Order — Ceremonies 
observed by the Chinese in Visits and Conversations of Etiquette — 
Nocturnal Apparition — "Watchmen and Criers of the Town — Fires 
in China— The Addition of a Military Mandarin to our Escort — 
Tchang-chcou-hien, a Town of the third Order — Release of three 
Christian Prisoners — Superstitious Practices to obtain Rain — The 
Dragon of Rain exiled by the Emperor 194 

CHAPTER VI. 

Bad and dangerous Road — Leang-chan, a Town of the third Order — . 
Disputes between our Conductors and the Mandarins of Leang-chan 
— A Day of Rest — Numerous Visits of Christians — A Military Man- 
darin of our Escort compromises himself — He is excluded from our 
Table — Great Trial presided over by the Missionaries — Details of 
this singular Trial — Acquittal of a Christian, and Condemnation of 
a Mandarin— Triumphal Departure from Leang-chan — Servitude and 
abject State of Women in China — Their Restoration by Christianity 
— Master Ting declares that Women have no Souls — Influence of 
W t'i;. en ill the Conversion of Nations- — Arrival at Yao-tchang — Hotel 
of the Beatitudes — Lodgings in a Theatre — Navigation of the Blue 
River— Plavs and Plavers in China... 23G 



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CHAPTER VII. 

Temple of Literary Composition — Quarrel with a Doctor — A Citizen 
in the Cangue — His Deliverance — Visit to the Tribunal of Ou-chan 
— The Prefect and Military Commandant of Ou-chan — Medical Ju- 
risprudence of the Cliincsc — Inspection of Dead Bodies — Frequent 
Suicides in China — Considerations on this subject — Singular Char- 
acter of Chinese Politeness — The Boundaries which separate the 
Frontier of Sse-tohonen from that of Hou-pe — Glance over Sse- 
tcliouen — Its principal Productions — Character of its Inhabitants—: 
Koiiang-ti, God of War, and Patron of the Mantchou Dynasty— Offi- 
cial Worship paid to him — Wells of Salt and Fire — State of Scien- 
tific Knowledge among the Chinese — State of Christianity in the 
Province of Ssc-tchoucn 277 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Arrival at Pa-toung, a Frontier Town of Hou-pe — Literary Examina- 
tions — Character of the Chinese Bachelor — Condition of Writers — 
Written Language — Spoken Language — Glance at Chinese Litera- 
ture — The Celestial Empire an immense Library — Study of Cliincsc 
in Europe — Embarkation on the Blue River — Salt Custom-house — 
Smuggling Mandarin — Dispute with the Prefect of I-tchang-fou — A 
Mandarin wishes to put us in Chains — System of Customs in China — 
I-toil-hicn, a Town of the third Class — Amiable and interesting 
Magistrate of that Town — Geographical Knowledge of the Chinese — 
Narrative of an Arab who traveled in China. in the ninth Century 
l>cforc the Christian Era 312 





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182 



RECOLLECTIONS OF A JOURNEY 



TARTARY, THIBET, AND CHINA, 



DCBIBO TM« TUU 



1844, 1845, AND 1846. 



BY M. A JtUC, 



■unoiui hut or ran coneucanoH or it. laiajuj*. 



VOLUME 1. 



NEW-YORK: 
IX APPLETON & COMPANY, 200 BROADWAY. 

ILDOOCIUI. 



[Condensed translation 
by Mrs, Percy Sinnett] 

CONTENTS OF VOL. L 



CHAPTEB L 



TABXAftT. 



French Mission to Pekln. — Tba Kingdom of Ounlot — Preparations for 
Departure.— Tartar Chinese Hostelry. — Change of Costume. — Sam- 
dadchlemba. — Sain Onla (the Good Mountain).— Frosts and Brigands 
of Saln-Oula. — First Encampment In the Desert — Great Imperial 
Forest— Buddhist Monuments on the Summit of Mountains. — En- 
virons of the Town of Tolon-Noor ._.. 13 



CHAPTEB IL 

Restaurateur at Tokm-Noor. — Appearance of tbo Town. — Great Foun- 
derlas of Bella and Idols. — Conversation with Lamas. — Encamp- 
ment — Brick Tea. — Meeting with the Queen of the Mourguevan. — 
Ylolent Storm. — War of the English against China, as described by 
a Mongol Chief — The Emperor's Flocks.— Tartar Manners and Cus- 
toms. — Encampment by the Three Lakes. — Nocturnal Apparitions. 
— Grey Squirrela.— ArrWal at Chaborte 84 



CHAPTEB 1IL 

Teast of the Moon's Loaves.— Festival In a Mongol Tent— Mongols m 
search of our lost Horses.— Ancient abandoned City.— Route from 
Pekin to KUktha.— Commerce between China and Russia.— Rus- 
slan CoBTent at Pekln.— Tartar Medicines.— Tho Devil of Inter- 
mittent Fevers.— The Lama Convent of the Five Towers.— Funerals 
of Tartar Kings.— Origin of the Kingdom of Efe.— Encounter with 
three Wolves 



66 



CHAPTEB IT. 

Yoaag Lama converted to Christianity.— Convent of Chortchi— Col- 
lection for the Construction of religious Edifices.— Aspect of Bud- 
dhist Temples.— Journey of Gulaos— Tamba to Pekln.— The Kou- 
rea of tba Thousand Lamas. — Lawsuit between the Lama King and 
Ma Ministers.— Purchase of a Kid.— Eagles of Tartary.— Western 
Tnmet— Agricultural Tartara.— Arrival at Blue Town 80 



CHAPTER T. 

OU Brae Town.— Tanners' Quarter. — Roguery of the Chinese Mer- 
chants.— Hotel of the Three Perfections.— Profitable Working of 
the Tartars by the Chinese. — Money-Cbangers.— Mongol Coiner of 
bad Money. — Purchase of Sheepskin Robes. — Camel Market— Cus- 
toms of the Camel Drivers. — Assassination of the Grand Lama of 
the Blue Town. — Insurrection of the Lama Convents. — Negotiations 
between (he Courts of Pekln and Lna-Ssa.— Lamas at Home. — 
Vagabond Lamas.— Lamas in Community. — Policy of the Mantchoo 
dynasty with respect to the Lama Convents. — Meeting with a Thi- 
betan Lama,— Departure from the Blue Town 98 

CHAPTEB VX 

Meeting with a Derourer of Tartars.— Great Caravan.— Arrival in the 
Night at Chagan-Kouren. — Refusal to receive us at the Inns. — Hos- 
pitable Reception at the House of a Shepherd. —Overflowing of the 
Yellow River. — Crossing the flooded Country. — Encampment under 
the Portico of a Pagoda.— -Embarkation of the Camels.— Passage of 
tfca Yellow River ». 188 



CHAPTEB YJX 

Bagulatioo of the Nomadic Life.— Aquatic and Migratory Birds.— 
Fishermen of the Paga-Gol Fishing Party.— Preparations tor Depar- 
ture. — Wounded Fisherman.— Passage of the Paga-Gol. — Dangers 
of the Route. — Devotion of Samdadchlemba.— Meeting with the 
First Minister of the King of the Ortoiia.— Encampment ISO 



CHAPTEB TIIL 

Country of Ortous. — Barren and sandy Steppes. — Form of a Mongol 
Tartar Government— Nobility. — Slavery. — Election and Eothronl- 
aattoo of a Living Buddha. — Lama Studies.— Violent Storm. — Re- 
fute to the Grottoes.— Meeting with a Tartar In a Cavern 1ST 



CHAPTEB TX 

XnoampmeDi In a fertile valley— Violence of the Cold.— Meeting wlib 
Pilgrims — Barbsrous and diabolical Ceremonies of Laroanism. — 
Dispersion and reunion of the little Caravan — Various kinds of Pil- 
grimages, — Prayer Mills. — Quarrel of two Lamas about ihelr Pray- 
ers.— The Dobaoon-Noor, or Salt Lake 188 



CHAPTER X. 

riiiJiase of a Sheep.- Mongol Butcher.— Tartar Banquet— Tartar 
Veterinary Surgeons. — Singular cure of a Cow. — Depth of the Wells 
of Ortoua. — Manner of watering Animals.— Meeting with the King 
ef Alewbaa, — Annual Embassy of the Tartar Sovereigns to Pekln. — 
Grand Ceremony at the Temple of Ancestors. — The Emperor distri- 
butes ftdee Money to the Mongol Kings.— Inspection of our Maps.— 
Derffi Cistern. - Purification of the Water.— Lama Dog.— Curious 
Aspect of the Mountains.— Paaaajra of the Yellow River 810 



so 

In the deserts of Tartary, not far from the frontiers 
of China, you sometimes come upon one of these lonely 
inns, which are composed of an immense quadrangular 
enclosure, made with long poles interlaced with bram- 
bles, in the midst of which stands a house of clay, at the 

21 
utmost not more than ten feet high. This contains a 
few little miserable chambers on the right and left, and 
one vast apartment, serving at once for kitchen, refectory, 
and dormitory, and generally dirty, smoky, and of un- 
savoury odour. About three fourths of it is taken up 
by a sort of raised platform about four feet high, and 
covered with a mat of reeds, over which wealthy tra- 
vellers also spread their furs and felt carpets. In front 
of it, fixed in clay, are some immense cauldrons for pre- 
paring broth, and with fires beneath, having openings 
communicating with the interior of the kang, as it is 
called, by means of which, even during the terrible cold 

of the winter, an elevated temperature is preserved. 

^_jAs soon as a traveller arrives, the superintendent of 
[the che st invites him to mount on the kang ;/and there 
you seat yourself tailor fashion, with crossed legs, round 
a table about five inches high. The lower part of the 
hall is occupied by the people of the inn, who come and 
go, keep up the fire under the kettles, boil the tea, or 
knead oaten or buck-wheat cakes for the entertainment 
of the guests. The kang, in the mean time, presents 
an animated scene. The travellers are drinking, smoking, 
playing, screaming, sometimes even fighting; but, as 
evening comes on, it is transformed into a dormitory. 
The travellers unroll their coverings, and range them- 
selves in rows ; when they are numerous, in two lines, 
feet to feet But, though every one lies down, it by no 
means follows that every one goes to sleep ; for whilst 
some snore most conscientiously, others continue to 
■moke, drink tea, and carry on vociferous conversation; 
and the whole scene is lit by a dim lamp, made of a 

22 
long wick floating in thick, nauseous-looking oil, in a 
broken cup fixed in a niche. 

As we wished to serve our apprenticeship to the 
Tartar life, we would not sleep in the inn, but pitched 
our tents outside ; and when we had kindled a large 
fire of brambles, and unrolled our skins, we lav down. 
/But no sooner bad we done so, than the " Inspector of) 
(jthe Darkness" (watchman) began to Strike loud blows J 
on the tamtam, a brazen instrument whose sonorous vi- 
brations re-echoed through the valley, and were intended 
to frighten away the wolves and other wild beasts that 
frequent these deserts. 

The day had scarcely dawned when we were again 
on foot ; but, before setting off, we had to effect a meta- 
morphosis in our costume. The missionaries who reside 
in China all wear the dress of the Chinese merchants, 
and have nothing in their costume to mark their reli- 
gious character. This custom, it appears to us, has 
been in some measure an obstacle to the success of their 
missions. For among the Tartars, a " black man," that 
is, a secular person, who undertakes to speak of religion, 
excites only contempt Religion they consider as an 
affair belonging exclusively to the Lamas. We resolved 
therefore, to adopt the costume worn on ordinary* occa- 
sions by the Lamas of Thibet ; namely, a long yellow 



183 



robe fastened by a red girdle, and five gilt buttons, with 
a violet velvet collar, and a yellow cap surmounted by 
a red rosette. We also thought it expedient from this 
time to give up the use of wine and tobacco, and when 
the host brought us a smoking urn full of the hot wine 
so much in favour among the Chinese, we signified to 
him that we were about to change our modes of life, as 

23 
well as our dress. u Tou know," we added, laughing, 
" that good Lamas abstain from smoking and drinking." 
But our Chinese friends regarded us with compassion, 
and evidently thought we were about to perish of priva- 

*""' 24 

The mountain we 

were climbing is called the Sain-Oula, that is to say, 
Good Mountain — a strange name, as it is famous for the 
disasters and tragic accidents met with on it ; and the 
way across it is rough, steep, and encumbered with 
masses of rock. It is also subject to such excessive cold 
that no winter passes without many travellers perishing 
upon it Instances have been known of whole caravans, 
men and animals together, being found dead of cold ; 
and to the danger of the temperature are added those 
of thieves and of wild beasts. The Bobbers indeed have 
regularly established themselves here, and lie in wait for 
travellers going to or coming from the town of Tolon- 
Noor ; and woe to the man who falls into their hands, 
for they do not content themselves with taking away 
his money and his goods, but strip him, and leave him 
to die of cold and hunger. Half way up this " Good 
Mountain" is a little temple dedicated to the goddess of 
k, who bears the name of the " Good Woman" (Sain- 
No*), and in the temple resides a hermit whose busi 

25 
ness it is to throw shovelsful of earth on parts of the 
road that the waters have rendered impracticable. This 
service gives him the right to a small contribution which 
suffices for his maintenance. 



The robbers of ihese countries are in general re- 
markable for the politeness with which they flavour 
their address. They do not put a pistol to your head, 
and cry roughly, " Your money or your life !" but they 
say, in the most courteous tone, " My eldest brother, I 
am weary of walking on foot Be so good as to lend 
me your horse P* or, "I am without money, — will you 
not lend me your purse ?" or, " It is very cold to-day ? — 
be kind enough to lend me your coat" If the eldest 
brother be charitable enough to comply, he receives 
thanks; if not the request is enforced by two or three 
blows of the cudgel, or, if that is not sufficient, recourse^ 
^ts had to the sabre.r 

34 

Oue entrance into the town of Tolon-Noor* was fatigu- 
ing and full of perplexity, for we knew not where to 
alight We wandered long through the labyrinth of 
narrow winding streets, where our camels could not 
without the utmost difficulty make their way, so en- 
cumbered were they with men and goods. At length 
we found our way to an inn, and, almost without taking 
breath, unloaded our camels, piled up our baggage in 
the little chamber assigned to us, ran to the market to 
buy fodd er for our animals, and distributed it among 
thenu^The master of the hostelry then came and^l 



184 



according to custom, presented us with a padlock,—! 
having fixed which on the door of our apartment, we \ 
■allied out to look for so me dinner for ourselves, for we / 
were exces sively hun gry, f We were not long in discov- 
ering a triangular flag, which floated before a certain 

35 

mansion as a sign of its belonging to a house of public 
entertainment 

We entered a spacious hall, where were distributed 
with great order and symmetry a number of small 
tables. We seated ourselves at one, and immediately 
a teapot was placed before each of us, for this is the 
obtigato commencement of every repast Before taking 
anythin g else you must drink a large quantity of boiling 
tea. ( While we were occupied in swelling ourselves out J 
f with this beverage, we r eceived the visit of the Steward/ 
cf the Table. | This is usually a personage of elegant 
manners, endowed with prodigious volubility of tongue, 
who is acquainte d with all countries and knows every- 
body's affairs ; ( but he concludes hJ8 harangue by asking^ 
for your orders; and, as you name the dishes, he repeats J 
what you say, aloud in a sort of singing voice, for thej 
instruction of the Governor of t he Kettle. J The meal is 
served with admirable promptitude ; but, before com- 
mencing, etiquette requires you to go round and invite 
all the guests in the room to join you. 

'« Come I Come all together !" you cry. " Come 
and drink a little glass of wine — eat a little rice." 

u Thank you, thank you !" responds the company ; 
" come rather and seat yourself at our table — it is we 
who invite you :" and then having, in the phrase of the 
country, " »hovm your honour," you may sit down and 
take your meal like a man of quality. 

46 

We had never yet traversed such fine countries as 
these in such fine weather. The wilderness is some- 
times terrible, but sometimes also it has its peculiar 
charms, and the aspect of Tartary is like that of no 
Other country. Among civilized nations you meet with 
populous towns, a rich and varied culture, countless 
productions of industry and art, and the incessant agi- 
tation of commerce. In those where civilization has 
not yet made its way, you find vast f orests with all the 
po mp of an exuberant vegetationj But Tartary resem-^ 

'bleu neither the one nor the other. It is a boundless 
prairie, sometimes broken up by immense lakes, majes- 
tic rivers, imposing mountains, but rolling away always 
into vast and immeasurable plains. You feel alone in , 

lit* gr een solitudes, as in the midst of the ocean.) 

Sometimes where the water and the pasture is fine, 
the plain suddenly becomes animated. You see rising 
on all sides tents of various sizes, looking like inflated- 
balloons, ready to rise into the air. Children with a 
sort of scuttle on their backs are running about looking 
for argola, which they pile up round the tent The 

47 

matrons attend to the young calves, boil the tea in the 
open air, or prepare the milk ; whilst the men, mount- 
ed on fiery horses, and armed with a long pole, gallop 
about in all directions, directing the movements of the 
vast flocks, which seen in the distance appear to undu- 
late like the waves of the sea. 



Sometimes these animated pictures disappear on a 
sudden ; men, tents, flocks, all have vanished, and noth- 
ing is left but heaps of cinders, half extinguished fires, 
and bones for which the birds of prey are fighting. 
These are all the traces that the nomadic Mongol has 
passed that way. The flocks and herds have devoured 
the grass, the chief has given the signal for departure, 
and the community has gone to seek elsewhere " fresh 
fields and pastures new." 

The next day, all the time that could be spared from 
our little housekeeping, and the recitation of our breviary 
was devoted to visiting in the Mongol tents. We found 
it needful, on approaching them, to look to the safety 

48 

of our legs, for enormous dogs rushed out of the m, with 
great fury, when ever we approached them.J A small 
stick was sufficient for our defence, but we had to lay it 
down at the threshold of each habitation, in compliance 
with Tartar etiquette ; for to enter a tent with a whip or 
stick in your hand, would be to offer the most outra- 
geous affront to its inmates, and imply , in then- own 
figurative style, that they were all dogs. J 

" The Tartar mode of presenting one's self is frank, 
simple, and free from the innumerable forms of Chinese 
courtesy. On entering the tent, you wish peace to every- 
body in general, saying Amor or Mendou, and then go 
at once and seat yourself at the right hand of the head 
of the family, who is crouching down opposite the door. 
A little tobacco is then mutually presented, and a few 
polite commonplaces exchanged. " Are your pastures 
fat and abundant?" — " Are your flocks in good order?" 
— "Have your mares been fruitful?". &c, pronounced 
with extreme gravity, and then the lady of the tent 
stretches out her hand towards the strangers, without 
speaking, and forthwith they produce the little wooden 
bowl, which is an indispensable vade mecum in Tartary, 
and she returns it to them filled with tea and milk. In 
tolerably opulent families, a tray is usually placed before 
visitors, with a modest collation of butter, oatmeal,, and 
slices of cheese, all in separate boxes of varnished wood ; 
and those who mean to be magnificent in their hospi- 
tality, plunge into the warm ashes near the fire a small 
earthenware bottle full of Mongol wine, a sort of spirit 
rudely distilled from milk, which one must have been 
born a Tartar to relish. 

St 

and this opinion was confirmed by the immense flocks 
of sheep and herds of oxen and horses which were gra- 
zing around. Whilst we were reciting our breviary in 
the interior of our tent, Samdadchiemba went to pay a 
visit to these Mongols, and we soon saw him returning 
towards us, accompanied by an old man with a long 
white beard, and a young Lama leading by the hand a 

ehjj jL * -— 

^•^"My Lord Lamas," said the old man, " all men are 
brothers ; but those who d well beneath tents are united 
as the flesh a nd the bone, f My Lord Lamas, come and 
seat yourselves in my poor dwelling. The fifteenth of 
the month is a solemn epoch ; you are travellers and 
strangers ; you cannot this evening occupy your place 
at tie fireside of your noble family. Come and repose 
yourselves for some days amongst us. Your presence 
wfll bring us peace and happiness." We told the good 



185 



old man that we could not quite accept his offer, but 
that in the evening after prayers we would come and 
take tea with him, and have a chat about the Mongol 
nation. The venerable Tartar retired, but soon after the 
young Lama who had accompanied him re-appeared, 
saying that we were expected. We did not like to per- 
sist in refusing an invitation so pressing and cordial, so 
having recommended the Dchiahour to watch carefully 
our abode, we followed the Lama to the Mongol tent 

On entering, we were surprised to find in it a cleanli- 
ness to which one is little accustomed in Tartary. There 
was no fire in it either, and we nowhere perceived any 
of the coarse cooking utensils which usually encumber 
Tartar habitations : it was easy to see that all had been 
arranged for a state occasion. 

57 

We seated ourselves on a red carpet, and there was 
soon brought from a neighbouring tent, which served as 
a kitchen, tea with milk, rolls fried in butter, cheese, 
dried grapes, and sweetmeats. 

We then made acquaintance with the numerous 
Mongol circle in which we found ourselves, and had a 
long conversation, from which it appeared that the old 
man was the only one of the company who was aware 
that the terrible remembrance of the Tartar massacre 
was associated with this festival. But after a moment's 
silence he said — " Holy men, however that may be, the 
day on which you have deigned to descend into our 
poor habitation is truly a day of rejoicing, and it is not 
well to occupy the heart with sad thoughts. — Child," he 
added, turning to a man who was seated near the 
threshold — "if the mutton is sufficiently boiled, take 
away the milk food." And whilst the person addressed 
cleared away the first course, the eldest son of the family 
entered, bearing a small oblong table, on which was 
placed an entire sheep, cut into four quarters. He 
placed the table in the midst of the circle, and imme- 
diately the head of the family, arming himself with the 
knife that was suspended at his girdle, cut off the tail 
of the sheep, divided it into two parts, and offered one 
to each of us. 

•0 

On the day following the f&te the sun had scarcely 
risen, when a young child appeared at the entrance of 
our tent, carrying a small wooden vessel filled with milk, 
nod having suspended on his arm a basket of reeds con- 
taining some new cheese, and a slice of butter. Soon 
afterwards came an old Lama, followed by a Tartar, 
with a sack of argols on his shoalders. We invited 
them to sit down in our tent, and the old Lama said — 
"Brothers of the West, deign to accept these little of- 
ferings which our master sends yon." 

We signified our thanks, and Samdadchiemba made 
haste to get tea ready, but when we pressed the Lama 
to wait for it he said—" I will come back this evening, 
hot I cannot at this moment accept your offer. I have 
not yet marked for my pupil the prayer which he is to 
study during the day," and as he spoke he pointed to 
the young child who had brought the milk, and taking 
his pupil by the hand, he returned to his habitation. 
This old Lama was the preceptor of the family, and it 
was his business to direct the child in the study of the 
Thibetan prayers. The education of the Tartars is very 
limited. Those only who shave their heads, learn to 



read and to pray, and, with the exception of the rich 
who let their children study at home, all the young 
Lamas have to go into the convents, where alone any 
vestige of learning or science is to be found. The Lama 
is not only the priest, he is the physician, architect, 
sculptor, painter, — he is the head, the heart, and the 
oracle of the laity. *•. 

The -young Mongol who does not enter into, a con- 
Tent is taught from his infancy the use of the bow and 
arrow, the gun, and especially the horse, on which he is 
placed 'almost as soon as he is weaned. He is first set 
on a crupper behind the person who is to teach him, to 
whose robe he clings with both hands ; but he soon be- 
comes accustomed to the movement of the animal, and 
at last almost identifies himself with his steed. 

There is scarcely a prettier sight than that of a 
Mongol pursuing an unbroken horse. Armed with a 
long heavy pole, at the end of which is a cord with a 
running knot, they throw themselves on the traces of 
the wild horse, dash down into rugged ravines, or along 
the declivities of mountains, and follow every turn till 
they come up with the chase ; then they take the bri- 
dle in their teeth, seize the pole with both hands, and, 
leaning forward, dexterously fling the cord over its neck. 
It will often happen that the cord or the pole wfll 
break, but I have never seen the cavalier dismounted. 
I A Mongol seems out of his element when he sets his \ 
[ foot on the ground ; his step is heavy ; the bowed/ 
(shape of his legs — his bust always stooping forward — 
Ihis eyes moving incessantly about, — all announce a man 
/who pas ses the great er part of his life on a horse or on 
a camel. 



u 



ten the Tartars travel during the night, it often 
happens that they do not give themselves the trouble 
to dismount in order to sleep ; and you may see a cara- 
van stop when it has reached a fat pasture, and the 
camels disperse themselves this way and that, and be- 
gin to graze, while the Tartars, astride between their 



62 

humps, are sleeping as soundly as if they were in their ) 

beds-C 

incessant activity contributes much to render 
the Tartar vigorous, and capable of enduring the utmost 
cold without being in the least inconvenienced. 

63 

As soon as ever we returned, we began our prepara- 
tions for departure ; and while we were in the interior 
*f the tent, putting our things in order, Samdadchiemba 
went in search of the animals that were grazing in the 
environs. A minute after he returned, leading the three 
camels;, and crying out, in a dismal voice, " Here are 
the camels, but where are the horse and the mule! 
They were here but just now, for I tied their feet to 
hinder them from running away : they must have been 
stolen. It is never right to encamp near Chinese. 
Don't every one know that the Chinese in Tartary are 
•11 horsestealers 1" 

These words came like a clap of thunder on us, but 
it was not the moment to give ourselves up to lamenta- 
tion ; it was necessary to go immediately in search of 
the thieves. 94 

hid, bat because the eagle, as he rose, had given him a 



box on the ear with the end of his wing. 
. . This accident rendered us more cautious in future. 
During our journey we had observed more than once 
eagles hovering over our heads, as if to spy our dinner 
hour ; but our oatmeal did not tempt the royal bird. 

The eagle is very frequently met with in the deserts 
of Tartary. They are never shot at, but make their 
nests, rear their young, and grow old, without encoun- 
tering any persecution from man. When resting on 
the ground there are some which appear larger than an 
ordinary sized sheep ; but before they can launch into 
the air they are obliged to make a long course, agitating 
their wings as they go; after which, when they have 
once cleared the earth, they rise as high as they please 
in the aerial space. 

After some days' march we quitted the country of 
the Eight Banners and entered Western Toumet 

The Mongol Tartars of Western Toumet are not no- 
madic : they cultivate the earth, and apply themselves 
to the arts of civilized life. We had been more than a 
month in the desert ; our taste had been insensibly mo- 
dified, and our temperament accommodated by its silence 
«nd solitude, and, [on re-entering cultivated lands, the 
agitation,, perplexity, and turmoil of civilisation oppress- 
ed and suffocated us ; the air seemed to fail us, and we 
felt every mom ent as if about to die o f asphyxia. /The 
''sensation, however, was of no long duration. After a 
time we found it more convenient and more agreeable 
afi^er a day's march to take up our lodging at an inn, 
well warmed, and well stocked with provisions, than 

95 
have* a tent to pitch, fuel to collect, and our scanty sup- 
per to cook, before we could take a little rest 

100 

There is only 

one which lodges simple tr avellers, and this is called 
J the inn of passing travellers?^ 

vVe were inquiring tor this inn, when a young man 
darted out of a neighbouring shop, and accosted us 
officiously. " You are looking for an inn," said he ; 
u permit me to conduct you to one myself;" and he 
began to walk by our side. u You will have a diffi- 
culty in finding what you want in the Blue Town. 
Men are innumerable here, but there are good and bad 
men, are there not, my Lord Lamas f and who does 
not know that the bad are always more numerous than 
the good. Listen while I say a word to you from the 
bottom of my heart. In the Blue Town you will hardly 
find a man who is guided by his conscience, yet con- 
science is a treasure. You Tartars, you know what 
conscience is. I know the Tartars, they are good, they 
have upright hearts ; but we Chinese, we are wicked, 
we are rogues. In ten thousand Chinese you will 
scarcely find one who has a conscience. In this Blue 
Town almost every one makes a trade of cheating the 
Tartan, and getting hold of their money." 

Whilst the young* Chinese was uttering all these 
fine words in an easy off-hand manner, he turned from 
one to the other, sometimes offering us snuff, sometimes 
tapping us gently on the shoulder in token of comrade- 
ship, and then, taking hold of our horses by the bridle, 
insisted on leading them himself. But with all these 
obliging attentions, he never lost sight of the two large 



186 



trunks carried by our camel. The loving looks that he 
east on them' from time to time told plainly enough 
that fie was speculating on their contents : he fancied, 

101 

doubtless, that they were filled with precious merchan- 
dise- of which he hoped to obtain the monopoly. 

We had been now on the road for more than an 
hour, and saw no signs of the inn promised with so 
much emphasis. " We are sorry ," said we to our con- 
ductor, " to see you take so much trouble. If we did 
bat see whither you are leading us- " 

"Leave that to me, my lords, leave it to me ; I am 
taking you to a good, to an excellent inn ; don't say I 
am taking trouble ; don't pronounce such words : they 
make me blush. Are we not all brothers ? what signi- 
fies the difference of Tartar and Chinese ? The lan- 
guage is not the same, the habits are not alike ; but we 
know that men have but one heart, one conscience, one 
invariable rule of justice. Stop ! wait for me one mo- 
ment, my lords ; I will be with you in a moment," and ' 
he darted like an arrow into a shop. In a few minutes 
he returned, making a thousand excuses for having kept 
Os waiting. 

"Yon are very tired, are you not? oh ! that is easily 
understood : when one is travelling it is always so ; it is 
not like being in one's own family." 

. Whilst he was speaking we were accosted by another 
Chinese ; he had not the joyous expansive countenance 
of our first acquaintance: he was thin and emaciated ; 
his lips were small and pinched together ; and his little 
black eyes deeply sunk in their orbits gave his physiog- 
nomy a decided expression of villany. 

" My Lord Lamas, you are here at last," said he ; 
" yon have made the journey in peace ; ah ? that is well. 
Yonr camels are magnificent ; you must have travelled 
quickly and fortunately. At last you are here; that's 

102 

well. Se EuL" added he, addressing the individual who 
had first seized upon us, " take care that you take these 
noble Tartars to a good i nn ;fyou must take them to j 



(the inn of Eternal Equity?*"^ 



^JBydint ot looking on all sides, we at last espied a) 
/sign, on which which was written in large Chines e chary 
f acters, " Hotel of the Three Perfections, lodgine /for tra- 
vellers on Horse or Camel ; all sorts of business nego- 
tiated with Unfailing Success." 

110 

" Let me, make the reckoning," said he ; and he 
took the souan-paTt, and his calculation agreed with ours 1 
The intendant made us a profound bow. v 

" My Lord Lamas, your mathematics are better than 
ours," 

" No, it is not ' that ; your totum-pan is excellent ; 
but was there ever a calculator who never made a mis- 
take f You might make one mistake ; but we, un- 
skilful aa we are, might make a thousand. If we are 
right in this instance, it is a piece of good fortune." 
These words, under the circumsta nces, were rigorously 
exacted by Ch in ese polite ness^ When a person has 
(compromised himself, one must avoid putting him to 
[the b lush, or, in Chinese phrase, carrying away hit face. 



187 



When our words had " covered all their faces" the piece 
of paper on which we had traced the figures was eagerly 
seized upon. "This is an excellent sottan'pan," said 
they to one another ; " it is simple, sure, and expeditious, 
My Lord Lamas, what do these characters signify f 



u This souan-pan is infallible ; these characters are 
the same as those used by the Mandarins * of celestial 
literature to calculate eclipses and the course of the 
seasons." 

After a short dissertation on the merits of the Ara- 
bian ciphers, our sapecks were counted out to us very 
exactly, and we took leave. 

As soon as we had got our money, <we went to pro- 
ride ourselves with our winter garments ; and, remem- 
bering the slenderness of our resources, we resolved to 
apply to a dealer in second-hand clothes. In China or 

111 

in'Tartary no one feels the slightest objection to this 
proceeding. Those who have visits of etiquette to pay, 
or a fete to attend, borrow without hesitation a hat, a 
pair of trousers, shoes or boots, as the case may be : 
there is but one cause of hesitation ever felt in these 
mutual lendings — and that is, the fear that the borrower 
may sell them for his own profit or to pay his debts, 
after he has done with "them. They make no more dif- 
ficulty of wearing another man's trousers, than of 
living in another man's house. 

The Lamas who flock 
to the Blue Town from all parts of Tartary, rarely settle 
there definitely. After having taken their degrees in 
the sort of universities there, they return home ; for they 
generally prefer the smaller establishments, of which 
there are such numbers in th e}" Land of Grass?*) The 
life they lead there is more free, and more conformable 
to the independence of their disposition. Sometimes 
they live in their own families, employed, like other Tar- 
tars, in the care of their flocks and herds, and prefer the 
abode of the tent to that of the convent with its rules 
and daily recitation of prayers. These Lamas have lit- 

117 

tie <ft the monk but the habit, and are called Home 



The second class is composed of those who neither 
reside with their families nor in convents ; these are the 
Vagabond Lamas. They live like migratory birds, with- 
out ever settling any where. They travel about appa- 
rently for the sake of travelling ; they wander from con- 
vent to convent, stopping on the road at all the tents 
they meet with, relying on the never-failing hospitality 
of the Tartars. There they seat themselves by the hearth 
without ceremony, and, while drinking their tea, enu- 
merate with pride the countries they have traversed. If 
the fancy takes them to pass the night in the tent, they 
stretch themselves in a corner and sleep till the morning. 
When they do set off at last all paths seem the same to 
them. They walk with downcast eyes, a long staff in 
their hands, and a goat-skin wallet on their back. .If 
they are fatigued, they take their rest at the foot of a 
rock, on the top of a mountain, at the bottom of a ra- 
vine, wherever chance or their inconstant fancy leads 

them^ ^____________ 

CThe vagabond Lamas visit all the countries accessible^ 



/to them — China, Mantchoria, Khalkas, Southern Mon- 
golia, Ounang-Hai, Kou-Kou-Noor, north and south of 
the Celestial Mountains, Thibet, India, and sometimes 
even Turkistan. There is not a river they have not cross- 
ed ; a mountain they have not ascended ; a Grand Lama 
before whom they have not prostrated themselves ; a peo- 
ple among whom they hare not lived, and of whom they 
do not know the manners and the language. Losing 
their way in the desert is not possible, since all ways are 
alike to them. Travelling without any object, the pla 



118 






... _ey arrive at are always those where they desire to/ 
go. The legend of the Wandering Jew is exactly real4 
jsed in the persons of these Lamas. One would say' 
they are under the influence of some mysterious power, 
which drives them incessantly onward ; and it seems as 
if God had caused to flow in their veins something of 
that motive force which urges worlds forward in their 
coarse, without ever permitting them to rest 



The Lamas living in community compose the third 
class. A Lamaserai, or Lama convent, is a collection of 
Ijttle houses, built round one or more Buddhist temples : 
these habitations are more or less large and handsome, 
according to the means of the proprietors. They are 
permitted to keep some cattle ; cows for the supply of 
milk and butter, which form their staple food ; a horse 
to visit the desert; and sheep for their regale on fete 
days. 

In general, all these establishments are royal or im- 
perial foundations, of which the revenues are distributed 
at certain periods among the Lamas, according to their 
rank in the hierarchy. Those who ha*e the reputation 
of being good physicians, or good fortune-tellers, have 
many opportunities of profit besides; but they rarely 
become rich nevertheless. Their general character is 
childish and improvident ; and they spend their money 
as. readily as they gain it A Lama who has appeared the 
evening before in garments both torn and dirty, will the 
next day, perhaps, rival the highest dignitary in the con- 
vent in the richness of his habit. As soon as he has 
any money at his disposal, he runs to the nearest trad- 
ing town, and equips himself from head to foot magnifi- 
cently ; but it is always probable that he will not keepi 

119 
his fine clothes long enough to wear them out v After 
some months, he betakes himself anew to a Chinese sta- 
tion, not to play the ekgant among the fine silk ware- 
houses, but to pledge his yellow robes at the Mont de Pi- 
ete, whence he rarely redeems them. The shops of the 
dealers in second-hand clothes in the Tartar-Chinese 
towns are encumbered with the spoils of Lama ward- 



robes. 



184 



On the second day after our departure, we met at 
one of these inns a very curious personage. 

We had just finished feeding and tying up oar 
camels, when we saw coming into the large court-yard 
an enormously fet traveller, who led after him by the 
bridle a very lean horse. He wore a large straw hat, 
with brims so broad that they hung down on hi* 
shoulders, and he had a long sabre attached to his 
girdle which did not at all look in keeping with his 
jolly physiognomy. 



,— w j -* Steward of the kettle," said he, as he entered, "is) 
[ there room for me in this inn ?"/ 

u I have but one room to giro to travellers," was the 
reply, "and that is at present occupied by three Mongol 
men who have just arrived. Go and see whether they 
can receive you." 

The new comer trudged, with a heavy step, towards 
the place where we were already installed. 

"Peace and happiness to you, my Lord Lamas," 
•aid he, addressing us as he entered ; " do you occupy 

185 
ill the room in this apartment, or is there a little left 
for me P 

"Why should there not be some for you, since 
there is for us !" we replied. " Are we not all travellers 
aliker 

"Excellent words, excellent words 1 You are Tar- 
tars, I am a Chinese ; but you understand the rites of 
politeness — you know that all men are brothers :" and 
with these words he went to tie up his horse by the 
side of ours, and then, returning, deposited his baggage 
on the Kong, and stretched himself upon it at full 
length like a man tired out 

__ 187 

l"What! don't you know the Tartars P was the 
answer. "Don't you know that they are simple as 
children, when they come into our towns f — They want 
to have everything they see — they seldom have any 
money, but we come to their help. We give them 
goods on credit, and then of course they must pay 
rather high. When people take away goods without 
leaving the money, of course there must be a little 
interest of thirty or forty per cent Then, by degrees, 
the interest mounts up, and you come to compound inter- 
est ; but that's only with the Tartars. In China the 
laws forbid it ; but we, who are obliged to run about \ 
the Land of Grass — we may well ask for a little extra 
profit IsnT that fair? A Tartar debt is never paid — 
it goes on from generation to generation; every year 
one goes to get the interest, and it's paid in sheep, 
oxen, camels, horses, — all that is a great deal better 
than money. We get the beasts at a low price, and 
we sell them at a very good price in the market Oh 1 
H's a cap ital thing — a Tartar debtl It's a mine oiV 

goloV? 

The YothCkcmg-Ti (collector of debts) accompanied 
this explanation of his mode of doing business with peals 
of laughter. He spoke the Mongol language very well, 
and it was easy to see that a Tartar debtor who should 
fall into his hands would find himself in no pleasant 
positi on. He was truly, as h e said in his picturesque 
style, pan eater of Tartars!''} 

151 

Every thing in the world is relative; and the 
interior, of our tent which would have made a Euro- 
pean laugh, excited the admiration of the Tartars who 
came .sometimes to pay us a visit The cleanliness of 
onr wooden saucers— our well-scoured kettle— our 
clothes, which were not quite encrusted with grease-~- 
all contrasted with the disorder, dirt, and confusion of 
the Tartar abodes. 

When we had set our room to rights, we said out 
prayers together; and then we dispersed, every one his 



188 



own way, into the desert, to pursue his meditations on 
some holy theme. Oh ! there needed not m the pro- 
found silence of these vast solitudes, a book to suggest 
to us a subject of prayer ! The emptiness of earthly 
things— the majesty of God — the inexhaustible trea- 
sures of His providence — the brevity of life — the im- 
portance of labouring for a world to come — and a 
thousand other salutary thoughts, came of them- 
selves, without effort on our parts. It is in the desert 
that the heart of man is free, and is not subjected to 
any kind of tyranny. Far from us were the hollow 
systems, the Utopias of imaginary happiness, which 
continually vanish as you seem to grasp them — the in- 
exhaustible combinations of selfishness, the burning 
passions which in Europe clash and irritate each other 
perpetually. In the midst of our silent meadows, no- 
thing disturbed our just appreciation of the things of 

this world as c omp ared with those of eternity. 

__J"TWexercise that followed this meditation was not,! 
[itrauat be confessed, of a spiritual character; but it I 
1 was very necessary, and it had its charms. Each of us | 

158 

took a sack on his back, and went out in various direc- 
tions in search of argols. Those who have never led 
the nomadic life will have some difficulty in compre- 
hending how this kind of occupation can be susceptible 
of enjoyment Yet when you have the good fortune 
to find suddenly among the grass an argol remarkable , 
for its size and dryness, you experience of those sudden 
pleasur able emotions that for the moment make y ou 
happy, f It is much the same pleasure that the hunter 



has in finding tracks of the game he is pursuing, or the 
child in discovering a bird's nest 

' When our sacks were full, we used to go with 
pride to empty them at the door of the tent ; then we 
■truck a light, built up our fire, and, while the water 
bubbled in the kettle, we kneaded our flour up into 
little cakes, and put them to bake amongst the ashes. 
The repast was simple, but it had an exquisite relish ; 
for we had prepared it ourselves, and we had appetites 
that made sufficient seasoning. After breakfast, while 
Sarodadchiemba was bringing back the animals from 
their pasture, we recited a portion of our Breviary. 
Towards noon we permitted ourselves a short but sound 
sleep, which was never interrupted by nightmare or 
painful dreams. This was necessary, as we sat up very 
late at night ; for we could not give up the enjoyment 
of the beautiful moonlight shining on the waters. All 
day there was the deepest silence in the desert ; but as 
the shades of night came on, the scene became ani- 
mated, and even noisy. Aquatic birds arrived in count- 
less troops, and soon millions of hoarse and screaming 
voices filled the air with their wild harmony. In list- 
ening to the angry cries and passionate accents of these 

163 
creatures, as they disputed for the tufts of grass on 
which they wished to pass the night one could not help 
thinking of a nation in the wild transports of civil war, 
in which each is endeavouring to snatch, by violence 
and clamour, some small portion of the goods of this 
life— itself brief as a passing night 

808 
He was going through a religious exercise 



much practised by the Buddhists — that of going round 
the convent, prostrating himself at every step. Some- 
tinfes an immense number of devotees will be going 
through their act of devotion at the same time, one af- 
ter the other, and they will include all the neighbouring 
buildings in their prostrations. It is not permitted to 
diverge in the smallest degree from the straight line to 
be followed; and should the devotee happen to do so 
he loses the benefit of all the exercises he has gone 
through. When the buildings are of great extent, a 
whole day will hardly suffice to make the tour with all 
the necessary prostrations ; and the pilgrims who have 
a taste for this kind of devotion must begin at day- 
break, and will not have done till after nightfall. The 

303 
feat mu&t be performed all at once without any inter- 
ruption, even that of stopping for a few moments to take 
nourishment ; and the prostrations must be perfect, that 
is to say, the body must be extended its whole length, 
and the forehead must touch the earth while the arms 
are stretched out in front and the hands joined. Before 
rising also the pilgrim must describe a circle with two 
ram's horns which he holds in his hands. It is a sor- 
rowful spectacle, and the unfortunate people often have 
their feces and clothes covered with dust and sometimes 
with mud. The utmost severity of the weather does 
not present any obstacle to their courageous devotion, 
but they continue their prostrations through rain and 
snow and the most rigorous cold. Sometimes the ad- 
ditional penance is imposed of carrying nn enormous 
weight of books on their backs ; and you meet with 
men, women, and even children sinking under their ex- 
cessive burdens. When they have finished their tour 
they are considered to have the same merit as if they 
had recited all the p rayers contained in the books they 
have carried. ( Some content themselves with taking a 
/walk round the convent, rolling all the while between 
\ their fingers the beads of their long chaplet, or giving 
■ rotatory movement to a kind of praying mill, which 
tarns with incredible rapidity. This instrument is called 
a CAu-Kor, that is, " turning prayer ;" and it is com- 
mon enough to see them fixed in the bed of a running 
stream, as they are then set in motion by the water, and 
go on praying night and day, to the spe cial benefit ofj 
V tfae person who has placed them there. J The Tartars 
also suspend these convenient implements over their do- 
mestic hearths that they may be put in motion by the 
204 

current of cool air from the opening of the tent, and so 
twirl for the peace and prosperity of the family. 

Another machine which the Buddhists make use of 
to simplify their devotional activity is that of ft large 
barrel turning on an axis. It is made of thick paste- 
board, fabricated of innumerable sheets of paper pasted 
one on another, and upon which are written in Thibe- 
tan character the prayers most in fashion. Those who 
have not sufficient zeal or sufficient strength to place on 
their backs an immense load of books, and prostrate ' 
themselves at every step in the mod, adopt this easier 
method, and the devout can then eat, drink, and sleep 
at their ease, while the complaisant machine does all 
their praying for them. 

This want of good pastures 



189 



and fresh streams is very unfavourable to cattle, but the 
camel makes amends to th e_ Tartars of the Ortous for 
th e absence of the rest J it is the real treasure of the / 
desert; it can remain fifteen days or even a month 
without eating or drinking, and however miserable the 
country, it always finds something to satisfy it, especially 
if the soil is impregnated with salt or nitre ; plants that 
other animals will not touch, brambles or even dry 
wood, serve it for food. Yet little as it costs to keep, 
the camel is more useful than can be imagined out of 
the countries where Providence has placed it Its ordi- 
nary burden is seven or eight hundred weight, and thus 
laden it can go forty miles a day, f in many Tartar 
countries they are used to draw the coaches of the 
kings or princes, but this can only be on flat ground, 
for their fleshy feet would not permit them to ascend 
hills and draw a carriage after them. 
215 
f ^ M We Tartars," said he, " do not kill in the same way^| 
216 

as the Chinese. They make a cut in the neck, we go*^ 
right to the heart ; the animal suffers less, and all the 
blood remains neatly inside." 

As soon as the " transmigration " was effected, no 
one bad any further scruple. Samdadchiemba and the 
Lama immediately tucked up their sleeves and came to 
the help of the little butcher, and the animal was skin- 
ned with admirable celerity. ) In the mean time, the 



*3 



Id Tartar woman had water boiling in the two sauce- 
pans ; and taking possession of the entrails, washed 
them slightly, and then with the blood which she took 
from the inside of the sheep with a wooden spoon, sbe 
prepared some puddings of which the everlasting oat- 
meal formed the basis. 

"My Lord Lamas, shall I bone the sheep?" asked 
the little black man. On receiving an answer in the 
affirmative, he caused the carcase to be hung up (he 
was not big enough to do it himself), and mounting on 
• large stone, he detached the flesh in a single piece, 
leaving only a well polished skeleton behind. 

••" The Tartar monarch was seated 

cross-legged ; he looked about fifty years of age, and 
his physiognomy was extremely good. 

As we passed, we cried out, " King of Alechan, may 
peace and happiness attend thy steps P 

u Men of prayers," he replied, " rest in peace !" and 
accompanied his words by a gesture full of amenity. 
An old Lama, with a long white beard, and mounted 
on a magnificent camel, led the first mule of the cara- 
van. The grand marches of the Tartars are generally 
under the guidance of the oldest Lama in the country, 
as these people are persuaded that they have nothing 
to fear on the road, so long as they have at their head 
a representative of the divinity, or rather the divinity 
himself incarnate in the person of a Grand Lama. 

227 

the West with them, simply means 

Thibet, and some surrounding countries of which they 
have heard from the Lamas, who have made the pil- 
grimage to Lha-Sj suS They firmly believe that tfw^ 
is nothing beyond Thibet. "The world ends there," 
say they, "beyond there is nothing but a shoreless 



190 



CONTENTS OF VOL. IL 



CHAPTER I. 



Hotel of Justice and Mercy. — Province of Kan-Sou.— Agriculture. — 
Great Labour for the Irrigation of the Fields. — Manner of living at the 
Inns. — Confusion occasioned by our Camels. — Chinese Guard-house. 
— Mandarin Inspector of Public Works. — Inn of the Five Felicities. 
— Straggle against a Mandarin. — Immense Mountains of Sand. — Sinis- 
ter Aspect of the Kao-Tan-Dze. — A Glance at the Great Wall. — 
Tartars travelling in China. — Frightful Hurricane. — The Dchiahuura. 
— Acquaintance with a living Buddha. — Hotel of the Temperate Cli- 
mates. — Battle of an Innkeeper with his Wife. — Water Mills. — Arrival 
at Tang-Keom-Eul 9 



mAPTER n. 

Account of the Road to Thibet. — Caravan of Khalkas. — Tartar Son of 
the King of Kou-kou-Noor. — Sandara the Bearded. — Study of the 
Thibetan Language. — Knavish Character of Sandara. — Samda- 
dchiemba is pillaged by Robbers.— Frightful Tumult at Tang-Keou- 
Eul. — The Long- Haired Tartars. — Mussulmans in China. — Religious 
Ceremonies presided over by the Mufti. — Independence of the Mus- 
sulmans. — Festival of New- Year's Day. — Our Tent at the Pawn- 
broker's. — Departure for the Lamaserai of Kounboom. — Arrival at 
Night. — Loan of a Habitation. — Singular Custom. — Old Akaye.— 
The Chinese Lama. — Pilgrims to Kounboom. — The celebrated Feast 
of Flowers. 90 

CHAPTER III. 

Taong-Kaba. — The Tree of Ten Thousand Images. — Lamanesque Instruc- 
tion. — Faculty of Prayer. — Police of the Lamaserai. — Offerings of the 
Pilgrims. — Lama Industry. — Favorable disposition of the Lumaa to- 
wards Christianity. — Singular practice for the assistance of Tra- 
vellers. — Nocturnal Prayers. — Departure for the Lamaserai of Tchor- 
fTtaa. 83 



CHAPTER IV. 

Appearance of the Lamaserai of Tchogortan.— Contemplative Lamas.— 
Cowherd Lamas.— The Book of the forty-two points of Instruction. 
—The Black Tents. —Morals of Si-Fan —Long-haired Oxen.— Valu- 
able Discoveries in the Vegetable Kingdom.— Camels' hair Ropes.— 
Visitors to Tchogortan.— Classification of Argols.— History of Rob- 
ben.— Pyramid of Peace.— Faculty of Medicine at Tchogortan.— 
Thibetan Physicians.— Departure for the Blue Sea 100 

chapte'r V. 

Aspect of the Kou-kou-Noor.— Description and March of the Grand 
Caravan. — Passage of the Pouhain-Gol.— Adventures of the Altera 
Lama. — Our sub-Camel-driver.— Mongols of Tsaidam.— Pestilential 
Vapours of Bourhan-Bota.— Ascent of Mount Chuga.— Men and 
Animals killed by the Frost.— Meeting with Robbers.— Fire in the 
Desert.— Young Chaberon of the Kingdom of Khartchin.— Cultivated 
Plains of Pampon.— Mountain of the Remission of Sins.— Arrival... 114 

CHAPTER VI. 

Lodging; in a Thibetan House.— Aspect of Lha-Ssa.— Palace of the Tale 
Lama.— Portrait of the Thibetans.— Monstrous Dress of the Women. 

Industrial Agricultural productions of Thibet. — Gold and Silver 

Mines.— Strangers resident in Lha-Ssa.— The Pebouns.— The Katchis. 
— Th» Chinese.— Relations between Thibet and China.— Form of 
Government — Grand Lama of Djachi.— Loumbo.— Brotherhood of 
the Khelaus.— Tragic death of three Tale Lamas.— Revolt of the 
Lamaaerai cf Sera M * 

CHAPTER VII. 

Visit of five Police Spies.— Interview with the Regent — Ki-Chan forces 
as to submit to an Interrogation. — Supper at the expense of the Go- 
vernment. — A Night's Imprisonment in the House of the Regent. — 
Confidences of the Governor of Katchi.— Domiciliary Visit.- Our 
Effects sealed up.— Sinico-Thibetan Tribunal.— Questions respecting 



oar Maps. — Homage rendered to Christianity and the French Name. 
—The Regent lets out his Houses to us. — Erection of a Chapel. — 
Preaching the Gospel — Conversion of a Chinese Physician.— Confer- 
ences on Religion with the Regent. — Recreation with a Microscope. 
— Conversation with Ki-Chan. — Religious Character of the Thibetans. 
—Celebrated Formula of the Buddhists. — Buddhist Psntheism. — 
Election of the Tale Lama.— Small-Pox at Lha-Ssa.— Sepultures in 
at* in Thibet 174 



CHAPTER VIII. 

afoorcroft, tne English Traveller. — Means of Communication of Lbs- 
San with Europe. — Discussion with the Chinese Ambassador. — Dis- 
pate of the Regent with Ki-Chan. — Our Expulsion from Lha-Ssa. — 
Report of Ki-Chan to the Emperor of China. — New Year.— Fetes 
and Rejoicing*. — Buddhist Convents of Oui. — Khaldan. — Prebourg. — 
Sera.— Farewell to the Regent. — Separation from Samdadchiemba. — 
Ly, the Pacificator of Kingdoms. — Triple Allocution of the Chinese 
A m bas s ador.— Picturesque Farewell of Ly-Kono-Ngau and his Wife. 
— Departure for Canton. — Passage of the River in a leathern Boat.. 217 

10 

As soon as we had crossed the Hoang-Ho, we entered 

a little frontier town of China, called Che-Tsiu-Dze, 

which ia only separated from the river by a sandy marsh. 

'We too k up our abode at the Hotel of Justice ancT ) 

Mercy , (& large house newly built of wood, except a 



solid foundation of grey brick. The innkeeper received 
us with the eager courtesy which is usually displayed 
in establishments of this kind which the owner is en- 
deavouring to bring into fashion ; but the countenance 
of the host, it must be owned, did not afford him much 
assistance in his attempts to be agreeable. 

11 

W«» reated nnd refreshed our selves for two days at 
(the Hotel of Justice and Mercy) and then we set out 
again. The environs of Che-Tsiu-Dzo are uncultivated, 
and consist only of sand and gravel brought down 
every year by the Yellow River ; but by degrees, as you 
advance, the ground rises, and the soil improves. 
About an hour's march from the town we crossed 
the Great Wall, or rather we crossed some miserable- 
looking ruins which mark the site 

24. 

Could we not manage the matter quietly, 

like brothers ? " 

u Oh ! that indeed ! " we said. " Men ought always 
to act like brothers ; that is the true principle. When 
we are travelling, we ought to know how to live with 
travellers ; if every one will put up with a little incon- 
venience, every one at last will be at his ease." 

" Excellent words ! excellent words ! " and the most 
profound bows recommenced on either side. 

As soon as we had come to this amicable arrange- 
ment, we bega n to di scuss, in the pleasantest manner, 
fine method of disposing ourselves in the inn of the} 
jFiye Felicities./' It W&9 agreed that we should keep the 
room where we were already installed, and that we 
should tie up our camels in the corner of the court, in 
such a manner as they should not frighten the manda- 
rin's horses. The courier was to do as he pleased with 
the rest of the house. 



27 

As we advanced, the mountains gradually declined to 
hills, the sand diminished in quantity, and towards the 



191 



end of the day we reached a village whose Chinese 
appellation signifies "Waters always flowin g," /and 
vhich was a real oasis of exquisite beauty. The houses 
were built of the living rock, and often painted white 
or red ; and the numerous trees and rivulets flowing 
through the streets give it a most picturesque aspect. Ex- 
hausted with fatigue as w e were, the pleasure of arri v- 
ing at such a place as the ("Waters al ways flowing^ is 
indescribable, «ind we were in a position to estimate all 
its delights. But our poetical enjoyment only lasted 
till the time came for settling with the innkeeper. As 
all the provisions, and even the fodder for the animals, 
had to be fetched from Chong-Wei, they were so fright- 
fully dear as to overthrow entirely our plans of economy. 
For ourselves and our beasts we had to pay almost 
eight francs. Had it not been for that, we should 
have grieved at quitting this charming village. But 
there is always some motive which aids men to detach 
themselves from the things of the world. 
36 
After having thoroughly rested from our fatigues, we 
set out at an early hour on the following morning. 
Everywhere traces of the ravages of the evening before 
met our eyes ; there were trees broken or torn up by 
the roots, houses stripped of their roofs, and fields of 
their vegetable covering. Before the close of day, we 
arrived aj Choang-Long, a rather flourishing commercial 
towaJWe went to lodge at the " Hotel of Social Rela-j 
( tkraa," and found the landlord ver y amiable, but very \ 
| sati rical, — evidently a pare Chinese.^ /' To give us a proof 

37 

'otbia penetration, he asked at once whether we were^l 
not English (Ing-Kie-Li), the marin e devils who were j 
making war a t Canton. J 

■" We are not English," we replied; "nor are we 
devils of any sort — land or sea." 

44 Don't you know," said a man who was lounging 
about, addressing the landlord, " that all those marine 
devils have blue eyes and red hair ?" 

u Besides," said we, "if we were marine monsters, how 

conhjj re live on shore, and go on horseback 1" 

J** Yes, that's true, that's true," said he ; " the Ing-Kie- 
Li never dare to quit the sea ; as soon as ever th ey com e 
on shore they tremble and die like fish." | 



i 



40 



" We are not Russians," said we. " Our country is a. 
long way from them." 

This answer seemed to surprise him. "From what 
country are you, then ?" 

"We are from the sky of the West" 

"Ah I then you are from Peling" (the Thibet word 
for Hindostan), — " from the Eastern Ganges, — and the 
town you inhabit is called Galgata" (Calcutta). 

The Buddha could, of course, only class us among the 
nations he knew ; and in considering" us first as Russians, 
and then as English, he afforded a proof that he was 
not entirely ignorant. We could not make him under- 
stand precisely who we were : " But after all," said he, 
" what does it matter from what country you are, since all 



men are brothers ? As long, however, as you remain in 
China, you jnust be prudent), and not tell everybody who 

41 

you are. The Chinese are suspicious and wicked, and 
they might injure you." He then spoke to us of the route 
to Thibet, and of the terrible journey we should have to 
make to get to it ; — seeming to doubt whether we were 
strong enough for such an undertaking. The words and 
the manner of this Grand Lama were full of affability, but 
we could not accustom ourselves to the strange look of 
his eyes. Had it not be en for t h is pecul iarity , w hich after 
alii perhaps, depended on certain prejudices on our part, 
we should have thought him very amiable. 
•We found on examination that our horse and mule 
had both large tumours on their flanks, caused by the 
friction of the saddle, and we therefore determined to 
make some stay at this place in order to try and cnre 
them. As we wished, however, to find ourselves an- 
other abode, we set off on a tour of inspection through all 
the jpnaj n the town, and at last det ermined to stop at 
fjhT^Hotel of Temperate ClimatesTjj 

•4 We shall afterwards 

have occasion to enquire whether the numerous relations 
existing between Buddhism and Catholicism are likely 
to prove an obstacle, or an advantage, to the propaga- 
tion of the true faith in Tartary and Thibet It is to a 
legend concerning Tsong-Kaba that the Lamaserai 
of Eounboum owes its name. It signifies " Ten Thou- 
sand Images ;" and it is said that when the mother of 
the reformer, in devoting him to a religious life, accord- 
ing to custom cut off his hair and threw it away, a tree 
sprang up from it which bore on every one of its leaves 
a Thibetan character. This tree is still to be seen at the 
foot of the mountain on which the principal Buddhist 
temple stands, in ajarge sq uare enclosure formed by 
fo ur brick walls. J Within this stands the wonderful 
tree7whkh appears of great antiquity ; and though now 
not more than eight feet high, three men could hardly 
embrace its trunk. The wood is of a reddish colour, 
and exquisite odour, very much resembling cinnamon. 
We were told that during the summer, towards tlio 
eighth moon, it produces superb large red flowers ; but 
what most excited out astonishment was that every le af y 

36 

faras really, as we had been before told it was, distinctly^ 
j marked wjth a Thibetan character, sometimes lighter, 
sometimes darker than the leaf, but quite plain. After 
the most minute investigation, we could discover no I 
traces of fraud on the part of the Lamas ; and though, 
doubtless, people will smile at our ignorance, that will 
matter little if they do not suspect the veracity of our/ 
^acc ount \ 
"~ 166 

The Thibetan women adopt a custom, or rather sub- 
mit to a regulation certainly unique in the world. 
Before going out of their houses, they rub their 
faces with a sort of black sticky varnish, a good deal 
like conserve of grapes. As the object is to render 
themselves hideous, they daub their faces with this 
disgusting cosmetic, till they scarcely resemble human 
creatures. The following was, we are told, the origin 
of this monstrous practice. 



192 



About 200 years ago, the Nomekhan or Lama king 
of Anterior Thibet, was a man of the austerest cha- 
racter. At that period, the Thibetan women were not 
more in the habit of trying to make themselves look 
ugly than the women of other countries ; on the con- 
trary, they were extravagantly addicted to dress and 
luxury. By degrees, the contagion spread even to the 
holy family of the Lamas ; and the Buddhist convents 
relaxed their discipline, in a manner that threatened a 
complete dissolution. In order to arrest the progress 
of this alarming libertinism, the Nomekhan published 
an edict, forbidding women to appear in public unless 
disfigured in the fashion above mentioned ; the severest 
punishments and the heaviest displeasure of Buddha 
were threatened to the refractory. It must have 
required no ordinary courage to publish such an edict ; 
but that the women obeyed it was still more extraordi- 

151 

(The fair Thibetans vie with each other in 

i making themselves frightful, and she who is most offen- 
sively besmeared passes for the most pious ; the custom 
appears to be considered as a dogma to be accepted. 
In the country the law is most rigorously observed ; but 
at Lha-Ssa, women are to be met with who venture to 
appear with their faces as nature made them ; but those 
who permit themselves this license are considered as 
women of bad reputation, and they never fail to hide 
. themselves whe n they catch sight of an agent of the 
/ police^ 

154 
Thibet, so poor in agricultural and manufactured pro- 
ductions, is rich in metals ; and gold and silver are 
so easily obtained that the humblest shepherds are 
acquainted with the art of purifying the precious metals. 
They may be sometimes seen at the bottom of the 
ravines, or in the fissures of the mountains, crouching 
over a fire of goat's dung, purifying in crucibles the gold 
dust gathered while leading their flocks to pasture. The 
result of this abundance of metals is that specie is of 
little value, and i n consequence all commodities remain 
at a high price. {The currency of the Thibetans con- 



lists of silver only : the pieces are a little larger but not 
ad thick as a franc piece. On one side they bear an 
inscription in Thibetan, Parsee, or other Indian charac- 
ters ; on the reverse a crown of eight small round flow- 
en. For the convenience of commerce, these pieces of 
silver are broken, and the*number of flowers rem aining ^ 
on the fragment de te rmines the value. | 

The whole piece is called Tchan-Ka. The Tehe- 
PtchS is one half, and consequently has only four 
flowers ; the Cho-Kan has five, and the Kogan three. 

**" In seeing the number of those who 

■ought from us instruction in our holy religion daily 
increase, we felt our courage rise ; but it was to us a 
never-failing subject of grief, that we could not offer the 
Thibetans the glorious spectacle' of the gorgeous and 
touching festivals of the Catholic church. It seemed 
to us that the beauty of the Catholic ceremonies must 
act powerfully on a people so fond of all that relates to 
external worship. The Thibe tans, as we have before 
■ aid, are eminently religious^ There exists at Lha-8sa\ 
a touching custom, which we were in some sort jealous 
at finding among infidels. In the evening, as soon as j 



e 



. j r ■ N 

the light declines, the Thibetan men, women, and 
children cease from all business, and assemble in the 
principal parts of the city, and in the public squares. 
As soon as the groups are formed, every one sits down 
on the ground, and begins slowly to chant his prayers 
in an under tone, and the religious concert produces an 
immense and solemn harmony t hroughout the city, J 
\ ^pow erfully affecting to the soul ! f . 



The prayer chanted in these evening meetings varies 
according to the season of the year : that which they 
incite to the rosary is always the same, and is only com' 
posed of six syllables — Om mani, padme houm. This 
formula, called briefly the mani, is not only heard from 
every mouth, but is every where written in the streets, 
in the interior of the houses, on every flag and streamer 
floating over the buildings, printed in the Landza, 
Tartar, and Thibetan characters. Certain rich and 
aealous Buddhists even entertain, at their own expense, 
companies of Lamas for the propagation of the mani ; 
and these strange missionaries, chisel and hammer in 
hand, traverse field, mountain, and desert, to engrave 
the sacred formula on the stones and rocks they 
encounter in their path, j 



- According to the "celebrated Orientalist Klaproth, 
Om mani, padme' houm, is nothing but a Thibetan 
transcription of a Sanscrit formula introduced into 
Thibet from India, and which has, in that language, a 
complete and indubitable sense not to be found in the 
idiom of Thibet Om is with the Hindus the mystic 
name of the divinity, with which all prayers commence, 
His mystic particle is also equivalent to the interjection 
Oh, and expresses a profound religious conviction ; it is, in 
some sort, the formula of an act of faith. Mani signifies 
jewel precious thing ; padma, the lotus [padme is the 
vocative case of that word) ; houm, is equivalent to our 
Amen. The literal sense of this phrase is then : — 

Om mani padme houm I 
i the jewel in the lotus I Amen 1 

e Lamas assert that the doctrine contained in these 
marvellous words is immense, and that the whole 

212 



*e of man is insufficient to measure its depth and) 



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who recite very often and very devoutly, Om mani, 
Ac. avoid falling after death into any other of the six 
classes, and are immediately absorbed in the soul of 
. Buddha. f The jewel being the emblem of perfection, 
and the lotus that of Buddha, these words may perhaps 
be taken to express the desire of acquiring perfection, 
in order to be reunited to Buddha ; and the symbolic 
formula, " the jewel in the lotus/ Amen," may be 
paraphrased, " O that I may attain perfection, and be 
absorbed in Buddha 1 Amen."j 



316 



The 




Chinese say that the three great productions of the 
capital of Thibet are Lamas, women, and dogs. 



e cause of this multitude is the use the Thibetans 
make of dogs in the disposal of their dead. Four dif- 
ferent kinds of sepulture are in use ; — combustion ; im- 
mersion in the rivers and lakes ; exposure on the sum- 
mits of mountains ; and the fourth, the most esteemed, 
js to cut the corpse in pieces, and give it to the dogs. 

















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484 



ITS SUPPOSED ANTIQUITY. 



OBANTAL CONFORMATIONS. 



4S5 



the walls of the Mexican palace of Mitla, and the vasos of 
ancient Greece. 

We could not acquire any precise idea of the period to 
■which the origin of the mapires and the painted vases, 
contained in the hone-cavern of Ataruipe, can bo traced. 
The greater part seemed not to he more than a century 
old ; but it may be supposed that, sheltered from all 
humidity under the influence of a uniform temperature, 
the preservation of these articles would be no less perfect 
if their origin dated from a period far more remote. A 
tradition circulates among the Guahibos, that the warlike 
Atures, pursued by the Caribs, escaped to the rocks that 
rise in the middle' of the Great Cataracts ; and there that 
nation, heretofore so n umerous became gradually extinct. 
as well as i ts language. / The last families of the Atures still 
(existed in I7tf/, m the time of the missionary Gili. At 
/the period of our voyage an old parrot was shown at 
Maypures, of which the inhabitants said, and the fact is 
worthy of observation, that "they did not understan d what 
i t said, because it spoke the language of the Attires."/ "" 

W e opened, to the great concern oi our guides, several 

mapires, for the purpose of examining attentively the form 
of the skulls. They were all marked by the characteristics 
of the American race, with the exception of two or three, 
which approached indubitably to the Caucasian. In ^the 
middle of the Cataracts, in the most inaccessible spots, 
cases are found strengthened with iron bands, and filled 
with European tools, vestiges of clothes, and glass trinkets. 
These articles, which have given rise to the most absurd 
reports of treasures hidden by the Jesuits, probably 
belonged to Portuguese traders who had penetrated into 
these savage countries. May we suppose that the skulls 
of European race, which we saw mingled with the skeletons 
of the natives, and preserved with the same care, were the 
remains of some Portuguese travellers who had died of 
.sickness, or had been killed in battle? The aversion 
evinced by the natives for whatever is not of their own 
Tace renders this hypothesis little probable. Perhaps 
fugitive mestizos of the missions of the Meta and Apure 
may have come and settled near the Cataracts, marrying 



women of the tribe of the Atures. Such mixed marriages 
sometimes take place in this zone, though they are more 
rare than in Canada, and in the whole of North America, 
where hunters of European origin unite themselves with 
savages, assume their habits, and sometimes acquire great 
political influence. « 

We took several skulls, the skeleton of a child of six 
or seven years old, and two of full-grown men of the nation 
of the Atures, from the cavern of Ataruipe. All these 
bones, partly painted red, partly varnished with odoriferous 
resins, were placed in the baskets (mapires or canastos) 
which we have just described. They made almost the whole 
load of a mule ; and as we knew the superstitious feelings 
of the Indians in reference to the remains of the dead after 
burial, we carefully enveloped the canastos in mats recently 
woven. Unfortunately for us, the penetration of the Indians, 
and the extreme quickness of their sense of smelling, rendered 
all our precautions useless. Wherever we stopped, in the 
missions of the Caribbees, amid the Llanos, between An- 
gostura and Nueva Barcelona, the natives assembled round 
our mules to admire the monkeys which we had purchased 
at the Oiinoco. These good people had scarcely touched 
our baggrge, when they announced the approaching death 
of the beast of burden "that carried the dead." In vain 
we told them that they were deceived in then conjectures ; 
and that the baskets contained the bones of crocodUcs and 
manatis ; they persisted in repeating that they smelt the 
resin that surrounded the skeletons, and " that they were 
their old relatiotis.'" We were obliged to request that the 
monks would interpose their authority, to overcome the 
aversion of the natives, and procure for us a change of 
mules. 

One of the skulls, which we took from the cavern of 
Ataruipe, has appeared in the fine work published by my 
old master, Blumenbach, on the varieties of the human 
species. The skeletons of the Indians were lost on tho 
coast of Africa, together with a considerable part of our 
collections, in a shipwreck, in which perished our friend 
and fellow-traveller, Fray Juan Gonzales, the young monk 
of the order of Saint Francis. 



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173 



CHAPTER III. 



Brief remarks on some of the Animals, Plants, and 
Minerals indigenous to this district of country. 

My observations on these subjects must be very 
vague and limited; because 1 do not possess the com- 
petent knowledge to treat them otherwise; and be- 
cause, a very full account, even if 1 did, would not 
comport with the plan I have proposed to follow in the 

pu blication of this work. 

Jjlnimals. — I have seen two species of the American 
panther, or Cnuguar, (Felis.) The largest and most 
formidable inhabits the west and mountainous regions. 
It grows to the height of three feet, with a body about 
six feet long exclusive of the tail, which is full two 
and a half feet in length. Its colour is a dark brown, 
deepening on the back, and almost white on the 
belly. 

The other is found in the woods bordering on the 
prairie9, is about the length of the former, but not so 
high, and more slender;, its colour partakes of the 
tawney; it is far less ferocious, and preys on t he buffa-j 
lo, elk, and de e r. \ 

The Wild cat, (Catus ferus of Lin.) is also nume- 
rous; it is similar to those found in the western states, 
and requires no description. 

The buffalo, or more properly the bison, varies in 
height from five to five and a half feet. It differs from 









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Natural Productions, &c. 



173 



the domesticated ox in being longer legged, shorter bo- 
died, in having a large hump upon its back, a long 
mane, and much long hair on its head, back, and shoul- 
ders. Its greatest girth is just back of the fore legs, 
from which the body gradually tapers, and also dimi- 
nishes in height. Its neck is long, and slender, head 
and eyes small, structure calculated for speed, and its 
general aspect fierce and terrible; though, except when 
wounded, or closely pressed, it is harmless and timid. 
Its smell is acute, and it chiefly depends on this 
sense for its safety. It may be denominated an annu- 
ally migrating animal; though a tew of them may be 
found tar north, at all seasons of the year. 

They go in immense herds, and no one, ignorant of 
the extent of the fertile prairies, can form any idea of 
the countless myriads that are spread over, and find 
support on them. The males and females herd sepa- 
rately, except in the copulating season, which is in 
June and July, when their assemblage is tumultous- 
ly promiscuous. The bulls at this lime contend for 
mastery: I have seen some hundreds of these engaged 
in fighting at the same time; their roar is deep and 
loud, and their conflicts really terrible. The cows 
bring forth in March or April; they are proverbially 
attached to their young and form at night a circular 
phalanx round them, with their horns outward, to pro- 
tect them against the attack of the wolves. 



195 



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youth, games of chance, modes of salutation, treatment 

of strangers, forms of visits, feasts, festivals, &c. - 253 

CHAP. IX. 

Hunting, fishing, agrrculture, manufactures, currency, and 
trade - - . - - - - 276 

CHAP. X. 
Crimes and modes of punishment - 297 

CHAP. XI. 

Manner of counting time, traditions, tumuli, monuments, &c. 304 

CHAP. XII. 

Policy, councils', transaction of public business generally, 
election of chiefs, reception of ambassadors, peace run- 
ners, &c. - - - - - -311 

CHAP. XIII. 

Patriotism, martial character and propensity, war imple- 
ments, preparations for management and termination of 
war, &c. ...... 320 

CHAP. XTV. 

Residence, dress, painting, food, diseases, treatment of the 
sick, disposal of the dead, mournings, &c. - - 334 

CHAP. XV. 

Observations on civilizing the American Indians - 360 

CHAP. XVI. 
Indian anecdotes ...... 374, 

CHAP. XVII. 

Observations on the materia medica of the Indians • - 401 

CHAP. XVIII. 

Observations on the Indian practice of surgery and medicine 429 

CHAP. XIX. 

A short description of the practice of physic among seve- 
ral tribes of the Western Indians of North America who 
reside on the waters of the Missouri and Mississippi - 436 

108 

I journeyed nearly north, over a country which at 
first was level and partly composed of prairie-land, 
though afterwards it was somewhat hilly ; and in the 
course of a few days struck upon the waters flowing, 
as I have since learned, into White River, at which 
I afterwards arrived, and gradually ascended in a 
northern direction till it became only a small stream. 

The prairie-lands I passed over were covered with 
a very luxuriant grazing vegetation, and afforded 
subsistence for exceedingly numerous herds ofbuffalo, 
elk, and deer. 

Rattlesnakes, both black and parti-coloured, were 
larger and more numerous than I had ever before seen ; 
and they would infest the country, to a much greater 
extent, were it not for the hostility that exists between 
them and the deer. 



(This animal on discovering a snake, as I have 
repeatedly witnessed, retreats some distance from it, 
[then running with great rapidity alights with its col- 



109 



(lected feet upon it ; and repeats this manoeuvre till it) 
h as destroyed its enemy. f ~ 

The hunting season for furs had now gone by, and 
the time and labour necessary to procure food for 
myself was very inconsiderable. I knew of no hu- 
man being near me ; my only companions were the 
grazing herbs, the rapacious animals that preyed on 
them, the beaver and other animals that afforded pelts, 
and birds, fish, and reptiles. Notwithstanding this 
solitude, many sources of amusement presented them- 
selves to me, especially after I had become somewhat 
familiarized to it. The country around was delight- 
ful, and I roved over it almost incessantly, in ardent 
expectation of falling in with some party of Indians, 
with whom I might be permitted to associate myself. 
Apart from the hunting that was essential to my sub- 
sistence, I practised various arts to take fish, birds, 
arid small game, frequently bathed in the river, and 
took great pleasure in regarding the dispositions and 
habits of such animals as were presented to my ob- 
servations. 

The conflicts of the male buffalos and deer, the 
attack of the latter on the rattlesnake, the industry 
and ingenuity of the beaver in constructing its dam, 
&c, and the attacks of the panther on its prey, afford- 
ed much interest, and engrossed much time. Indeed, 
I have lain for half a day at a time in the shade to 
witness the management and policy observed by the 
ants in storing up their food, the manoeuvres of the 
spider in taking its prey, the artifice of the mason-fly 
(Sphex) in constructing and storing its clayey cells, 
and the voraciousness and industry of the dragon-fly 
146 

The prairies may be protected from fire by plough- 
ing in the prairie grass to any length and width 
necessary to arrest its progress. In some situations 
where the streams interlock, large districts of country 
may, in this way, be defended against the fire, which 
in dry windy weather, spreads with a rapidity not al- 
ways to be avoided by the caution and utmost speed 
of the buffalo. 

In the fall of the year, when the prairie grass is dry, 
the prairies are sometimes set on fire by accident, and 
at Others by design. Should the wind be high on these 
occasions, no spectacle can surpass them in grandeur 
and sublimity ; a space as far as the eye can reach, is 
seen devastated by the igneous torrent. Ip some places 



197 



the tortuous flames, comparatively lost in distance, ap- 
pear to smoulder beneath impervious columns of smoke; 
at others, they burst into the skies with the vividness 
and rapidity of lightning, and seem to threaten uni- 
versal desolation. Their speed is that of the winds, 
and destruction betides every living thing that cannot 
putfly its course. The grazing herds, conscious of the 
threatening calamity, fearlessly congregate with their 
natural enemies; and the buffalos, elks, deer, panthers, 
wolves a nd bears, are seen pro miscuo usly crowded to- 
getheivjThey sometimes escape to the ravines and] 



avoid death, but more frequently they are overwhelmed | 
by the resistless flames. One of these fires raged to a 
I very great extent a few years since, on the prairies be- 
(fcveen the Kansas and Arkansas rivers ; and it is ex : 



147 



"tremely painful on passing over them, to witness' 
the ruin it produced. The mass of bleached bones 
strewed on the earth is astonishingly great; and, 
no doubt remains, that many thousand buffalos j 
and other animals perished at this particular pe-j 



These fires do not in common prove so destructive j 
but their occasional prevalence contributes greatly to 
the destruction of animal life. 

All the difficulties presented to the settlement of 
the prairies, as above stated, may be surmounted, 
wherever the fertility of the soil will compensate for 
cultivation. 

Many of the swamps or morasses will admit of being 
drained ; at least, such is my present impression ; and 
they would, under such management, prove excellent 
for arable and grazing purposes. 

164 
Sriee remarks on some of the animals, plants, and 
minerals, indigenous to this district of country. 

My observations on these subjects must be very 
vague and limited ; because I do not possess the com- 
petent knowledge to treat them otherwise ; and be- 
cause a very full account, even if I did, would not 
comport with the plan I have proposed to follow in 
the publication of this work. 

Animals. — I have seen two species of the American 
panther, or Couguar (Felis). The largest and most 
formidable, inhabits the west and mountainous re- 
gions. It grows to the height of three feet, with a 
body about six feet long, exclusive of the tail, which 
is full two and a half feet in length. Its colour is a 
dark brown, deepening on the back, and almost white 
on the belly. 

The other is found in the woods bordering on the 
prairies, is about the length of the former, but not so 



high, .and more slender ; its colour partakes of the 
tawny; it is far less ferocious, and preys on the 
buffalo, elk, and deer. 

The wild cat (Cains Jcrus of Lin.) is also numer- 
ous ; it is similar to those found in the western states, 
and requires no description. 

The buffalo, or more properly the bison, varies in 
height from five to five and a half feet. It differs from 

166 
the domesticated ox in being longer legged, shorter 
bodied, in having a large hump upon its back, a long 
mane, iand. much long hair on its head, back, and 
shoulders. Its greatest girth is just back of the fore 
legs, from which the body gradually tapers, and also 
diminishes in height. Its neck is long and slender, 
head, and eyes small, structure calculated for speed, 
and its general aspect fierce and terrible ; though, ex- 
cept when wounded, or closely pressed, it is harmless 
and timid. ,j Its smell is acute, and it chiefly depends 
on this sense for its safety. It may be denominated 
an annually migrating animal ; though a few of them 
may be found far north, at all seasons of the year. 

They go in immense herds, and no one, ignorant 
of the extent of the fertile prairies, can form any idea 
of the countless myriads that are spread over, and 
find support on them. The males and females herd 
separately, except in the copulating season, which is 
in June and July, when their assemblage is tufnultu- 
ously promiscuous. The bulls at this time contend 
for mastery: I have seen some hundreds of these 
engaged in fighting at the same time ; their roar is 
deep, and loud, and their conflicts really terrible. 
The cows bring forth in March or April ; they are 
proverbially attached to their young, and form at 
night a circular phalanx round them, with their horns 
outward, to protect them against the attack of the 
wolves. They weigh, when fat, from ten to twelve 
hundred weight, and their flesh, if possible, is better 
than that of the domesticated stall-fed beeves. This 
circumstance originates, probably, in the peculiarity 
of their food, which chiefly consists of the prairie 

166 
grass. They might, no doubt, be domesticated with 
great advantage, more especially as their hair is of a 
texture surpassing in fineness the wool of the Merino 
sheep, ( in their wild state it appears to great disad- 1 
Vantage, on account of its being ge nerally interwoven I 
with the burrs of various plan ts, j This might be 
altogether obviated by grazing them on the smooth 
bottoms of the reclaimed meadows. Attempts have 
been made to cross them with the common cow, but 
a failure followed in consequence of their difference 
ifr structure. 



I] 



198 



AN 



ACCOUNT 

OF TWO 

VOYAGES 

TO 

NEW-ENGLAND- 

Wherein, you have the fetting out of a Ship,' 

with the charges j The prices of all neceffuies for 
furnifhing a. Planter and his Family at his fi; fi com- • 
ing ; A Defcription of the Countrey, Native^ and 
Creatures, with their Merchancil and Phyfical u& ; 
The Government of the Countrey as it is now pof- j 
fefled by the £>!£/i/&j&c.A Urge Chror.o'ogical Ta- I 
bleof the moft renurkable palfeg:s,from the fiifl dif- 1 
covering of the Continent of America, to the year 
\6l J. 



By John Jeffelyn Gent. 



Memner. diftich reridrcd Englim t»y Dr. Htylin, 
Hearty take thine eafe, 
Men hard to pleafe 

'thou haply might'fi offend, 
Though onefpeah^M 
Qf thetyfome mil 

Say better i there's an end. 

London, Printed for Gibs mddows, at the GntruDngK 
in St. P<x«/*s-Church-ya r d. 1^74. 



(59) 

The plants in New England for the va- 
riety, number, beauty, and vertucs, may 
(land in Competition with the plants of any 
Countrey in Europe, johnfvn hath added 
to Gerard's Herbal 300. and Park'wfin nrun- 
tioneth many more , had they b;cn in 
Nov England they might have found 1000 
at Icafi never heard of nor fcen by any 
.Englijhmin before : 'Tis true, the Countrie 
hath no Bonereis, or Tartarlambs, no glitte- 
ring coloured "juleps \ but here you have 
the American Mary Gold , the Earth-nut 
btaring a princely Flower, the beautiful 
leaved Pirola , the honied Colibry , &o 
They are generally of ( fomewhat ) a mote 
mafculine vcrtue , than sny of the fame 
fp;cics in England, but not 111 fo terrible a 
aegrce,as to be mifchievous or ineftcctiwl 
to our Englifh bodies. It it affirm by Jomc 
that no f arraign Vrugg or Simple can btfo 
proper to Englishmen as their own, for the 



quantity of Opium which Turkj dnjafely takje 
wiV kill four Englifimcn, and thai vebicb will 

(60) 

filve their wounds within a day, will not re- 
cure an EngUjhman in three. To which I 
anfwer that it is cuftom that brings the 
Tur\s to the familiar ufe of Opium. You 
may have heard of a Taylor in Kent, who 
being afflicted with want of flcep ventured 
upon Opium, taking at firft a grain, and in- 
crcafing of it till it came to an ounce , 
which quantitic he took as familiarly as a 
Turk, without any harm, more than that 
he could not flcep without it. The Englijb 
in New-England take white Hellebore, which 
operates as fairly with them, as with the 
Indians, who fteeping of it in water fome- 
time.giveit to young lads gathered toge- 
ther a purpofe to drink, if it come up they 
force them to drink again their vomit, 
C which they favc in a Birchen-dilh ) till it 
ftayes with them,& he that gets the victory 
of it is made Captain of the other lads for 
that year. There is a plant likewife, called 
for want of a name Clownes wound wort by 
the Englijh, though it be not the ftmc, that 
will heal a green wound in 24 hours, if a 
wife man have the ordering of it. Thus 
much for the general, I (hall now begin to 
difcover unto you the plants more particu- 
larly , and I (hall firft begin with Trees, 
and of them, riift with fuch as ire called 
in Scripture Trees of God, that is great 

Trees, that grow of themfelves without 
planting. Pfal. 104.. ic>, 17. Satianturarbo- 
res Jehova, cedri libani quaf plant atit j ( ubi 
avicuU nidificent ) abietes domicilia ciconia. 
The Htrons take great delight to fit basking 
upon the tops of thefc Trees. And Iihall 
not be over large in any, having written of 
them in my Treatife of the rarities of 
New- England, to which 1 refer you. 

The Oa^e I have given you an account of, 
and the kinds \ I (hall add the ordering of 
Red Oakg for Wainfcot. When they have 
cut it down and cleai'd it from the branch" 
es, they pitch the body of the Tree in a 
muddy place in a River, with the head 
downward for fome time, afterwards they 
draw it out, and when it is feafoned fuffici- 
cntly, they faw it into boards for Wainfcot, 
ar.d it will branch out into curious works. 



There is an admirable rare Creature in 
fhape like a Buck, with Horns, of a gummy 
fubftancc, which I have often found in the 
fall of the leaf upon the ground amongft 
the withered leavesi a living Creature I can- 
not call it i having only the fign of a mouth 
and eyes ; feldom or never dull you meet 
with any of them whole, but the head and 
horns, or the hinder parts, broken of] from 
thenfti the Indians call them Tree- BkcJ</, 
and have a fupcrfiiiious faying ( for I believe 

(61) 

they never fee any of them living ) that if 
they can fee a Ttcc-BttcJ^ walking upon the 
branches of an Oa\e when they go out in a 
morning to hunt, they (hill have good luck 
that day. Wh»t they are good for I know 
not, but certainly there is fomc more than 
ordinary vcrtuc in them. It is true that no- 
thing in nature is fupeifiuous, and we have 
the Scripture to back it, that God created 
nothing in vain. The like Creatures they 
have at the Barbadoes rvhicb they call Negroes 
beads, found in the Sands , about two inches 
long, with forehead, eyes, nofe, mouth, chin f 
and fart of the nec\, they are alwaycs found 
loofe in the Sand] without any root, it is as 
blac\as Jet, but whence it comes they k>io& 
not. I have read likjwife, that in the Cana- 
ries or Fortunate- Iflands, there is found a cer- 
tain Creature, which Boys bring home from the 
mountains as oft as .they would, and named 
them Tudcfquels, or little Germans : for they 
rv:re drfd dead Carcafes, almofl three footed, 
which any boy did eafly carry in one of the 
palms of hit hand, and they were of an hu- 
tnanejhape > but the rrbole dead Carcafe was 
clearly lil^e unto Tarcbmcnt, and their bones 
were flexible, as it were griflles : again\i the 
Sun, alfo, their J?ewch and wtcjiines wxre ■ 
feen. Surely (faith my Autbonr ) the diftroy* 
ed race of the Pigmies ww there. .There is 

alfo many times found upon the leaves of 
the Oake a Creature like a Frog, being as 
thin as a leif, and tranfparcnt, as yellow as 
Gold, with little fiery red eyes, the Englifo 
call them Tree-frogs or Tree-toads ( but 
of Tree-toads I {hall have occafion to fpeak 
in another place ) they are faid to be vene- 
mous , but may be fafcly ufed , being ad- 
mirable to flop womens over- flowing cour- 
fes hung about their necks in a Tafletie 



199 



bag. 

Captain Smith writes that in New-Eng- 
land there growes a certain berry called 
Kermes, worth 10 (hillings apound, and had 
been formerly fold for 30 or 40 Jhillings a 
pound, which may yearly be gathered in good 
quantity. I have fought for this berry, he 
Ipeaks of, as a man fhould feek for a needle 
in a bottle of Hay, but could never light 
upon it "> unlcfs that kind of Solomon feal 
called by the E>fglijh Treacle-berry be it. 
Gerard our famous Herbalift writes tb&t they 
grow upon a little Tree called Scarlet- Oake, the 
leaves have one fharp prickle at the end of it > 
it bearetb fmall Acorns ; But the grahi or 
berry growes out of the woody branches, like 
an excrefcence of the fubftance of the Oike- 
Applc, and of the bignefs if Fcafe, atfirjl 
white, when ripe of an A(h- colour, wh'nh in- 
genders little Maggots, which when it begin 1 

(H) . 

to have wings arc put into a hag and boulted 
Up and down till dead , and then made up into 
lumps , the Miggot as m<fl do deem U Cutche- 
ncle> So that Chermes i/Cutcf Cnele: the ber- 
ries dye fear let. Mr. George Sands in hit 
travels faith ( much to the fame purpofe ) that 
fcarlet dye growes like a blijier on the leaf of 
the Holy Oake, a little Jhrub, yet producing 
Acorns, being gathered they rub out of it d 
certain red dujt , that converteth after a while 
into worms, which they kjll with Wine, when 
they begin to quicken. See farther concerning 
Treacle-berries and Cutchinele in the rarities 
of New-England. 

The Pine- Tree challengeth the next 
place, and that fort which is called Board- 
pine is the principal,!? is a ftately large Tree, 
very tall, arid fometimes two or three fadom 
about : ,of the body the Englifh make large 
Canows of 20 toot long,and two foot and 
a half over, hollowing of them with an 
Adds, andfliapingof the outlldelikc a Boat. 
Some conceive that the wood called Gopher 
in Scripture, of which Noab made the 
Ark, was no other than Pine, Gen. 6. 14. 
The baTk thereof is good for Ulcers in fen- 
der pcrfons that retufe (harp medicines. 
T e inner bark of young board-pine cut 
fmall anditiampt and boiled in a Gallon of 
watct is a Vciy fovcraign medicine for burn 

or fcald , warning the fore with forne of 



the dccocYion, and (hen hying on the bark 
ftampt veiy (oft : or for frozen limbs, to 
take out the fire and to heal them, take the 
batkof Board-pine-Tree, cut it imall ar.d 
[tamp it and boil it in a gallon of water to 
Gelly, wafli the fore with the liquor, fiamp 
the bark again till it be very foft and bind 
it on. The Turpentine is excellent to heal 
wounds and cuts, and hath all the proper- 
ties of Venice Turpentine, the Rofen is as 
good as Frankincenfe, and the powdei of 
the drytd leaves geneijateth flefti i the di- 
ftilled water of the green Cones taketh 
away wrinkles in the face being laid on 
with Cloths. 

The Firr tree is a large Tree too, but fel- 
dom fo big as the Pine, the bark is fmooth, 
with knobs or blifters, in which lyeth clear 
liquid Turpentine very good to be put into 
falves and oyntments, the leaves or Cones 
boiled in Beer aregood for the Scurvie, the 
young buds are excellent to put into Epi- 
themes lor Watts and Corns, the Rofen is 
altogether as good as Frank ncenfe i out of 
this Tree the Poleakers draw Pitch and 
Tarr •, the manner I fhall give you, for that 
it may ( with many other things contained 
in this Treatifc ) be beneficial to my Coun- 
trymen, either there already feated, or that 

(66) 

may happen to go thither hereafter. Ouf 
of the fatteft wood changed into Torch- 
wood, which is a difeafe in that Tree they 
draw Tarr, firft a place muft be paved with 
flone or the like, a little higher in the mid- 
dle, about which there muft be made gut- 
ters, into which the liquor falls , then out 
from them other gutters are to be drawn , 
by which it may be received, then is it put 
into barrels. The place thus prepared, the 
cloven wood muft be fet upright, then muft 
it be covered with a great number of firr 
and pitch bowes i and on every part all 
about with much lome and fods of earth , 
and great heed muft be taken, left there be 
any cleft or chink remaining , only a hole 
left in the top of the furnace, through 
which the fire may be put in, and the flame 
and fmoak to pais out J when the fire burn- 
etii, the Pitch or Tarr runneth forth fitft 
thin, and then thicker > of which when it 
is boiled is made Pitch: the powder of 
dried Pitch is ufed to generate flefli in 
wounds and fores. The knots of this Tree 



300 



and fat-pir.c ire ufed by the Englijb inflead 
of Candles, and it will burn a long time, 
but it makes the people pale. 

The Spruce- tree I have given you an ac- 
count of in my New-England rarities. In 
the North call of Scotland upon the banks 

of Lough- argickj there hath been formerly 
of thele Trees 28 handful about at. the 
Rooti and their bodies mounted to 00 foot 
of height, bearing at the length 20 inches 
diameter. At Pafcdtaway there is now a 
Spruce- tree brought down to the water- 
fide by our Mafs-men of an incredible big- 
nefs, and fo long that no Skipper durft ever 
yet adventure to fbip it, but there it lyes 
and Rots. 

The Hemlock- tree is a kind of fpruce or 
pine i the bark boiled and ftampt till it be 
very foft is excellent for to heal wounds, 
and fo is the Turpentine thereof, and the 
Turpentine that iflueth from the Cones of 
the Larch-tree, ( which comes neareft of 
any to the right Turpentine) is Angularly 
good to heal wounds, and to draw out the 
malice ( or Thorn, as Hf/wzm phrafes is ) 
of any Ach, rubbing the place therewith, 
and ftrowing upon it the powder of Sage- 
leaves. 

The white Cedar is a ftately Tree, and is 
taken by fomc to be X amarlI k> ,ms Tree 
the Englijh faw into boards to floor their 
Rooms , for which purpofe it is excellent, 
long lafting, and wears very fmooth and 
white •, likewife they make (hingles to cover 
their houfes with inftcad of tyle, it will ne- 
ver warp. This Tree, the Oak and the 

(62) 

Larch-tree are beft for building. Ground fcls 
made of Larch-tree will never rot, and the 
longer it lyes the harder it growes , that you 
may almoft drive a nail into a bar of Iron as 
eafily as into that. Oh, that my Countrey- 
men might obtain that blcfling with their 
buildings , which Efay prophtfied to the 
Jtms in the 6$ Chapter and 22 verfe. 
Noh tdificabum & alius inbabitabit , non 
platttabunt & aim comedet : fed ut funt 
diet Arbor k~ dies erunt popnli mei,& opus 
ntanuum fuarum deferent eleUi mei. 

The SafTafras-tree is no great Tree , I 
have met with fome as big as my middle, 
the rir.d is tawny and upon that a thin co- 



201 



lour of Afhes, (he inner part is white, of 
an excellent fmell like Fennel, of a fvvcet 
tall with fome bitternefs ; the leaves arc 
like Fig-leaves of a dark green. A deco&i- 
cn of the Roots and bark thereof fweetned 
with Sugar, and drunk in the morning 
falling will open the body and procure a 
ftool or two, it is good for the Scurvie taken 
fome time together , and laying upon the 
legs the green leaves of white Hellebore* 
Tney give it to Cows that have newly cal- 
ved to make them call their Cleaning*. 
This Tree growesnot beyond Blacks-point 
Eiftwnd : it is obferved, that there is no 
province b t produces Trees and plants not 
growing in, other Regions. 

(69) 

Non omnUfert omnia t cilia. 

The Walnut which is divers, fome bea- 
ring fquare nuts, others like ours, but fmal- 
ler : there is likewife black Walnut of pre*" 
cious ufe for Tables, Cabinets and the like. 
TheWilnut-trcc is the tougheft wood in the 
Countric, "and therefore made ufe of for 
Hoops and Bowes, there being no Yew 
there growing > In England they made 
their Bowes ufually of Witch, Hatel, A(h> 
Yew, the befl of outlandifh Elm, but the 
Indians make theirs of Walnut. 

The Line-tree with long nuts, the other 
kind I could never find .-the wood of this 
Tree, Laurel, Rhamnus, Holly and Ivy arc 
accounted for woods that caufe fire by at- 
trition i Laurel and Ivy are not growing in 
Nero-England : the Indians will rub two 
feai'd nicks of any fort of wood , and 
kindle a fire with them prefently. 

The Maple-tree, on the boughs of this 
Tree I have often iound a jellied fubftance 
like Jeivc s-Ears, which I found upon tryal 
to be as good for fore throats &c. 

The Birch-tree is of two kinds, ordina- 
ry Birclv and black Birch, many of thefc 
Trees arc ftript of their bark by the Indi- 
ant y who make of it their Canows, Kettles, 

(70) 

and Birchen- difhes : there is an excrefcence 
growing out of thcboVyof the Tree called 
fpunck, or dead mens Caps, it growesat 
the R.oots of Afh, or Bctch, or Elm - but 
the b?n is that which growes upon the black, 
Birch, this boiled and beaten, and then dri- 



ed in an Oven makcth excellent Touch- 
wood, and Bills to play with. 

■Alder, of which wood there is abundance 
^n the wet fwamps : the bark thereof with 
tjie yolke of an E^g is good for a (train i 
an Ir.dim bruifing of his knee, chew'd 
the baik of Alder filling and laid it to, 
which quickly helped him. The wives of 
pur Welt-Countrey Englifh make a drink 
with the feeds of A'dtr , giving it to their 
Children troubled with the AUoes. I have 
talk'd with many of them, but could never' 
apprehend what difeafeit fiiould be they fo 
name, thefe Trees arc called by fome Sul- 
jinges. 

The Indians tell of a Tree tint growes 
far upin the land, that is as big as an Oake, 
that will cure the falling-llcknefs infallibly, 
what part thereof they ufe, Birk, Wood, 
leaves or fruit, J coujd never learn \ they 
promiftd often to brirg of it to me, but 
#id not. I have feen 3 ltatcty Tree grow- 
ing here and there in valleys, not like to an^ 
Trees in Europe , having a imooth baitfof 

(7D 

a dark brown colour, the leaves like great 
Maple, in England called Sycamor, but lar- 
ger, it may be this, is the Tree they brag of. 

Thus much concerning Trees, now I fhall 
prefent to your view the Shrubsj and firft of 
• the Sumach Shrub,which as I have told you 
in Nerp-Englands rarities, diflereth from all 
the kinds fet down in our E«g/i/fc Hcrbals i 
the root dyeth wool of' cloth reddifth, the 
deco&ion of the leaves in wine drunk, is 
good for all Fluxes of the belly in man or 
woman, the whites, &c. For galled places 
(lamp the leaves with honey, and apply it, 
nothing fo foon hcaleth a wound in the 
head as Sumach ftamptand applycd once in 
three dayes, the powder firewed in ftayeth 
the bleeding of wounds : The feed of Su- 
mach pounded and mixt with honey, hca- 
leth the Hemorrhoids, the gum put into a 
hollow tooth affwageth the pain, the hark 
or berries in the fall of the leaf, is as good 
as galls to make Ink of. 

Elder in New-England is (hrubbic,& dies 
once in two years: there is a fort of dwarf- 
Elder that growes by the Sea- fide that hath 
a red pith, the berries of both are fmallcr 
than Englijfj- Elder, not round but cornei'd, 
neither of them fmell fo flrong as ours. 

Juniper growes for the mod part by the 



Sea-fide, it bears abundance of skic-co!ou- 

(70 
ted berries fed upon by Partridges, and 
hathawoodic root, which induceth me 
lo believe that the plant mention'd in Job 
30.4. Qui dectrpebant -hcrbas e falfdagine 
cum jiirpibuf : eiiam rjdtces Junipetorum 
cfbo erant illis, was our Indian plant Caffiva. 
They write that.^K«i/>fr-coa!s prefcrve tire 
longed of any, keeping fire a whole year 
without fupply, vet the Indian never burns 
of if. 

S^eet fern, fee the rarities of New Eig~ • 
land, the tops and nucamems of fweet fern 
boiled in water or milk and drunk helpeth 
all manner of Fluxes, being boiled in water 
it makes an excellent liquor for Tnck. 

(Current-bulhes arc ot two kinds red and 

black, the black cunents which are larger; 
than the red fmell like cats pifs, yet are rea-/ 
fonable plcalant in eating. 

The Gooleberry-bufh, the berry or which 
is / calif d Groftrs or thorn Grapes, grow all 
oyer me Countrie^ the berry is but (n ull, 
of a red or purple colour when ripe-f" 



£02 



There is a (mall (hrub which is very com- 
mon, growing fometimes to the height of 
Elder, beaiing a berry like in flupe to the 
fruit of the while* thorn, of a pile yellow 
colour at firff, then red, when it is ripe of 
a deep purple , of a delicate Aromatical 
tart, forpewhac liipiick: to conclude, al- 

(73) 
wayes obfeivc this rule in taking or refu- 
ting unknown fruit ; if you hnd them 
eaten of the fowl or beart, you may boldly 
venture to eat of thtm, otherwife do not 
touch them. 

M<*ze, otherwife called 'furkje- wheat,- or 
rather Indian^ wheat-, becaufc it came fiift 
from thence > the leaves boiled and drunk 
helpeth pain in the back y of the /hikes 
when they are green you may make Bevc 
rage, as they do with Calamtls, orSngar- 
c*ne<. Theraw Corn chewed rpens felons 
or Cats hairs, or you nuy lay S^mp to it ; 
The Indians before it be thorow rips eat of 
it parched. Certainly the parched Corn 
thar Abigail brought to David was of this 
kind of grain, iSm. 25- 18. The Jerres 
manner was (at it is delivered to why* 
learned Pivine )firjl to parch their Corn, then 
tbty fryed it, andjaftly they boiled it to a palle t 



and then tempered it with water , Checfe- 
Citrds, HdMty and Eggs, this they carried d,ye 
with them to the Camp, and fo wet the Cakes 
in Wine er mity ; j U ch wasthepulfe too of 
Africa. 

French- beans, cir rather American-hems, 
the Heibalills call them kidney b^ans fioin 
their fhapc and ttfeds, for they Ibengrhen 
the kidneys they art variegated much,foiric 
being bigger a gre.t deal thai* othen , fomc - 

(7A) 

white, black, red, yellow, blew, fpoffed > 
befides your Bonivii and Calavanccs and the 
kidney- bean, that is proper to Konoal^e, but 
thefe are brought into the Countrie, the 
other arc natural to the climate. So the 
Mexico pompion which is flat and deeply 
camphcred, the fl fh laid to, aflwageth 
pain of the eyes. The watcr-mellon is pro- 
per to the Countrie, the flefh of itis of a 
flefh colour, a rare, cooler of F eavers, and 
excellent againft the (lone. Pomum fpinc- 
fum and palma-Chrifli too growes not here, 
onlcfs planted, brought from Perm the Ia,- 
ter is thought to be the plant , th at (hided 
Jonah the Prophet, ]ot\zs 4. 6. Paraverat enim 
Jehova T>cus rUinum qui afcenderet fupra 
Jonam, ut effct umbra fuper caput ejus erep- 
tura cum a malo ipfw > Utabaturque Jonas de 
rhino iUo Utitia magna. Kicinum, that is pal- 
ma C^r;/?i,callcd alto cucurbita,md therefore 
translated a Gourd. 

Tobacco, oxTabacca fo called from Ta' 
baco Or Tabago, one of the Canbbe-li] mds 
about 50 Englijh miles itomTrinidjd. The 
right name,according to Monardus,\spiciel- 
te, as others will pctum, nicotian from Nicut, 
a Portingal, to whom it was prefentcd for 
a raritie in Anno T>om. 1 550- by one that 
brought it from Florida. Great conteft 
there is about the time when it was firft 

(75) 

brought into England, fome will have Sir 
John Hawkins the firft, others Jsir Francis 
Drakes. Mariners \ others again fay that 
one Mr. Lane imployed by Sir Walter Raw- 
\tigh brought it firft info England; all con- 
clude that Sir Walter Rawleigb brought it 
firft in ufe. 7< j* obferved that no one kind 
rf /arraign Commodity yieldetb greater ad- 
Vantage to thepublick than Tobacco, it is ge- 
nerally made the complement of our entertain- 
ment, and hath made more JIaves than Maho- 



met. There is three forts of it Marchan-, 
table, the fnft horfe Tcbicco, hiving a 
bread long leaf piked at the end ; the (e- 
cond round pointed Tobacco i third fweet 
fronted Tobacco. Thefe arc made up into 
Cane, leaf or ball •, there is little of it 
p'anted in New-England, neither have they 
learned the right way of curing of it. It 
is fowen in April upon a bed of rich mould 
lifted, they make a bed about three yards 
long, or more according to the ground they 
intend to plant, and a yard and a half over, 
this they tread down hard, then they fow 
their feed upon it as thick as may be, and 
iitt tine earth upon it, then tread it down 
egain as hard as poflible they C2n, when it 
hath gotten four or fix leaves, they remove 
it into the planting ground ; when it begins 
tobud towards nowring, they crop eft the 

(70 

top,for the Flower drawes away theftrength 
-of the leaf. Fur the reft I refer you- to the 
Planter, being not willing to difcovcr their 
myftcries. The Indians in New England 
ufc a fmall round leafed Ti bacco, called by 
them, or the Fifhermen Poke. It is odious 
to the Eng1i(h.77>e verities of tobacco are tbefe, 
it helps digefiion, the Gout, tbe"Tootb-acb, 
prevents infeUion by fcents,it heats the cold ', 
tni cools them that frveat, feeJtth the hungry, 
fpent fpiritsrejloreth, purgetb the jlomach, kjl- 
leth nits and lice., the juice of the green leaf 
healeth green rvounds although poyfoned^ the 
Syrup for ma*iy difcafes, the fm»a\i for the 
ThibifickjCpugbof the lungs, dijiilljtions of 
Kheume, and all difeifes of a cold and moijl 
caufe, good for all bodies aid and moijl taken 
ttpon an emptic fiumzcb, ta\en upon a full fto- 
mach it precipitates digejlion, imm derately 
taken it dryetb the body, enflimeth the bloud, 
hurtctb the brain, weakens the eyes and the 
ftnetvs. 

White Hellebore is ufed for the Scurvie 
by the Englijh. A friend of mine gave 
therm tirft a purge, then conferve of Bear- 
bcrrie*, then fumed their leggs with vine- 
gar, fpiir.klcd upon a piece ,of mill-Itone 
made hot, and applied to the fores white 
Hellebore leaves, drink made of Orpine and 
forrcl were given likewife with it, and S;a- 

(77) 
fcuivie-grafs.To kill lice, boil the robrsof 
Hellebore in milk,and anoint the hair of the 



203 



head therewith or other place?. 

Mandrake, is a v;ry rare plant, the Indi- 
ans know it nor, it is found in the woods 
about Fafcataxvay, they do in plain terms 
flink, therefore Ke«^HJ-Flowers that he 
brought home were not Mandrakes y G en. 30. 
14, 15, \6. they are rendered in the Latine 
Amabiles Acres, the fame word fay our T>i- 
vines is ufed in Canticles, 7. 4. Amabiles 
iftos florcs edentes odorem, & fecundum 
oftia noftra omnes prctiofos ftu&us, rcccn- 
tes fimulac veteres , dileftc mi, rcpono tibi. 
So that the right transition »/,Pveuben brought. 
home amiable and fvecet fmelling ¥lomrs\ this 
in the Canticles ( fay they ) expounding the 
other. 

Calamw Aromaticus, or the f*e:t fmcl- 
ling reed, it Flowers in July* fee New-. 
Englands rarities. 

Sarfaparillaox roughbind-weed Cas fome 
defcribe if) the leaves and whole bind fet 
with thorns, of this there is (tore growing 
upon the banks of Ponds. See the rarities 
of New-Enghnd. The leaves of the Sarfa- 
parilla there defcribed pounded with Hogs 
greafe and boiled to an unguent, is excel- 
lent in the curing of wounds. 

Live for ever, it is a kind of Cud-rreed, 

•(7*) 

flourifheth all fummcr long till cold wei- 
thcr comes in, it growes now plentifully in 
our Englijh Gardens , it is good for cough 
of the lungs, and tocleanfc the breaft taken 
as you do Tobacco, and for pain in the 
head the decoction, or the juice drained 
and . drunk in Bear , Wine, or Aqua vitce, 
killeth worms. The Fifhermen when they 
want Tobacco take this herb being cut and 
dryed. 

Lyfinucbus or Loofe-ftrife.-fhcre are fevcral 
kinds, but the moft noted is the yellow Ly- 
fimacbui of Virginia, the root is longifh and 
white, as thick as ones thumb, the ftalkes 
p( an overworn colour, and a little hairic, 
the middle vein of the leaf whitifh, the 
Flower yellow and like Primrofcs , and 
therefore called Tree-primrofe, growes up- 
on feedie velTels , &c The lirft year it 
growes not up to a ftalke, but fends up 
many large leaves handfomely lying one 
upon another^Rofefafhion, Flowers in June, 
the feed is ripe in Augttft, ihis as I have laid 
is taken by the Englifh for Scabious. 



St. Jjbn's wort , it prcferveth Cheefe 
made up in ir, at Sea. 

Spurge or Wolfes milch there arc fcvcral 
forts. 

Avens^x hcrb-benneti you have an account 
of it in New- England* rarities i but one 

(79) 

thing more I (hall add, that you may plain-* 
ly perceive a more mafculinc quality in the 
plants growing in New-England. A neigh* 
bour of mine in Hay-time , having over-* 
heat himfelf, and melted his grcafe, with 
driving to outmowe another man, fell dan- 
geroufly fick, not being able to turn himfelf 
in his bed, his fiomach gon, and his heart 
fainting ever and anon •, to whom I admi- 
niftred the decoction of Avens-Tkoots and 
leavei in water and wine, fweetning itfwith 
Syrup of Clove-Gilliflowers, in one weeks 
time it recovered him, fo that he was able 
to perform his daily' work, being a poor 
planter or husbandman as we call them. 

Red'Lilly growes all over the Countrcy 
amongft the bufhef. Mr. Johnfon upon 
Gerard fakes the Tulip to be /theLilfy of 
the field mentioned by our Saviour, Matth. 
6' 28, 2^ Ac de vejiitu quid foliciti eflif ? 
difche quemtdo Mia agrorum auge/cant : 
non fatigmtur , ncque nent, fed dico vobti, ne 
Solofnoncm quidem cum univerfa ghria fie 
amiflum fuiffe ut unumex iftis. Solomon in 
all his Royalty was not lik^e one of them. His 
reafons are, firjt from the fhape, lil^e alilly\ 
Thefecond,becaufe tbofe places where cat 
Saviour was conversant they grow wild in the 
fields, fbird, the 'infinite variety of the co- 

(80) 

lours, fhe fourth and lafi teafen, the won* 
drous beautie and mixture of thefe Flowers. 

Water lillys \ the bUck roots dryed and 
pulverized, are wondrous c/Feftual in the 
Hopping of all manner of fluxes of the 
belly, drunk with wine or water. 

Herba-patit, one berry, herb true love, 
or four-leaved ntght-fh'ade, the leaves are 
good to be laid upon hot tumours. 

Vmbilicits veneris, ox New-England daific, 
it is gcod ' for hot humours, Erifipelas, St.. 
Anthonie\ fire, all inflammations. > 

Glafs-wort, a little quantity of this plant 
you may take for the Dropfie, but be very 
careful that you take not too mucti,, for it 
worketh impetuoufly. 



£04 



Water-p!antane, called in New-England 
water Suck-lcavcs, and Scurvie leaves, you 
rouft lay them whole to the leggs to draw 
out water between the skin and the fkfh. 

Rofa-folis, Sun-dew , moor-grafs , this 
plant I have feen more of, thin ever I faw 
in my whole life before in England, a man 
may gather upon fome marilh -grounds an 
incredible quantify in a fliort time i towards 
the middle of June it is in its feafon, for 
then its fpear is fliot out to its length, of 
which they take hold and pull the whole 
plant up by the roots from the mofs with 

(81J 

Amber-%xtt(t I take to be a MufhroonV 
fee the rarities of New-England. Monar- 
dus veriteth that t\mhtx-greefe rifeth out of s 
certain clammy and bituminous earth under 
the Seas, and by the Seafide>the billows cajlin^ 
up part of it a hr.d, and fifh devour the reft % 
Some fay it is the feed of a Whale , others, 
that it fpringefh from fountains as pitch doth t 
which fifhes fwallow down "» the air congealeth 
i/. And fbmetimes it is found in the ere- 
vifes and corners of Rocks. 

Fufs-balls, Mullipuffe s called by the Fish- 
ermen Wolvcs-farty, arc to be found plenti- 
fully, and thofe bigger by much than any t 
have feen in England. 

Coraline there is infinite ftore of it cart 
Upon the fhore , and another plant that is 
more fpinic,of a Red colour, and as hard as 
Corral. Coraline laid to the gout eafeth (he 
pain. 

Sea O ike or wreachj or Sea-weed^ the: 
black pouches of Oar-weed dryed and pul- 
verized, and drunk with White-wine , is 
an excellent remedy for the (tone* 

I will finifh this part of my relation con- 
cerning plants , with an admirable plant 
for the curing and taking away of Corns, 
which many times fore troubleth the Tra- 
veller ; if is not above a handful high i the 
little branches are wood ie, the, leaves like 

(82) 

tne leaves of Box, but broader and much 
thicker, hard, and of a deep grafs-green 
colour* this bruifed or champt in the mouth 
and laid upon the Corn will take it away 
clc an in one night. And obferve all Indian 
Trees and plants, their Roots are but of 
fmall depth, and fo they mud be fcf . 



Of Bcafts of the earth there be fcarce 

120 feveral kinds, and not much more of 

the Fowls of the Air, is the opinion of 

fome Naturi Mii/thc-c are not many> 

kinds of Bean's in New -England, they may 

i be divided into Bcafts of the Chafe of the 

fiinkingfoot, as Roes, Foxes, J accals, Wolves, 

Wildcats Raccons, Forcicpines,Squncks,Mtif 

I qujfics, Squirrels, Sables , and Mattrifes i 

land Bcafts of the Chafe of the fweet foot, 

( Bucl^, RedPrar, Rain- Dc*r, El\e, Maroufe, 

\Maeeari h, Be. if Reaver, Oner, Marten, Hare.! 

— 1'heKoe a.ki.,d oi Dtcr, and the rlsctelt 

Bcaft upon earth is here to be found, and is 

good vcr ifon, but not over far. 

The Fox, the male is called a dog-fox, the 
female a bitch-fox, they go a dickering the 
beginning of the Ipring, and brinR forth 
their Cubs in Mjv and Ju nejThtte ar 
two or three kind; el tficms one a grea 



205 



| yellow Fox t an other grey, who will climbj 
pinto Trees -,( the black Fox is of much 
tecrr. Foxes and Wolves are ufually hunted 



(83) 
in England from Holy-Rood day , till the. 
Annunciation. In New-England they make 
beft fport in the depth of winter : they lay' 
a fledg-load of Cods-heads on the other fide' 
of a paled fence when the moon (nines, and' 
about nine or ten of the clock the Faxes' 
come to it, fometimes two or three, or half 
a dozen,and more i thefe they {hoot, and by 
that time they have cafed them, there will 
be as many i So they continue (hooting 
and killing of Foxes as long as the moon 
fhineth ; I have known half a fcorc kill'd 
in one flight. Their pifles are bonielike a 
doggs, their fat liquified and put into the 
ears cafeth the pain, their tails or bufhes are 
very fair ones and of good ufe, but their 
skins are fo thin ( yet thick fet with deep 
furr) that they will hardly hold the dief- 

jaccals there be abundance, which is a 
Creature much like a Fox, but fmaller, they 
are very frequent in Pateftina, or the Holy- 
land. 

The Wolf feckcth his mate and goes a 
clicketing at the fame (eafon with F««/,ancI 
bring; forth their whelps as they do, but 



I 



their kennels arc Under thick 
/ great Tre es in remote places by the 1 
"he is to be minted as the box bom Holy 

tood day till the Annunciation* 



ufhes by\ 
fwamps,] 



(80 

The Mufquajhcsis a (mall Beaft rhat lives' 
in (hallow ponds, where they build them 
Ijoufcs of earth apd flicks in (tape like molc- 
hjUs t and feed upon Calamus Aromaticus : in 
May they fcent yery ftrong of Muske y 
tbeirfurr is of no great eftecm i their (tones 
wr,apt up in Cotten-wool will continue a 
long fimc, and arc good to lay amongft 
cloths to give them a grateful fmell. 

The Squirrili.oi which' there are three 
forts, the npoufe-fquirril, the gray fquirril, 
apd the flying fquirril, called by the Indian 
AJfjpJKicks The moufe-fquirril is hardly fj 
big -as a Rat^'ftreak'd on both fides with 
black and red fireaks, they are mifchievcus 
vermine deftroyipg abundance of Corn 
both in, the field and in the houfe, where 
they will gnaw holes into Chefts, and tear 
clothes both linnen and wollcn, and are no- 
table nut-gatherers in Augujl i when haiel 
and; filbert nuts are ripe you may fee upon 
every (slut-tree as rmny moufefquirrils as 
leaves. , ^o that the 1 U'S are gone in a trice, 
WKich they convey to their Drays or Nefts. 
T^C gray fquirril is pretty large', almoit as 
big ;as a Conic, and. are vciy good meat : in 
fomc parts of. the. Cocntrie there are many 
of them. The flying fquinil is fo called, be- 

(87) 
caufe f his skin being loofe and large ) he 
fpreads it on both fides like wings when he 
pjfTeth from one Tree to another at gre;t 
diilance. I cannot call it flying nor leaping,, 
for it is bom. 

The Muttrife is a Creature whofe he:d 
and fore parts is fhped fomewhat like a 
Lyons, not iltogether fo big as a houfc-cat, 
they are innumerable up in the Countrey, 
and are eftumed good furr. 

The Sable is much of the fize of a Mat- 
fri/e perfect black, but wlvt ftore there is of 
them I cannot tell, I never (aw but two. of 
them in Eight years fpacc. 

The Martin is as ours are in England, 
but blacker, they breed in holes which they 
make in the earth like Conies,and arc in- 
numerable, their skins or furr are in much 
icqucft. 

The Buck., Stag, and Rain-Vear are 
Creatures that will live in the coldeft cli- 
mates, here they are innumerable, bringing 
forth three Fawns or Calves at a time, which 



206 



they hide a mile afundcr to prevent their 
deflru&ion by the Wolves^ wiW-Cdts, Bears\ 
and Meqttans .-when they are infeafon they 
will be very fat > there are but few fliin by 
xhcEnglijh. The Indians who (hoot, them, 
and take of them with toyls, bring them in 

(^ 8 ) But there 

are a Generation of men and women in 
this prophane age that defpife Gods learning 
and his Ufhcrs to the Athenian!, choofing 
to wallow in the pleafures of fin for a fca- 
fon. I (hall conclude this excurfion, with 
that which a Poet writ fometime llnce, and 
then return to the trimming of my Orel. 

Say thou pour'fi them Wheals 

And they would Acorns eat ; 
ie ix9ere fimple fury in thee then to waft 
Thy /elf, on them thai have no tafti 

No, give them draff their fill, 

Huskj, Grains andfvciU > 
7'hey that love Lees and leave the lujlic Wine y 
Envy them not, their palaU with the Sveine* 

The Ravenis here numerous and Crowes, 
but Rookj, Vanes, Popinjaes, Megpies there 
be none. It is obferved that the female of 
all Birds of pny and Ravin is ever 
bigger thin the male, more venturous, har- 
dy, and watchful : but fuch Birds as do not 
live by prey and Ravin, the male is more ■ 
large than the female. So much for Birds 
of prey, the next are Birds for, the dim, 
and the tuft of thefe is, 

(99) 

The Turkie , which is in New-England 
a very large Bird, they breed twice or thrice 
in a year, if you would preferve the young 
Chickens alive, you mUft give them no wa- 
ter, for if they come to have their fill of 
'Water they will drop away ftrangcly, and 
you will never be able to rear any of them: 
they are excellent meat, efpecially a 2»rfei>- 
Capon beyond that, for which Eight (hil- 
lings was given, their Eggs arc very whole- 
fome and reftore decayed nature exceeding- 
ly. But the French fay they breed the Le- 
profie > the Indefles make Coats of Turku- 
feathers woven for their Children; 

The Pdrtridge is larger than ours, White 
flefht, but very dry, they are indeed a Colt 
of Partridges called Groofes* 



The Pidi eon^oi which there arc millions 
of millions,^ have feen a flight of Pidgeont ] 
fin the (pring, and at Michaelmas when they 
\ tcturn back to the Southward for four or 
five miley^ that to my thinking had neither 
beginning nor ending, length nor breadth, 
and fo thick that I could fee no Sun, they 
joyn Neft to Neft, and Tree to Tree by 
their N cfls many miles together in Pine-j 
Trees. rBut or late they arc much dimi- 



nifhed, the Englijh taking them with Nets. 
1 have bought at Bofion a dozen of Pidgeons 
ready pull'd and garbidgd for three pene 



TRAVELS 

INTO 

NORTH AMERICA; 

containing 
Its Natural History, and 

A circumftantial Account of its Plantations 
and Agriculture in general, 

WITH THE 

CIVIL, ECCLESIASTICAL AND COMMERCIAL 
STATE OF THE COUNTRY, 

The manners of the inhabitants, and feveral curious 
and important remarks on various Subjects. 

By PETER KALM, 
ProfefTor of Oeconomy in the Univerfity of Aobo in Swedifn 
Finland, and Member of the S-iue<1iJJ> P.oyal Academy of 
Sciences. 

TRANSLATED INTO rNStlSH 

By JOHN REIN HOLD FORSTER, F. A. S. 

Enriched with a Map, feveral Cuts for the Illuflration of 
Natural Hiflory, and fome additional Notes. 

VOL. I. 



WARRINGTON: 
Printed by WILLIAM EYRES. 

MDCCLXX. 



207 



I, *5 S*pt., 1748 

jl'His country contains, many lpeeies of 

the. plant, : which Dr. Linnaus ■ balhrR/jus, 

and, the moflt commonis the Rbiisfolifs pin- 

n arisfer rat is lanceolate* retrinque nudis, or the 

CkBu 



us glabra. The Englijh call this plant 
Sumach. But the Swedes* here, have no 
particular name for it; and therefore make 
Ly fe of the Engli/b mame.f Its berries or 
fruits are red, They -are- made ufe of for 
dying, and afford a colour like their. own. 
.This tree is like a weed in this country, 1 for 
if a corn-field is left uncultivated > for 'fbme 
few , years,together,^it. grows on it in plen- 
ty, fince the berries are. fpread everywhere 
by the .... birds; And , wheai the: .ground is 
to be ploughed the roots [flop -the' plough 
very much. The fruit flays on the fhrub 
during the whole winter. But the leaves 
drop very : early in^'autumnV'aftef they are 

I, 78 



turned reddish, like t hose of our 
SwecUst^ ounta^_ash. ( The braneha si 
"BoTled "with the berries afford a 
black ink like tincture. The boyj 
eat the berries, there being no 
danger of falling sick after the 
repast; but they are very sour. 




I, 178 



Oct., 1748 

October the 9th. J?ease are not much 
cultivated in Penfyhania at prefent, though 
formerly, according; to the accounts of 
fome old Swedes, :every farmer had a little 
field with peafe.- Jn^Ncw Jcrfey\ and the 
Southern parts of NewlTork, peafe are like- 
Avife not fo much cultivated as they u fed to 
.be. But in the northern parts of New 
Tori, or about Albdny.>;$xi& in all the parts 
of Canada which are inhabited by the 
French, the people fow great quantities* 
and have a plentiful crop. In the former 
colonies, a ; little defpiqable infect has obli- 
ged the people to giye up foufeful a part of 
agriculture. This ; little infect was formerly 

I, 174 
little known, but a few years ago it multi- 
plied exceffively. . It couples in fummer, 
about the time when the peafe are in Llof- 
fom, and then depofites an egg into almofl 
every one of the little peafe. When the 
peafe are ripe, their outward appearance 
does not difcover the worm, which, how- 



ever, is found within, when it is cut. 
This worm lies in the pea, if it is not flir- 
red during all the winter, and part of the 
fpring, and in that fpace of time confumes 
the greatcfl part of the infidc of the pea: 
In fpring therefore little more than the 
mere thin outward fkin is left. This worm 
at laft changes into an infect, of the colcop- 
tera clafs, and in that flate creeps through 
a hole of its own making in the hufk, 
and flies off, in order to h, ok for new fields 
of peafe, in which it may couple with 
its cogcncric infects, and provide food fuf- 
ficient for its pofleriiy. 

Tins noxious infect lias iprcad from 
Penfyhania to the north. For the country 
of New Tori:, where it is common at pre- 
fent, has not been plagued with it above- 
twelve or fifteen years ago ; and before that 
time the people fowed peafe every year 
without any ineonvenience, and had excel- 
lent crops. But by degrees thefe li le 
enemies, came in fuch numbers, that the 

I, 175 
inhabitant's were forced to leave off" fowing 
of peafe,. The people complained of this 
in f ;.veral places. The country people 
a,bout .Alb'-ny have yet ; the pi cafure to fee 
their, fields of peafe not infected by thefe 
beetles, but are always afraid of their ap- 
proach ; as it has been obfervc J they come 
every year nearer to that province. 

I know not whether this infect would 
live in Europe, and I fhould think our 
Swedijl) winters, muft kill the worm, even 
if it be ever fo deeply inclofed in the pea > 
notwithfla,nding it is often as cold in New. 
Tori (where this infect is fo abundant) as in 
our country, yet it continues to multiply here 
every year, and proceeds always farther to> 
the. north. 1 was very near bringing fome 
of thefe ver min into Europe, without know-. 
ing of it. j At my departure from America, I 
toolTTome fweet peas with me in a paper, 
and they were at that time quite frefh and 
green. But on opening the paper after my 
arrival at Stockholm, on Augujl the 1 ft. 
1751 ; I found all. the peas hollow, and 
the head of an infect peeping out of each. 
Some of thefe infects even crept out, in or-i 

Jder to try the weather of this hew climate ; 
but I made hade,, to fhut the paper again, 
in order fo. prevent, the fpreading of thisj 



208 



I, 17f 



noxious infect.* I own, that when I firft 
perceived them, I was more frightened 
than I fhould have been at the fight of a 
viper. For I at once had a full view of 
the whole damage, which my dear country 
would have fufFered, if only two or three 
of thefe noxious infects had efcaped me. 
The pofterity of many families, and even the 
inhabitants of whole provinces, would have 
had fufficient reafon to deteft me as the 



cau fe of fo gre at a calamity .( I aft 
lent iome or them, though well feci 



terwards 
fecured, to- 
count TeJ/in, and to Dr. Linnaus, together 
with an account of their dcftruclive quali- 
ties. Dr. Linnaas has already inferted a 
defcription of them in an Academical Dif- 
fertation, which has been drawn up under 
his prefidency, and treats of the damages 
made by in feels. -j- Pic there calls this in- 
fect the Brucbus of North- America. % It 

I, 177 
was very peculiar that every pea in the 
paper was eaten without exception. 

When -the, inhabitants of Penfylvania 
fow peafe procured from abroad they arc 
not commonly attacked by thefe infects 
for the firft year j but in the next they take 
pofleflion of the peafe. It is greatly to be 
wifhed that none of the fhips, which annu- 
ally depart from New Tork or Penfylvania ', 
may bring them. into ,-the European coun- 
tries. From hence the power of a fingle 
defpicable infect .will plainly appear; as 
alfo, that the ftudy of the ceconomy and of 
the qualities of infects, is not to be looked 
upon as a merepaftimc and ufelefs employ- 
m ent.* 

^__$The Rhus radicans .is a fhrub or tree^ 
which grows abundantly in this country, 
and has in common with the ivy called lie- 
dera arborea, the quality of not growing 
without the fupport of either a tree, a 
kvall, or a hedge. I have feen it climb- 
ing to the very top of high trees in the 



I, 178 
woods, and its branches shoot out 
•very where little roots, which 
fasten upon the tree, and as it 
were enter into it. When the stem 
is cut, it emits a pale b rown sap 
of a disagreeable scent. J This sap 
r i*s so sharp, that the letters and 
characters made upon linen with it, 



\ 



cannot be got out again, but grow 
blacker the more the cloth is 
washed. Boys commonly mark their 
names on t neir linen with this 
juic e ./if you write with it on pa- 
"per~J £he letters never go out, b ut 
grow blacker from time to time. 



I, 383.384 



Dm., 1748 



SEVERAL persons likewise assured 
us that we should J iave rain before 
to morrow night 1 _ JThe reason they 
*gave lor this conjecture was, that 
I this morning at sun rising, from 
I their windows they had seen every 
thing very plainly on the other 
side of the river, so that it ap- 
peared much nearer than usual, and 
that this commonly foreboded rain. 
This presage was likewise pretty 
exactly fulfilled. 



TRAVELS 

INTO 

NORTH AMERICA; 

CONTAINING 

ItsNaturalHistory, AND 

A circumftantial Account of its Plantations 
and Agriculture in general, 

WITH THE 

CIVIL, ECCLESIASTICAL AND COMMERCIAL 
STATE OF THE COUNTRY, 

The manners of the inhabitants, and feveral curious 
and important remarks on various Subjects. 

By PETER KALM, 
Profeflbr of Oeconomy in the Univerfity ofAobo in Swedifri 
Finland, and Member of the Snxtdijh Royal Academy of 
Sciences. 

TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH, 

By JOHN REINHOLD FORSTER, -F. A. S. 

Enriched with a Map, feveral Cuts for the Illuftration of 
Natural Hillory, and fome additional Notes. 

V O L. II. 



LONDON: 

Printed for the EDITOR ; 

And Sold by T. L o w n d e s, in Fleet-flrect. 

MDCCLXXI. 



II, 310 Jnn; 1740 

Between Forts Anne and St. "Frederic. 

Towards night we met with a French 
frrjeant, and fix French foldiers, who were 
fent by the commander of Fort St. Frede- 
ric., to accompany three Englijhnien to 5rf- 
ratoga, and to defend them in cafe of ne~ 
cefTity, againft fix French Indians, whq 
were gone to be revenged on the Englifo^ 
for killing the brother of one of them in 
the laft war. The peace was already con- 
cluded at that time, but as it had not yet 
been proclaimed in Canada, the Indians 
thought they could take this ftep ; there- 
fore they filently got away, contrary to the 
prder of the Governor of Montreal, and. 
went towards the Englifo plantations. We 
here had occafion to admire jhe care of 
Providence for us, in efcaping thefe bar- 
barians. We found the grafs trod down all 
the day along,, but had no thoughts of dan- 
II, 811 

ger, as we believed that every thing was 
quiet and peaceable. We were afterwards 
informed, that thefe Indians had trod the 
grafs down, and pafled the laft night in the 
place where we found the burning brands in 
the morning. The ufual road which they 
were to take, was by Fort Anne, but to 
fhorten their journey they had gone an un-- 
frequented road. If they had gone on to- 
wards Fort Anne, they would have met us 
without doubt, and looking upon us all 
as Engliflmen, for whofe blood they were 
gone out, they could eafily have furprifed 
and (hot us all, and by that means have 
been rid of the trouble of going any 
further to fatisfy their cruelty. We were 
greatly ftruck when the Frenchme?/ told us 
how near death we had been to-day. We 
pa/Ted the night here, and tho gh the 
'French repeatedly advifeel and dclued me 
not to venture any further with my com- 
pany, but to follow them to the fir ft Eng- 
lifh fettlement, and then back to Fort St. 
Frederic, yet I refolved, with the protection 
of the "Almighty, to continue my journey 
the_next day. 

We faw immenfe numbers of thofe 
wild pigeons flying in the woods, which 
fometimes come in incredible flocks to the 
fouthern Englijh colonies, molt of the in- 



209 



II; 318 

bitants not knowing where they come from. 
They have their nefts in the trees here ; 
and almoft all the night make a great noife 
a nd cooing in the trees, where they rooft . 
The Frenchmen fhot a great number of them/ 
and gave us fome, in which we found a 
great quantity of the feeds of the elm, 
which evidently demonftrated the care of 
(Providence in fupplying them with food ;■ 
I for in May the feeds of the red maple, whichr 
abounds here, J are ripe, and drop from the 
trees, and are eaten by the pigeons during 
that time: afterwards, the feeds of the elm 
ripen, which then become the ir food, till 
other feeds rip_en for them. (Their fleih 



is the raoft palatable of any bird's flefh 1 

ev e_tafted. 

^JSlmost every night, we heard fome^ 
trees crack and fall, whilft we lay here in 
the wood, though the air wasfo calm that not 
a leaf ftirred. The reafon of this breaking 
I . am totally unacquainted with. Perhaps 
the dew loofens the roots of trees at night ; 
or, perhaps there arc too many branches 
pn one fide of the tree. It may be, that 
the above-mentioned wild pigeons fettle in 
fuch quantities on one. tree as to weigh it 
klown ; or perhaps the tree-begins to bend 
more and more to one fide, from its center 
ravity, making the weight always greater) 



\*[z 



II, 313 



r? 



for the roots to fupport, till it comes to the 
point, when it can no longer be kept up- 
right, which may as well happen in the 
midft of a calm night as at any other time. 
When the wind blows hard, it is reckoned 
very dangerous to fleep or walk in the 
woods, on account of the many trees which 
fall in them; and even when it is very 
aim, there is fome danger in pafting 
der very great and old trees. ( TwaT 
told, in feveral parts of Atnerica, that the 
ftorms or hurricanes fometimes only pafs 
over a fmall part of the woods, and tear 
down the trees in it; and I have had op- 
portunities of confirming the truth of this 
obfervation, by finding places in the forefts, 
where almoft all the trees were thrown 
down, and lay all in one direction. 
II, 318 

On our left we faw an old fortification of 
/tones laid above one another; but nobody 



210 



could tell me whether the Indians or the 

E uropeans had built it. 

t_r E had rowed very faft all the afternoon^ 
'in order to get forward ; and we thought that 
i we were upon the true road, but found our- 
Ifelves greatly mistaken : for towards night 
/we obferved, that the reeds in the river bent 
towards us, which was a mark that the river 
llikewife flowed towards us -, whereas, if 
|we had been on t he true river, it fliould; 
[have gone with us. f We like wife obferved, 
from the trees which lay acrofs the river, 
that nobody had lately pafled that way, 
though we mould have feen the fleps of the 
Frenchmen in the grafs along the fhore, when 
they brought their boat over thefe trees, 
At laft, we plainly faw that the river flowed 
again ft us, by feveral pieces of wood which 
floated ilowly towards us ; and we were con- 
vinced, that we had gone twelve Eng/i/h 
miles, and upwards, upon a wrong river, 
which obliged us to return, and to row till 

II, 317 
very late at night. We fometimes thought, 
through fear, that the Indians, who were 
gone to murder fome Eng/i/h, would una- 
voidably i aeet with us. Though we rowed 
very faft, yet we were not able to-day to 
get half-way back to the place where we 
firfl left the true river. 



T R A V EL 



INTO 

NORTH AMERICA; 

containing 

Its Natural History, and 

A circumftantial Account of its Plantations 
and Agriculture in general, 

WITH THE' 

CIVIL, ECCLESIASTICAL AND COMMERCIAL 
STATE OF THE COUNTRY, 

The manners of the inhabitants, and feveral curious 
and important remarks on various Subjects. 

By PETER KALM, 
ProfefTor of Oeconomy in the Univerfity of Aobo in Swedifli 
Finland, and Member of the Swdi/h Royal Academy of 
Sciences. 

TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH 



By JOHN REINOLD FOR'STER, F.A.S. 

Enriched with a Map, feveral Cuts for che Hluftration of 
Natural Hiftory, and fome additional Notes. 



VOL. III. 



LONDON: 

Printed for the E D I T O R ; 

And Sold by T. Lowndes, in^Fleet-ftreet. 
MDCCLXXI. 



Ill, 14 



July, 1749 



Fort St. Frederic. 



jfuly the 8th. The Galium tinfiorium is 
called lifavojaune rouge by the French 
throughout all Canada, and abounds in the 
woods round this place, growing in a moid 
but fine foil. The roots of this plant are 
employed by the Indians in dying the quills 
of the American porcupines red, which they 
III, 18 

put into feveral pieces of their work; and 
ai r, fun, or water feldom change this colour , 
rfhe French women in Canada fometimesl 
\ dye their clothes red with thefe roots, which 
J are but fmall, like thofe of Galium tuteum K 
Ipr yellow bedftrawj 

The nodes are left out ot doors during 
the winter, and find their food in the woods, 
living upon nothing but dry plants, which 
are very abundant j however they do not 
fall off by this food, but look very fine and 
plump in fpring. 

jfu/y the 9th. The fkeleton of a whale 
wa/ found fome French miles from Quebec, 
and one French mile from the river St. 
Laurence, in a place where no flowing wa- 
ter comes to at prefent. This fkeleton has 
been of a very confiderablc fize, and the 
governor of the fort faid, he had fpoke with 
feveral people who had feen it. 
Ill; 28 

h e Ajclepias Syriaca, or, as the Frencfi\ 
it, le C otonier-, grows abundant in the J 
country, f ori the fides of . hills which 
Ty near rivers and other fnuations, as well 
in a dry and open place in the woods, as 
in a rich,; loofefoil. When the ftalk is 
cut or ; broken :it emits a la&efcent juice, 
and for this reafon the plant is reckoned 



211 



in fome degree poifonous.^ fThe Trench 
fin Canada nevenhelefs ufeits tender fhoots 
M*n fpring, preparing them like afparagus ; 
[ and the ufe of them is not attended with 
any bad confequences, as the flender fhoots 
have not yet had time to fuck up any 
thing poifonous. Its flowers are very odo- 
riferous, and, when in feafon, they fill the, 
woods with their fragrant exhalations, andl 
make it agreeable to travel in them ; efpe- 
cially in the evening. The French in Ca- 
nada make a fugar of the flowers, which 
for that purpofe are gathered in the morn- 
ing, when they are covered all over with 
dew. This dew is expreffed, and by boil- 
ing yields a very good brown, palatable 

III, 89 

MugarT The pods of this plant when rips 
contain a kind of wool, ' which enclofes 
the feed, and refembles cotton, from whence 
the plant has got its French name. ' The 
poor colled it, and fill their beds, efpecially 

Vtheir children's, with it inftead of feathers./ 
•This plant flowers in Canada at the end of 
June and beginning of July, and the feeds 
are, ripe in the middle of September. The 
horfes never eat of this plant. 

Quehec. 



Ill, 114 



1749 



Auguft the 7 ib. J Ginfeng is the current 
French name in Canada, of a plant, the 
root of which, has a very great value in. 



Ch ina*.] It has been growing fince times 
immemorial in the Chinefe Tartary and in 
Corea, where it is annuarly collected and 
brought to China. Father Du Halde fays, 
it is the moft precious, and the moft ufeful 
of all the plants in eaftern Tartary, and 
attracts, every year, a number of people into 
t he deferts of that country. / The Man-] 
techoux-Tartars call it Orhota, that is the 
moft noble, or the queen of plants-]-. The 
Tartars and Chinefe praife it very much, 
and afcribe to it the power of curing feveral i 
dangerous difeafes, and that of reftoring to/ 
the body new ftrcngtb, and fupplying the 
lofs cauied by the exertion of the mental, 
and corporeal faculties. An ounce of 
Ginfeng bears the furprizing price of (even 
or eight ounces of filver at Peking. When 
the French botanifts in Canada firft faw a 
figure of it, they remembered to have feen 



* Botanifls know this pltnt by the name of Penj.x quln- 
quefdium t .(o\'i\s ternatis quinatis Linn. Mat. Med. § I J 6. 
Sp. plant, p. i^. 12. Grjuiv. Fl. Virg. p. 147. See like 
• wife Catefjfs Nat. Hift of Carctir.a. Vol. III. p. 16. t. 16. 
Lajjiiau Ginf. 51. t. 1 . Father Charlvesix Hift. de la Nou- 
ve;le Fiance. Tom. IV. p. 30S. fig. XIII. and Tern. V. 
p. 24. 

■\ Pttir Osbeck'i voyage to Coikj, Vol. I. p. 2: J- 

III, 115 

& fimiliar plant in this country. They werd 
Confirmed in their conjecture by confidering 
that feveral fettlements in Canada, ly under 
the fame latitude with thofe parts of the 
Chinefe Tartary, and China, where the true 
Ginfeng grows wild. They fucceeded in 
their attempt, and found the fame Ginfeng 
wild and abundant in feveral parts of "North- 
America, both in French and Englijh plant- 
ations, in plain parts of the woods. It is 
fond of {hade, and of a deep rich mould, 
and of land which is neither wet nor high. 
It is not every where very common, for 
lometimes one may fearch the woods for 
the fpace of feveral miles without finding a 
fingle plant of it; but in thofe fpots where 
it grows it is always found in great abund- 
ance. It flowers in May and June, and its 
berries are ripe at the end cf Augufl. It 
bears tranfplanting very well, and will foon 
thrive in its new ground. Seme people 
here, who have gathered the berries, and 
put them into their kitchen gardens, told 
me that they lay one or tw ovears in the 
T oucd without c oming up^jfThe IroquefeJ\ 
or" hive (Six) rsationsrcall the Ginfeng 
roots Garangtcging, which it i= Aid figni-| 
fies a child, the roots bearing a faint re- 
femblxace to it: but others are cf opinion | 
that they mean the thigh ar.d le? by it, jm dj 

III, 116 

the roots look pretty like it. The French 
ufe this root for curing the afthma, as a 
ftomachi c, and to promote fertility in wo- 
man^JThe trade which is carried on witrT 1 
here is very brifk ; for they gather great 
[quantities of it, and fend them to France, 
from whence they are brought to China, 
and fold there to great advantage *J it is 
7aid the merchants in trance met with 
amazing fuccefs in this trade at the .firft 
outfet, but by continuing to fend the Gin- 
feng over to China, its price is fallen con- 
siderably there, and confequently in France 
and Canada ; however, they ftill find their 



212 



account_mjJL_£ln the fummer of 1748, a^ 
r^ound of Ginfeng was fold for fix Francs, 
or Livres, at Quebec ; but its common price' 
1 her e is one hundred Sols, or five Livres. 
fring my flay in Canada, all the merch- 
ants at Quebec and Montreal, received orders 
from their correfpondents in France to fend 
over a quantity of Ginfeng, there being an 
unco mmon demand for it this fummer. 
roots were accordingly collected in\ 
fa with all poffible diligence; the J 



The 

Canada 



* Mr. OJbcck feems to doubt whether the Europeans reap 
any advantages from the Gin/img trade or not, bepaufe the 
Cbtnefe do not value the Canada roots fo much as thofe of 
the Cbinefe-Tartary and therefore the former bear fcarce half 
the price of the latter. See Ofieck's Voyage to China, Vol. 
I. p. 223. F. 

Ill, 117 

Indians efpecially travelled about the country 
in order to collect as much as they could to- 
gether, and to fell it to the merchants at 
Montreal. .The Indians in the neighbour- 
hood of this town were likewife fo much 
taken up with this bufinefs, that the French 
farmers were not able during that time to 
hire a fingle Indian, as they commonly do, 
\ JLo help them in the harvefl. J * Many people 
feared left by continuing for fever al fuc- 
cefiive years, to collect thefe plants without 
leaving one or two in each place to propa- 
gate their fpecies, there would foon be very 
few of them left ; which I think is very 
likely to happen, for by all accounts they 
formerly grew in abundance round Mon- 
treal, but at prefent there is not a fingle 
plant of it to be found, fo effectually have 
they been rooted out. This obliged the 
Indians this fummer to go far within the 
EngHJh boundaries to collect thefe roots. 
After the Indians have fold the frefh roots 
to the merchants, the latter mult take a 
great deal of pains with them. They are 
fpread on the floor to dry, which commonly 
requires two months and upwards, according 
as the feafon is wet or dry. During that 
time they mufl be turned once or twice 
every day, left they fhould putrify or moul- 
der. Ill, 210 

The fand-reed * grows in abundance in 
the fand, and prevents its being blown a- 
bout by the wind. 

The fea-lyme grafs *f- likewife abounds 
on the fhores. Both it and the preceding 
plant are called Seigle de mer ^ by the 



a 2 



B 3' 
3 3 



French. I have been afTured that thefe 
plants grow in great plenty in Newfound- 
land, and on other North-American fhores j 
the places covered with them looking, at 

ill, 811 Cap aux Uyes. 

a dirtance, like corn-fields ; which might 
explain the paffage in our northern ac- 
counts, of the excellent ivine land*, which 
mentions, that they had found whole fields 

of . wjieat growing wild. 

he fea-fide plantain -f is very frequentl 
on the fhorei » The French boil its leavesl 

Jn a broth on their fea-voyages, or eat them 
as a fallad. It may likewife be pickled like 1 

J'amphire.^ ' 

The bear-berries j grow in great abun- 
dance here. The Indians, French, Eng- 
lUb, and Dutch, in thofe parts of North- 
America, which I have feen,' call them Sa- 

gackhomi, and mix the leaves with tobacco 
fprjt heir ufe. , ___ i , 

i ^SGai.'e, or fweet willow §, is likewife 1 
abundant here. , The French call it Lau 
rier, and fome Poivrier. They put the 
leaves into their broth, to give it apleafant 
tafte.f 




un-) 



/The fea- rocket [] is, likewife, not 

* Finland dct gcda, or the good wine-land, is the name 
which the old Scandinavian navigators gave to America, 
which they difcovered long before Columbus. See Tcrf<ei 
Hijloria Vinlandia antiques f. partis America feptentrior.alist 
Hafnias 1715, 4/0. and Mr. George- Weftmanns, A. M. 
D;fTertation on that Subject. Abo 1747. F. 

Ill, 212 



^common. Its root is pounded, mixed with 
flour, and eaten here, when there is a, 
J carcity of bread./ 
" The forb-tree, or mountain-afh, the 
cranberry-bufh, the juniper-tree, the fea-fide 
peafe, the Linnaa, and many other Swedijh 
plants, are likewife to be met with here. 

Ill, ZZ1 
JThe women dye their woollen yarn ye!*t 
low Witn feeas of gale,* which is called] 
rter nere, and grows abundaht M wet j 




evening, M. Gaulthier and I went 
to lee the water-fall at Montmorenci. The 
country near tne river is high and level; 
and laid out ihto meadows. Above them 
tne high and fteep hills beein, which arc 
covered with a emit ot mould, and turned 
into corn-fields. 



213 




S, K, 



&>■ -^ ^t^&st^D 



ii ** 



CHAPTER V. 



CRIMSON CLIFFS OF BEVERLEY — HAKLUYT AND NORTHUMBERLAND 
RED SNOW THE GATES OF SMITH'S STRAITS — CAPE ALEXAN- 
DER — CAPE HATHERTON FAREWELL CAIRN — LIFE-BOAT DEPOT 

ESQUIMAUX RUINS FOUND — GRAVES — FLAGSTAFF POINT. 



My diar y continues : — •_ 



_}"We passed the 'Crimson Cliffs' of Sir John Ross in 
the forenoon of August 5th. The patches of red snow, 
from which they derive their name, could be seen 
clearly at the distance of ten miles from the coast. It 
had a fine deep rose hue, not at all like the brown 
stain which I noticed when I was here before. All the 
gorges and ravines in which the snows had lodged were 
deeply tinted with it. I had no difficulty now in justi- 
fying the somewhat poetical nomenclature which Sir 
John Franklin applied to this locality ; for if the snowy 
surface were more diffused, as it is no doubt earlier in 
the season, crimson would be the prevailing color.J 

"Late at night we passed Conical Rock, the most 
insulated and conspicuous landmark of this coast ; and, 
still later, Wolstenholme and Saunder's Islands, and 
Oomenak, the place of the 'North Star's' winter-quar- 



»di>x£L tj JL, jh -%J 

ir- J i.-_A.. ,: r-'.tii;i | i..''git.yg»\.;'l 1 J;yULi i 






IN ITiNE YEARS lASS/g^'SS 



BT 



i&'r.'OTft ^sitj 1 'Jte^r^m^m s,2T, 




-^fcr^.Vs^J. 



VOQ..0. 
piuia x>i: ir'ri \a 

•Hi <,V [1856] 



1, 45 

ters: — an admirable day's run; and so ends the 5th of 
August. We are standing along, with studding-sails 
set, and open water before us, fast nearing our scene 
of labor. "We have already got to work sewing up 
blanket bags and preparing sledges for our campaign- 
ing on the ice." 

We reached Hakluyt Island in the course of the next 
day. I have only this wood-cut to give an idea of its 







POINT, FROM N 0<t TM-N « T M WCSr 



814 



I, 78 



CHAPTER Vin. 



TRACKING INSPECTING A HARBOR — TUE MUSK OX — STILL TRACK- 
ING CONSULTATION — WARPING AGAIN — AGROUND NEAR TUE 

ICE-FOOT — A BREATHING SPELL — THE BOAT EXPEDITION — 
DEPARTURE. 

It was not until the 22d that the storm abated, and 
our absent men were once more gathered back into 
their mess. During the interval of forced inaction, 
the little brig was fast to the ice-belt which lined the 
bottom of the cliffs, and all hands rested ; but as soon 
as it was over, we took advantage of the flood-tide to 
pass our tow-lines to the ice-beach, and, harnessing 
ourselves in like mules on a canal, made a good three 
miles by tracking along the coast. 

" August 22, Monday. — Under this coast, at the base 
of a frowning precipice, we are now working toward a 
large bay which runs well in, facing at its opening to 
the north and west. I should save time if I could 
cross from headland to headland ; but I am obliged to 
follow the tortuous land-belt, without whose aid we 
would go adrift in the pack again. 

" The trend of our line of operations to-day is almost 
I, 7t 

due east. We are already protected from the south, 
but fearfully exposed to a northerly gale. Of this 
there are fortunately no indications. 

"August 23, Tuesday. — We tracked along the ice- 
belt for about one mile, when the tide fell, and the 
brig grounded, heeling over until she. reached her bear- 
ings. She rose again at 10 p.m., and the crew turned 
out upon the ice-belt. 

" The decided inclination to the eastward which the 
shore shows here is important as a geographical fea- 
ture ; but it has made our progress to the actual north 
much less than our wearily-earned miles should count 
for us. j Our latitude, determined by the sun's lower 
(culmination, if such a term can be applied to his mid- 
I night depression, gives 78° 41'. We are farther north, 
therefore, than any of our predecessors, except Parry 
on his Spitzbergen foot-tramp. There are those with 
whom, no matter how insuperable the obstacle, failure 
involves di sgrace : we are safe at least from their 
censure. /"^ 



; 



I, 104 



CHAPTER X. 



APPROACHINO WINTER STORING PROVISIONS — BUTLER STORE- 
HOUSE — SUNDAY AT REST — BUILDING OBSERVATORY — TRAIN- 
ING THE DOGS — THE LITTLE WILLIE — THE ROAD — THE FAITH 
— SLEDGING — RECONNOISSANCE — DEPOT PARTY. 

The winter was now approaching rapidly. The 



thermometer had fallen by the 10th of September to 
14°, and the young ice had cemented the floes so that 
we could walk and sledge round the brig. About sixty 
paces north of us an iceberg had been caught, and was 



Ba:- 







'zs*fi44 



RENSSELAER HARBOR. 



I, 106 

frozen in : it was our neighbor while we remained in 
Rensselaer Harbor. The rocky islets around us were 
fringed with hummocks ; and, as the tide fell, their sides 
were coated with opaque c rystals of bright white. The 
birds h ad gone.^ jThe sea-swallows, which abounded 
when we first reached here, and even the young burgo- 
masters that lingered after them, had all taken their 
departure for the south. Except the snow-birds, these 



T\ 



are the last to migrate of all the A rctic birds.J 

"September 10, Saturday. — We have plenty of re- 
sponsible work before us. The long 'night in which 
no man can work' is close at hand: in another month 
we shall lose the sun. Astronomically, he should dis- 
appear on the 24th of October if our horizon were free ; 
but it is obstructed by a mountain ridge, and, making 
all allowance for refraction, we cannot count on seeing 
him after the 10th. 

"First and foremost, we have to unstow the hold, 
and deposit its contents in the storehouse on Butler 
Island. Brooks and a party are now briskly engaged 
in this double labor, running loaded boats along a canal 
that has -to be recut every morning. 

"Next comes the catering for winter diet. We have 
little or no game as yet in Smith's Sound ; and, though 
the traces of deer that we have observed may be fol- 
lowed by the animals themselves, I cannot calculate 
upon them as a resource. I am without the her- 
metically-sealed meats of our last voyage ; and the use 
of salt meat in circumstances like ours is never safe. 

I, 2*4 

"I left Hans as hunter. I gave him a regular ex- 
emption from all other labor, and a promised present to 



215 



his lady-love on reaching Fiskernaos. He signalized his 
I, 135 

promotion by shooting two deer, TuJckuk, the first yet 
shot. We have now on hand one hundred and forty- 
five pounds of fine venison, a very gift of grace to our 
diseased crew. But, indeed, we are not likely to want 
for wholesome food, now that the nigh t is gone, which 
made our need of it so pressing- / On the first of May, 
those charming little migrants the snow-birds, ultima 
coelicdlum, which only left us on the 4th of November, 
returned to our ice-crusted rocks, whence they seem to 
'fill the sea and air with their sweet jargoning.' Seal 
literally abound too. I have learned to prefer this flesh 
to the reindeer's, at least that of the female seal, which/ 
has not the fetor of her mate's. J 



"By the 12th, the sides of the Advance were free 
from snow, and her rigging clean and dry. The floe is 
rapidly undergoing its wonderful processes of decay; 
and the level ice measures but six feet in thickness. 
To-day they report a burgomaster gull seen: one of the 
earliest but surest indications of returning open water. 
It is not strange, ice-leaguered exiles as we are, that 
we observe and exult in these things. They are the 
pledges of renewed fife, the olive-branch of this dreary 
waste : we feel the spring in all our pulses. 
II, 50 VOLUME TWO 

"February 23, Friday. — Hans was out early this 
morning on the trail of the wounded deer. Khina, the 
least barbarous of our sledge-dogs, assisted him. He 
was back by noon, with the joyful news, 'The tukkuk 
dead only two miles up big fiord !' The cry found its 
way through the hatch, and came back in a broken 
huzza from the sick men. 

"We are so badly off for strong arms that our rein- 
deer threatened to be as great an embarrassment to us 
as the auction drawn-elephant was to his lucky master. 
We had hard work with our dogs carrying him to the 
brig, and still harder, worn down as we were, in getting 
him over the ship's side. But we succeeded, and were 
tumbling him down the hold, when we found ourselves 
in a dilemma like the Vicar of Wakefield with his 
family picture. It was impossible to drag the prize 
into our little moss-lined dormitory; the tossut was not 
half big enough to let him pass: and it was equally 
impossible to skin him anywhere else without freezing 
our fingers in the operation. It was a happy escape 
from the embarrassments of our hungry little council 
to determine that the animal might be carved before 
skinning as well as he could be afterward; and in a 

II, 81 
very few minutes we proved our united wisdom by a 
feast on his quartered remains. 



"It was a glorious meal, such as the compensations 
of Providence reserve for starving men alone. Wc 
ate, forgetful of the past, and almost heedless of the 
morrow; cleared away the offal wearily: and now, at 
10 P. M., all hands have turned in to sleep, leaving to 
their commanding officer the solitary honor of an eight 
hours' vigil. 

"This deer was among the largest of all the northern 
specimens I have seen. He measured five feet one 
inch in girth, and six feet two inches in length, and 
stood as large as a two years' heifer. Wc estimated his 
weight at three hundred pounds gross, or one hundred 
and eighty net. Tbc head had a more than usually 
cumbrous character, and a long waving tuft of white 
hair, that depended from the throat, gave an appear- 
ance of excessive weight to the front view. 

"The reindeer is in no respect a graceful animal. 
There is an apparent want of proportion between his 
cumbrous shoulders and light haunch, which is un- 
gainly even in his rapid movements. But he makes 
up for all his defects of form when he presents himself 
as an article of diet. 

"February 24, Saturday. — A bitter disappointment 
met us at our evening meal. The flesh of our deer 
was nearly uneatable from putrefaction; the liver and 
intestines, from which I had expected so much, utterly 
so. The. rapidity of such a change, in a t emperature 
so low as minus 35°, seems curious; but the Green-] 
II, 68 



landers say that extreme cold is rather a promoter than 
otherwise of the putrefactive process. All the grami- 
nivorous animals have the same tendency, as is well 
known to the butchers. Our buffalo-hunters, when 
they condescend to clean a carcass, do it at once; they 
have told me that the musk-ox is sometimes tainted 
after five minutes' exposure. The Esquimaux, with 
whom there is no fastidious sensibility of palate, are in 
the practice at Yotlik and Horses' Head, in latitude 
73° 40', even in the severest weather, of withdrawing 
the viscera immedi ately after d eath and filling the 
i cavity with stones. ) 



"February 25, Sunday. — The day of rest for those 
to whom rest can be; the day of grateful recognition 
for all! John, our volunteer cook of yesterday, is 
down : Morton, who could crawl out of bed to play 
baker for the party, and stood to it manfully yesterday, 
is down too. I have just one man left to help me in 
caring for the sick. Hans and Petersen, thank God! 
have vitality enough left to bear the toils of the hunt. 
One is out with his rifle, the other searching the traps. 

"To-day, blessed be the Great Author of Light! I 
have once more looked upon the sun. I was standing 



216 



on deck, thinking over our prospects, when a familinr 
berg, which had long been hid in shadow, flashed out 
in sun-birth. I knew this berg right well: it stood 
between Charlotte "Wood Fiord and Little Y'illie's 
Monument. One year and one day ago I travelled 
toward it from Fern Bock to catch the sunshine. 



II, 308 



THE POLA'B SEASON! 



The lake abounds in fish, apparently the salmon- 
trout; but the natives have not the art of fishing. 
The stream, which tunnels its way out near the 
glacier-foot, is about ten feet in diameter ; and I was 
assured that it never completely suspends its flow. 
Although the tunnel closes with ice, and the surface 
of the lake freezes for many feet below, the water may 
still be seen and heard beneath, even in midwinter, 

w earing its way at the base of t he glacier. 

>This fact is of importance, as it bears upon the tem- 
perature of deep ice-beds. It shows that with an 
atmosphere whose mean is below zero throughout the 
year, and a mean summer heat but 4° above the 
freezing-point, these great Polar glaciers retain a high 
interior temperature not far from 32°, which enables 
them to resume their great functions of movement and 
discharge readily, when the cold of winter is at an 
end, and not improbably to temper to some extent 
the natural rigor of the climate. Eve n in the heart of 
the ice nature has her compensations.} 



The phases of the Polar year so blend and separate 
that it is difficult to distribute them into seasons. In 
the Arctic latitudes a thousand miles to the south, 
travellers speak of winter and summer as if the climate 
underwent no intermediate changes. But nature im- 
presses no such contrasts upon any portion of her 
realm ; and, whatever ma}' be the registrations of the 
meteorologist, tlie rude Esquimaux of these icy soli- 

II, 309 

tudes derives from his own experience and necessities 
a more accurate and practical system of notation. 

He measures his life by winters, as the American 
Indian does by the summers, and for a like reason. 
Winter is for him the great dominant period of the 
year : he calls it " okipok," the season of fast ice. 

But when the day has come again, and the first 
thawing begins to show itself in the sunshine, as 
winter declines before the promise of spring, he tells 
you that it is "upernasak," the time of water-drops. 
It is then the snow-bird comes back and the white 
ptarmigan takes a few brown feathers. His well- 
known heath, too, the irsutcet, (Andromeda tctragona,) 
is green again below its dried stems under the snow. 






m 



m 



MICA SLATE. 



ii, ass 

But it is not in the season of thaws only that these 
II, 387 

wonderful geological 
changes take place. ■',-: . ; - .-- 

Large rocks are pro- 
jected in the fall by 
the water freezing in 
the crevices, like the 
Mons Meg cannon-balls. 
Our old boat, the "For- 
lorn Hope," the veteran 
of my Bcechy Island 
attempt, was stove in 
by one of these while 
drawn up under the cliffs 
of " Ten-mile Gorge." 

The rocks which fell 
in this manner upon the 
ice-belt were rapidly im- 
bedded by the action of 
the sun's heat; and it 



usione or* 



G3E£NSTONt ON GN E 









•$£& 



happened frequently, of , $v**'-' ' 



course, that one more re- 
cently disengaged would 
overlie another that hlid 
already sunk below the 
surface. j This, as" th 
ice-belt subsided in the! 
gradual thaw, had givenl 
many example s of the J 
rocking-stonc. J I have 
placed in the margin 



LIMESTONE ON GfiEENSTQN 






GNEISS 01 



GHEE isSTO n t. 



II, 304 

Our domestic system was organized with tlie most 
exact attention to cleanliness, exercise, recreation, and withal to fixed 
routine. 

During the winter which followed, the sun was one hundred and 
twenty days below the horizon; and, owing to a range of hills toward 
our southern meridian, the maximum darkness was not relieved by 
apparent twilight even at noonday. 

" The atmospheric temperatures were lower than any that had been 
recorded by others before us. We had adopted every precaution to 
secure accuracy in these observations, and the indications of our nu- 
merous thermometers — alcoholic, ethereal, and mercurial — were regis- 
tered hourly. 

From them it appears that the mean annual temperature of Itenssc- 
laer Harbor, as we named our winter home, is lower than that of 
Melville Island, as recorded by Parry, by two degrees. In certain 
sheltered positions, the process of freezing was unintermilted for any 
consecutive I jrcnty-four hours throughout the year. 



Jl'he lowest temperature was observed m February, when the mean 
of eight instruments indicated minus 70° Fahrenheit. Chloroform 
froze; the essential oils of sassafras, juniper, cube)>\ and winter-green, 
wcro resolved into mixed solid and liquid; and On the morning of \ 
February 24 we witnessed chloric ether congealed for the first time by J 
a natural temperature C 



217 



THE 



U. S. GRIMELL EXPEDITION 



SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN. 



% ^nsnnol jlorrntinB. 



ELISHA KENT KANE, M.D., U.S.N. 



NEW YORK : 

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUDLISHERS, 

329 Sl 331 PEARL STREET, 

r BANK LI N SQUARE. 

1854. 



AM 



We felt that we could now look forward to 
the winter with comparative trust. 



>«*S** S ^ 



"^^^^^mW^r^ 



ZZ^gglr** 3 ** 



^-j-i.%4^ -jp?. ■ 



„J«; ■ EsQU'^iv HOT. 



Of Disco, save its Esquimaux huts, its oil-house, 
its smith-shop, its little school, and its gubernatorial 
mansion, I can say but little. Its statistics, vital, po- 
litical, or economic, would have little interest for the 
readers of this narrative. But my limited florula, gath- 
ered as I made a few hasty walks under the guidance 
of our hospitable and intelligent friend, the governor, 



-d 

o 
a 

03 



03 
be 

a 



OJ . 

to -a 
-5 °* 

•3 a> 
.2 & 



may be worth a notice. 

In a ravine, back of the settlement, the washings 
of the melted snows had accumulated, in little es- 
calades or terraces, a scanty mould, rich with Arctic 
growths. 

The mosses, which met the lichens at a sort ol 
neutral ground between rock and soil, were particu- 
larly rich. So sodden were they with the p ercolating^ 
waters, that you sank up to your ankles., [ Nestling 
curiously under their protecting tufts rose a complete 
parterre of tinted flowers, consisting of Gentians, Ra- , 
nunculus, Ledu m, Draba, Potentilla, Saxifrages, Pop-, 
py, and Sedums. ) 
~ [The Arc tic turf is nnequaled : nothing in the trap?) 

47 

ics approaches it for specific variety, and in density it\ 
far exceeds its Alpine congener. Two birches (Betulal 
alba and B. nana), three willows (Salix lanata, S.glau-l 
ea, and S. herbacea), that noble heath, the Andromedal 
(A. tetragona), the whortle-berry (Vaccinium vitis-ideal 
and V. uliginosum), the crow-berry (Empetrum ni-\ 
grum), and a Potentilla, were, in one instance, all I 
wreathed together in a matted sod, from whose intri-\ 
cate net- work, rising within an area of a single foot, i) 
counted no less than six species of flowering plants. ( 



14a The weak- 

ness of individual growth allowed no ambitious species 
to overpower its neighbor, so that ma ny families were 
crowded toget her in a rich fl ower-bed .Jin a little space] 



that I could cover with my pea-jacket, the veined leaves! 
of the Pyrola were peeping out among chickweeds andl 
saxifrages, the sorrel and Ranunculus. I even foun d a I 



143 

poor gentian, stunted and reduced, but still, like every 
thing around it, in all the perfection of miniature pro- 
portions. 



jAs this mossy parterre approached the rocky walls i 
that hemmed it in, tussocks of sedges and coarse grass 

[began to show themselves, mixed with heaths and' 

' birches ; and still further on, at the margin of the horse- 
shoe, and fringing its union with the stupendous piles/ 

'of debris, came an annulus of Arctic shrub s and trees. ] 
:ubs and trees ! the words recall a smile, for they 
only typed those natives of another zone. The poor 
things had lost their uprightness, and learned to escape 
the elements by trailing along the rocks. Few rose 
above my shoes, and none above my ankles ; yet shady 
alleys and heaven-pointing avenues could not be more 
impressive examples of creative adaptation. Here I 
saw the bleaberry {Vaccinium uliginosum) in flower 
and in fruit — I could cover it with a wine-glass ; the 
wild honeysuckle (Azalea procumbens) of our Penn- 
sylvania woods — I could stick the entire plant in my 
button-hole ; the Andro meda tetragon a, like a green 

s jnarabou feather .\ 

Strangest among these transformations came the 
willows. One, the Salix herbacea, hardly larger than 
a trefoil clover ; another, the S. glauca, like a young 
althea, just bursting from its seed. 



AN 


INTRODUCTION 


1 TO 


ENTOMOLOGY: 


OR 


ELEMENTS 


OF THE 


NATURAL HISTORY OF INSECTS: 


WITH PLATES. 


By WILLIAM KIRBY, M.A. F.L.S. 


RECTOR OF DARHAM, ; 


AND 


WILLIAM SPENCE, Esq. F.L.S. 


VOL. I. 


LONDON: 


l'RINTED FOR LONUMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN, 


-~ PATERNOSTER-ROW. 


T- ,« I 1815. J 



No quadruped is more infested by the CEstrits, or 
gad-fly, sometimes also called the breese, than the 
horse. In this country no fewer than three species at- 
tack it. The most common sort, known by the name 
of the horse-bee (CE. Equi, Clark), deposits its eggs 
(which being covered with a slimy substance adhere to 
the hairs) on such parts of the body as the animal can 
reach with its tongue ; and thus, unconscious of what 
it is doing, it unwarily introduces into its own citadel 
the troops of its enemy. — Another species (CE. hm- 
morrhoidalis, L.) is still more troublesome to it, ovi- 
positing upon the lips ; and in its endeavours to effect 
this, from the excessive titillation it occasions, giving 
the poor beast the most distressing uneasiness. At the 
sight of this fly horses are always much agitated, toss- 
ing their heads about in the air to drive it away ; and, 
if this does not answer, galloping off to a distant part 
of their pasture, and, as their last resource, taking 
refuge in the water, where the gad-flies never follow 
them. We learn from Reaumur, that in France the 
grooms, when they observe any bots (which is the vul- 
gar name for the larvae and pupa? of CEstri) about the 
anus of a horse or in its dung, thrust their hand into 
the passage to search for more ; 



218 lf 149 

Another quadruped contributing greatly to our do- 
mestic comfort, from which we derive a considerable 
portion of our animal food, and which, on account of 
its patient and laborious character when employed in 
agriculture, is an excellent substitute for the horse, 
(you will directly perceive I am speaking of. the or, 
whether male or female^) is also not exempt from in- 
sect domination, j At certain seasons the whole terriT 
[lied herd, with their tails in the air, or turned upon) 



I, 160 



their backs, or stiffly stretched out in the direction of 
the spine, gallop about their pastures, making the 
country re-echo with their lowings, and finding no rest/ 
till they get into the water. J Their appearance and 
motions are at this time so grotesque, clumsy, and 
seemingly unnatural, that we are tempted rather to 
laugh at the poor beasts than to pity them, though 
evidently in a situation of great terror and distress. 
The cause of all this agitation and restlessness is a 
small gad-fly, (CE. Botis, L.,) less than the horse-bee, 
the object of which, though it be not to bite them, but 
I merely to oviposit in their hidesAis not put into exe- 
cution without giving them considerable pain. Virgil, 
in his Gcorgics, has beautifully and accurately de- 
scribed the effects of the approach and assault of the 
CEstrus upon the cattle. 



^JWhen oxen are employed in agriculture, the attack I 
of this fly is often att ended with great danger, since ) 

I, 151 

(they then become perfectly unmanageable ; and, whe- 
I ther in harness or yoked to the plough, will run di- 
I rectly forward. At the season when theCEstrus infests 
1 them, close attention should be paid, and their harness 
j jao constructed that they may easily be let loose. { 

I, 159 

—Perhaps you are not aware that the bots we are 
speaking' of, or rather those in the head of goats, have 
br-on prescribed as a remedy for the epilepsy, and that 
fri>:n the tripod of Dclphos. Yet.so we are told on the 
authority of A lex under Trallien. Whether Democrates, 
\\ ho consulted the oracle, was cured by this remedy 
doc? not appear ; the story shows however that the an- 
cients were aware of the station of these larvaa.— f Thel 
■foiniiion s;i\ mg that a w himsical person is i/iaggot/j/. or 
ha c got maggots in his head, perhaps arose from the 
freaks the sheep have been observed to exhibit when 

infested by their bots.C^ 

: I, 238 

How dear are their books, their cabinets of the va- 
rious productions of nature, and their collections of 
prints and other works of art and science, to the learned, 
the scientific, and the virtuosi ! Even these precious 
treasures have their insect enemies. The larva of Cram- 
bus pinguinalis, whose ravages in another quarter I 

I, 239 
have noticed before*, will establish itself upon the bind- 



219 



ingof a book, and spinning a robe, which it covers with 
its own excrement b , will do it no little injury. A mite, 
(Acarus eruditus, Schrank) eats the paste that fastens 
the paper over the edges of the binding, and so loosens 
it . I have also often observed the caterpillar of an- 
other little moth, of which I have not ascertained the 
species, that takes its station in damp old books, between 
the leaves, and there commits great ravages ; and many 
a black-letter rarity, which in these days of Bibliomania 
would have been valued at its weight in gold, has been 
snatched b y .these destroyers from the hands of book- 
collectors. IThe little wood-boring beetles Detore meiw 



tioned (Anobium pertinax and striatum) also attack 
books, and will even bore through several volumes. 
M. Peignot mentions an instance where, in a public li- 
brary but little frequented, twenty-seven folio volumes 
Were perforated in a straight line by the same insect, 
(probably one of these species,) in such a manner that 
on passing a cord through the perfectly round hole 
made by it, these twenty-seven volumes could be raised 



at once ./"The animals last mentioned also destroy 
prints and drawings, whether framed, or preserved in 
a porte-feuille. 

I, 274 The earwig that haunts 

every close place in our gardens, and defiles whatever 
it enters, probably in some degree makes up for its ra- 
vages by diminishing the number of other insects. The 
cowardly and cruel Mantis, which runs away from an 
ant, will destroy in abundance helpless flies, using its 
anterior tibia?, which withj he thigh form a kind of for- 
ceps, t o seize its prey.J The water-scorpions (Nepa, 
fjtanatra, and Naucaris), whose fore-legs are made like 
those of the Mantis, the water-boatman (Notonecta), 
which always swims upon its back, and the Sigara, all 
live by rapine, and prey upon aquatic insects. Some 
of this tribe are so savage that they seem to love de- 
struction for its own sake. One (Nepa cinerea) which 
was put into a basin of water with several young tad- 
Ipoles, killed them all without attempting to eat one, j 



fond of ants and of honey ; which 
last is also said to be a favourite article with the fox, 
who has sometimes the audacity to overturn bee-hiveS, 
and even to attack wasps' nests in search of it. He will 

al so eat beetles. 

(Sparmann has given an amusing account of the ho^ 
ney-ratel, ( Viverra mellivora,) Which has a particular 
instinct enabling it to discover bees, and attack them 
in their entrenchments. Near sun-set the ratel will 
sit and hold one of his paws before his eyes, in order to 
get a distinct view of the object of his pursuit; and 
when, in consequence of his peering about in this man- 
ner, he sees any bees flying, he knows that at this time 
of the day they are making for their habitati ons, whi- 
ther he follows them, and so attains his end './Another 



propriety be called insectivorous than the ant-eaters 
(Mt/rmecopliaga), which, as their name imports, live 
upon ants. The great ant-cater, when he comes to an 
ant-hill, scratches it up with his long claws, and then 
unfolds his slender worm-like tongue, (which is more 
than two feet long, and wet with saliva,) and when co- 
vered with ants draws it back into his mouth and swal- 
lows thousands of them alive, renewing the operation 
till no more are to be found. 

I, 281 
Reaumur has given us a very entertaining account 
of the infinite hosts of Ephemera} that by myriads of 
millions emerge at a certain season of the year from 
some of the rivers in France, which, as it is well worth 
your attention, I shall abridge for you. 

These insects in their first and intermediate state are 
aquatic: they either live in holes in the banks of rivers 
or brooks below the water, so that it enters into their 
habitations, which they seldom quit; or they swim 

I, 282 
about and walk upon the bed of the stream, or conceal 
themselves under stones or upon pieces of stick. Though 
their life, when they assume the perfect state, is usu- 
ally extremely short, 6ome being disclosed after sun- 
set, laying their eggs and dying before sun-rise ; and 
many not living more than three hours; yet in their 
preparatory state their existence is much longer, in 
some one, in others two, in others even three years. 

The different species assume the imago at different 
times of the year; but the same species appear regu- 
larly at nearly the same period annually, and for a cer- 
tain number of days fill the air in the neighbourhood 
of the rivers, emerging also from the water at a cer- 
tain hour of the day. Those which Swammerdani ob- 
served, began to fly about six o'clock in the evening, 
or about two hours before sun-set ; but the great body 
of those noticed by Reaumur did not ap pear till aft er 
that time ^ so thatf the season of different harvests is not 
Jbetter known to the farmer, than that in which the 
/ Ephemerae of a particular river are to emerge, is to the 
1 fishermen. Yet a greater degree of heat or cold, the 
I rise or fall of the water, and other circumstances we are 
lnot aware of, may accelerate or retard their appearance 
Between the 10th and 15th of August is the time when 
those of the Seine and Marne, which Reaumur de- 
scribed, are expected, by the, fishermen, who call them 
manna: and when their season is come, they say " the 
manna begins to appear, the manna fell abundantly such 
a night;" — alluding, by this expression, either to the 
astonishing quantity of food which the Ephemerae af- 
ford the fish, or to the large quantit y of fish which the y 
l^then take, 



/lieaumur first observed these insects in the year 1738^ 



283 



species of Viverra ( V . prchensilis) is also reputed to be 
an eager insect-hunter. The young armadillos feed 
on a species of locust ; but no quadruped can with more 



(when they did not begin to show themselves in numbers 
till the 18th of August. On the 19th, having received 
notice from his fisherman that the flies had appeared, 
he got into his boat about three hours before sun-set, 



and detached from the banks of the river several masses 
of earth filled with pups, which he put into a large tub 
full of water. This tub, after staying in the boat till 
about eight o'clock without seeing any remarkable num- 
ber of the flies, and being threatened with a storm, he 
caused to be landed and placed in his garden, at the foot 
of which ran the Marne. Before the people had landed 
it, an astonishing number of Ephemerae emerged from! 
it. Every piece of earth that was above the surface on 
the water was covered by them, some beginning to quit I 
their slough, others prepared to fly, and others already I 
on the wing; and every where under the water they I 
were to be seen in a greater or less degree of forward- 
ness. The storm coming on, he was obliged to quit the 
amusing scene; but when the rain ceased to fall he re- 
turned to it. As soon as the cloth with which he had 
ordered the tub to be covered was removed, the num- 
ber of flies appeared to be greatly augmented, and kept 
continually increasing : many flew away, but more were 
drowned. Those already transformed, and continually 
transforming, would have been sufficient of themselves 
to have made the tub seem full; but their number was 
soon very much enlarged by others attracted by the 
light. To prevent their being drowned, he caused the 
tub to be again covered with the cloth, and over it he 
held the light, which was soon concealed by a layer of 
these flies, that might have been taken by ha ndfulls from, 

the candlestick. 

288 



220 



I, 3»7 



J Of this order also is thel 

/bee-cuckoo (Cuculus Indicator) so celebrated for its in- 
stinct, by which it serves as a guide to the wild bees' | 
nests in Africa. Sparrnian describes this bird, which 
is somewhat larger than a comaion sparrow, as giving 
this information in a singular manner. In the evening 
and morning, which are its meal times, it excites the 
attention of the Hottentots, colonists, and honey-ratel, 
by the cry of cherr, ckerr, cherr, and conducts them to 
the tree or spot in which the bees' nest is concealed, 
continually repeating tin's cry. When arrived at the 
spot, it hovers over it, and then alighting on some 
neighbouring tree or bush, sits in silence, expecting to 
come in for its share of the spoi l, which is that pa rt of, 
^ the c omb containing the brood c f 

I, 330 

One of the species that has pro- 
bably been attended to ages before our hive-bee, is 
Apis fasciatu of Latreille, a kind so extensively culti- 
vated in Egypt, that Niobubr states he fell in upon the 

I, 331 
Nile, between Cairo and Damietta, with a convoy of 
4000 hives, which were transporting from a region 
where the season for flowers had passed, to one where 
the spring was later 3 . [Columella says that the Greeks 



in like manner sent their bee-hives every year from 
Achaia into Attica; and a similar custom is not un- 
known in Italy, and even in t his country in the neigh- 
bourhood of heaths. 



Some insects in their perfect state, though furnished] 
with organs of feeding, make no use of them, and con-) 
sumc no food whatever. Of this description are the 
moth which proceeds from the silk-worm, and several 
others of the same order; the different species of 05- 
strus, and the Ephemera;, insects whose history is so 
well known as to afford a moral or a simile to those 
most ignorant of natural history. All these live so 
short a time in the perfect state as to need no food. — 
Indeed it may be laid down as a general rule, that al- 
most all insects in this state eat much less than in that 
of larva?. The voracious caterpillar when transformed 
into a butterfly needs only a small quantity of honey; 
and the gluttonous maggot, when become a fly, con- 
tents itself with a drop or two of any sweet liquid^ 

While in the state of larva; the quantity of food con- 
sumed by insects is vastly greater in proportion to their 
bulk than that required by larger animals. Many ca- 
terpillars eat daily twice their weight of leaves, which 
is as if an ox, weighing sixty stone, were to devour 
every twenty-four hours three quarters of a ton of grass 
I, 425 

The Rev. R. Sheppard has often noticed in the fen) 
ditches of Norfolk a very large spider which actually 
forms a raft for the purpose of obtaining its prey with 
more facility. Keeping its station upon a ball of weeds 
about three inches in diameter, probably held together 
by slight silken cords, it'is wafted along the surface of 
I the water upon this floating island, which it quits the 
( moment it sees a dro wning insectt— not, as you may 
conceive, for the sake of applying to it the process of 
the Humane Society, but of hastening its exit by a 
more speedy engine of destruction. The booty thus 
seized it devours at leisure upon its raft, under which 
it retires when alarmed by any danger. 

The last of the tribe of hunters that it is necessary to 
particularize, are those which, like the tigers amongst 
the larger animals, seize their victims by leaping upon 
them. To this division belongs a very pretty small 
banded species, A. scenica, which in summer may be 
seen running on every wall. 





AN 


INTRODUCTION 


ENTOMOLOGY: 


OB 


ELEMENTS 


OF THE 


NATURAL HISTORY OF INSECTS: 



221 



WITH PLATES. 



Br WILLIAM KIRBY, M.A.F.L.S. 

RECTOR OF BARBAM, 
AND 

WILLIAM SPENCE,Esq.F.L.S. 



VOL. II. 



LONDON: 

»RimO> FOR LOHOMAlf, HURST, ABES, OBMU AND RROWN, 
»ATERNOSTER-ROW. 

1817. 



(associations formed for the purpose of travelling or 
I emigrating together — associations for feeding together 
! — and associations that undertake some common work. 
' The first of these associations consists chiefly of in- 
sects in their perfect state. The little beetles called 
whirlwigs (Gj/rinus, L.), — which may be seen cluster- 
ing in groups under warm. banks in every river and 
every pool, and wheeling round and round with great 
yelocity ; at your approach dispersing and diving under 
water, but as soon as you retire resuming their accus- 
tomed movements, — seem to be under the influence of 
the social principle, and t* form their assemblies for 
no other purpose but to enjoy together, in the sun- 
beam, the mazy dance. Impelled by the same feeling, 
in the very depth of winter, even when the earth is co- 
vered with snow, the tribes of Tipulidce (usually, but 
improperly, called gnats) assemble in sheltered situa- 
tions at midday, when the sun shines, and form them- 
selves into choirs, that alternately rise and fall with 
rapid evolutions*. To see these little aery beings ap- 
parently so full of joy and life, and feeling the entire 
force of the social principle in that dreary season, when 
the whole animal creation appears to suffer, and the / 
rest of the insect tribes are torpid, alway s conveys to[ 
,my mind the most agreeable sensations./^ 

II, 94 



(I'shaH now relate to you some other portions of 
^Myrmidonian History, which, though perhaps not sd 
I striking and wonderful as the preceding details, are not 
devoid of interest, and will serve to exemp lify their in- 
credible diligence, labour, and ingenuity, f"" 



In this country it is commonly in March, earlier or 
later according to the season, that ants first make their 
appearance, and they continue their labours till the 
middle or latter end of October. They emerge usu- 



allyfrom their subterranean winter-quarters on some 
sunny day ; when, assembling in crowds on the surface 
or^the formicary, they may be observed in continual 
•fiotion, walking incessantly over it and one another, 
ttfthoUt departing from home ; as if their object, before 
tHfey resumed their employments, was to habituate 
themselves to the action 6f the air and sun b . 
II, 96 

jAfter their annual labours are begun, few are igno- 
rant how incessantly ants are engaged in building or 
(repairing: their habitations, in collecting provisions, 
and iu the care of their young brood; but scarcely any 
are aware of the extent to which their activity is car* 
riedy-und that their labours are going on even in the 
night, — Yet this is a certain fact. — Long ago Aristotle 
affirmed that ants worked in the night when the moon 
was 'at the full" ; and their historian Gould observes, 
"that they even exceed the painful industrious bees, 
Fonthe ants employ each moment, by day and night, 
almost witho ut intermission, unless hindered by exces* 
t «fae rainsV/ M. Huber also, speaking of a mason- 



ant, not found with us, tells us that they work after 
sun-set, and in the nighf. To these I can add some 
observations of my own, which fully confirm these ac» 
Counts, My first were made at nine o'clock at night, 
wben I found the inhabitants of a nest of the red ant, 
^Myrmica) rubra} very busily employed; I repeated 
tab observation, which I could conveniently do, the nest 
bring in my garden, at various times from that hour till 
twelve; and always found some going and coming, even 
Wbitea heavy rain was falling. Having in the day 
* JUist. Animal. ]. i*. t. 38, » Cdulil, 69. ' Huber, 35,48. 



II, 96 





noticed some Aphides upon a d> is tie, I examined it 
again in the night, nt about eleven o'clock, and found 
my ants busy milking their cows, w hich did not for the 
take of repose intermit their suction. At the same 
hour, another night, I observed the little negro ant 
(F.fusca) engaged in the same employment upon an 
elder. About two miles from my residence was a nest 
of Gould's hill-ant (F. riifa), which, according to 
M. Huber, shut their gates, or rather barricade them, 
every night, and remain at home". Being desirous of 
ascertaining the accuracy of his statement, early in 
October, about two o'clock one morning, I visited this 
nest, in company with an intelligent friend; and to our 
surprise and admiration we found our ants at work, 
eomc being engaged in carrying their usual burden, 
sticks and straws, into their habitation, others going 
out from it, and several were climbing the neighbour- 
ing oaks, doubtless to milk their Aphides. The num- 
ber of comers and goers at that hour, however, was 
nothing compared with the myriuds that mav always 
be seen on these nests during the day. It 60 happened 



that our visit was paid while the moon was near the 
full; so that whether this species is equally vigilant 
and active in the absence of that luminary yet remains 
uncertain. Perhaps this circumstance might reconcile 
Huber's observation with ours, and confirm the accu- 
racy o f Aristotle's statement In -fore quoted. (To the) 

f~rcdant, indeed, it is perfectly indifferent whether the ' 
^ moon shine or not ;/ They are always busy, though not"* 
in such numbers as during the day. 
II, 112 
In ordinary seasons, in the month lately mentioned, 
October, wasps seem to become less savage and san- 
guinary; for even flies, of which earlier in the sum- 
mer they are the pitiless destroyers, may be seen to 
enter their nests with impunity. It is then, probably, 
that they begin to be first affected by the approach of 
the cold season, when nature teach es them it is useless 
longer to attend to their ypiin ,<r_/ They themselves all] 

(perish, except a few of the females, upon the first at-) 



1 tack of frost. 



222 



II, 113 

The population of a humble-bees nest may be di- 
vided into four orders of individuals : the large females ; 
the small females ; the males ; and the workers. 

The large females, like the female wasps, are the 
original founders of their republics. They are often 
so large, that by the side of the small ones or the work* 
era, which in every other respect the.y exactly resemble, 
they look like giants opposed to pygmies. ' They are 
excluded from the pupa in the autumn ; and pair, in that 
season, with males produced from the eggs of the small 
females. They pass the winter under ground, and, as 
appears from an observation of M. P. Huber, in a par* 
ticular apartment, separate from the nest, and ren- 
dered warm by a carpeting of moss and grass, but with- 
eat any supply of food. Early in the spring, (for they 
make their first appearance as soon as the catkins of 
&e sallows and willows are in flower,) like the female 
wasps, they lay the foundations of a new colony 

II, 122 
To the same purpose Riemof Lauten of the Palatinate 
Apiarian Society, and Wilhelmi of the Lusatian, af- 
firm that the queen lays the eggs which produce the 
queens and workers ; and the workers those that pro- 
duce the drones or males b . Aristotle also tells us, that 
some in his time affirmed that the bees (the workers) 
were the females, and the drones the males ; an opi- 
nion which he combats from an analogy pushed rather 
too far, that nature would never give offensive armour 
to females^jln another place he appears to think 
/ihat the workers are hermaphrodites : — his words are 
I remarkable, and seem to indicate that he was aware of 
\the sexes of plants : " having in themselves," says he, / 
gf like plants, the male and the female' 1 ."/' 



J5i 



123 



tory account of them, Reaumur and the elder Huber; 
though I shall add from other sources such additional 
observations" as may ser ve better to elucidate theJL 
UisloW ii~ 136 

numerous differences, both as 
to the form and relative proportion of parts, occur 
continually. The cause of these differences we can- 
not always ascertain ; yet in many instances they may 
cither be derived from the nutriment which the embryo 
receives in the womb, or from the greater or less di- 
mensions or higher or lower temperature of that or- 
gan — a case that analogically would not be very wide 
of that of the grub or embryo of a bee inclosed in a cell. 
Some of the differences in man I now allude to, may 
often be caused by a particular diet in childhood; a 
warmer or a colder, a looser or a tighter dress, or the 



like. \ Thus, for instance, the Egyptians, who went 
bare-headed, had their skulls remarkably thick ; while 
the Persians, who covered the head with a turban or 
mitre, were distinguished by the tenuity of thei rs. ) 
Again, the inhabitants of certain districts are often re- 
markable peculiarities of form, which are evidently 
produced by local circumstances. 
II, 137 
-The. following observations, mostly taken from an 
essay of the celebrated anatomist John Hunter, in the 
Philosophical Transactions, since they are intimately 
connected with the subject that we are now consider- 
ing, will not be here misplaced. In animals just born, 
or very young, there are no peculiarities of shape, ex- 
clusive of the primary distinctions, by which one sex 
maybe known from the other. Thus secondary distinc- 
tive characters, such as the beard in men, and the 
breasts in women, are produced at a certain period of 
life; and these secondary characters, in some instances, 
are changed for those of the other sex ; which does not 
arise- from any action at the first formation,' but takes 
place when the great command " Increase and multi- 
tiply" ceases to opera te. y Thus women in advanced 
'life are sometimes distinguished by beards ; and after 
I they have done laying, hen-birds occasionally assume 



,VVhat I have further to say concerning these admi- 
rable creatures, will be principally taken from the. two 
authors who have given the clearest and most 6atisfac- 



1 the plumage of the cock : jthis has been observed more 
than once by ornithologists, more particularly with re- 
spect to the pheasant and the pea-hen*. — For females to 
assume the secondary characters of males, seems cer- 
tainly a more violent change, than for a worker bee, 
which maybe regarded as a sterile female, in conse- 
quence of a certain process, to assume the secondary 
characters of a fertile female. 

II, 187 

You may think, perhaps, that the bees which emi- 
grate from the parent hiv e are the youth of the colony; 
but thisj s_ not the case, |for bees of all ages unite tol 

[form the swarms. The numbers of which they consist] 
vary much. Reaumur calls 1 '2,000 a moderate swarm ; 
and he mentions one which amounted to more than! 
three times that number (40,000). / A swarm seldom 
or never takes place except when the sun shines 



II, 176 

It will therefore change the scene a little, 

if we accompany them in their excursions to c ollect the 

various substan ces of whi ch they have need ^ r On these 

/occasions the principal object of the beesisto furnish 

Uheraselves with three different materials : — the nectar 

[•f flowers, from which they elaborate honey and wax ; 



223 



II, 177 



tta pollew on fertilizing dastof theoanthers^ of which 
^ywnake whafaiisi called bee-bread j serving as. food 
both toxoid. and.- young ;. and the resinous substance 
called iby, . the ancient* iPro/wAs and Pissoceros* Seel 
I used i« various ways in rendering the hive secure and 
giving the finish to the com ba. , The first of these sub- 
4an^ea is the. pure fluid secreted in the nectaries of 
flowers, which the length of their tongue enables them 
tcyreaqb i inmost blossoms. The tongue of a bee, yott 
are to observe, though so long and sometimes so in- 
flated*, is not a tube through which the honey passes, 
nor a pump acting by suction, but a real tongue which 
laps or licks the honey, and passes it down on its upper 
surface, as we do, to the mouth, which is at its base 
concealed by the mandibles b . It is conveyed by this 
orifice through the oesophagus into the first stomach, 
which we call the honey-bag, and which, from being 
very s mall, is swelled when full of it to a considerable 
sizey Honey is never found in the second stomach, 
(which is surrounded with muscular rings, and resem- 
bles a cask covered with hoops from one end to the 
other,) but only in the first : in the latter and the intes- 
tines the bee-bread only is discovered. j"How the wax 
is secreted, or what vessels are appropriated to that 
purpose, is not. yet ascertained. I Huber suspects that a 



I 

i 

s- 



cellular substance, consisting of hexagons, which lines 
the membrane of the wax-pocke{s, may be concerned 
in"this operation. This substance he also discovered 
in humble-bees (which though they make-wax have no 
wax-pockets), occupying all the anterior part or base 
©/ the segments'. jj -.jq 



liong before L<inne had discovered the nectary df 
flowers, our industrious creatures had made themselves 
intimate with every form and variety of them ; and ue" 
botanist, even in this enlightened era of botanical icT* ; 
ence, can compare with a bee in this respect. 'The 
.station of these reservoirs, even where the armed sight' 
fo'f science cannot discover it, is in a moment d etected , 
by the microscopic eye of this animal j 

She has to attend to a double task— to collect mate- 
rials for bee-bread, as well as for honey and wax. 'Ob* 
serve a bee that has alighted upon an open flower. 
The hum produced by the motion of her- wings cease*, 
end her employment begins. In an instant she unfolds" 
her tongue, which before was rolled up under her head. 
With what rapidity does she dart this organ between 
the petals and the«tamina 1 At one time she extends^ 

II, 179 
to its full length, then she contracts it; she moves it 
about in all directions, so that it may be applied hot!) 



to the concave and convex surface of a petal, and wipe 
them both ; and thus by a virtuous theft robs it of all 
its nectar. All the while this is going on, she keep* 
herself in a constant vibratory motion. The object of 
the industrious animal is not, like the more selfish but- 
terfly, to appropriate this treasure to herselJLj It goesl 



into the honey-bag as into a laboratory, where it isl 
transformed into pure honey; and when she return* ' 
to the hive, she regurgitates it in this form into o ne of j 
the cells appropriated to that purpose ;Jin order that, 



183 



after tribute is paid from it to the queen, it may consti- 
tute a supply of food for the rest of the community. 

II, 182 
body 6f the bee is covered with farina, with the brushes 
of its legs, especially of the hind ones, it wipes it offt 
not, as we do with our dusty clothes, to dissipate and 
disperse it in the air, but to collect every particle of 
it, and then to knead it and form it into two little 
masses, which she places, one in each, in the basket* 
formed by hairs' on her hind legs. 
^-JAnsTotle says that, in each journey from the'hiveA 
bees attend only one species of flower b ; Reaumur, 
however, seems to think that they fly indiscriminately 
from one to another : but Mr. Dobbs in the Philoso- 
phical Transactions", and Butler before him, asserts 
that he has frequently followed a bee engaged in col* 
lecting pollen, &c. and invariably observed that it con- 
tinued collecting from the same kind of flowers with 
which it first began ; passing over other species, how- 
ever numerous, even though the flower it first selected 
was scarcer than others. His observations, he thinks, 
are confirmed — and the idea seems not unreasonable-^- 
by the uniform colour of the pellets of pollen, and their 
different size. Reaumur himself tells us that the bees 
enter the hive, some with yellow pellets, others with 
red ones, others again with whitish ones, and that some- 
times they are even green : upon which he dbserves, 
that this arises from their bein g collected from partly 
cul ar flowers,) the pollen of whose anthers is of those 
colours*. Sprengel, as before intimated', has made an 
observation similar to that of Dobbs. It seems not im- 
probable that the reason why the bee visits the' same 
s pecies of plants during one excursion may he this ;--. 
Her instinct teaches her that the grains of pollen thai 
enter unto the same mass should be homogeneous, jn 
order perhaps for their more effectual cohesion ; and 
thus Providence also secures two important ends,— tlu? 
impregnation of those flowers that require sneb aid, 
by the bees passing from one to another; and the avoid- 
ing the production of hybrid plants, from the applica- 
tion of the pollen of one kind of plant to the stigma of 
another. When the anthors are not yet burst, the bee 
opens them with her mandibles, takes a parcel of pollen, 
which one of the first pair of legs receives and delivers 
to the middle pair, from which it passes to one o f the/ 
hind legs. / 

If the contents of one of the little pellets be examined 
under a lens, it will be found that the grains hare aU 
retained their original shape. A botanist practised in 



the figure of the pollen of the different species of com- 
mon plants might easily ascertain, by such aij exami- 
nation, whether a bee had collected its ambrpsia from 
one or more, and also from what species of flowers. 
II, 186 
(You have seen how the bees collect and employ tiwo 
of the materials that- 1 mentioned ; I must no*w advert 
to the third — the Propolis. Huber was a long time ua< 
certain from whence the bees procured this gummy ret 
•in ; but it at last occurred to him to plant some cut* 
tings of a species of poplar (before their leaves were 
developed, when their leaf-buds were swelling, and 
besmeared and filled with a viscid juice,) in some pots, 
which he placed in the way of the bees that went from 
his hives. Almost immediately a bee alighted upon -a 
twig, and soon with its mandibles opened a bod, and 
.drew from it a thread of the viscid matter which it 
contained ; with one of its second pair of legs it took; 
it from the mouth, and placed it in the basket : thus it 
proceeded till it had given them both their load*. J 
have myself seen bees very busy collecting it from the 
Tacamahaca (Populus balsamifern, L.). But this i&an 
old discovery, confirmed by recent observation; for 
Mouffet tells us from Cordus, that it is collected from 
the gems of trees, instancing the poplar and the birch*. 
Rie m. observes that it is also collected from the pine and 
\§tJ The propolis is soft, red, will pull out in a thread) 
js aromatic, and imparts a gold colour to white, po- 
Wished metals, ^ ^ 

Mr. Knight mentions an instance of bees using an 
artificial kind of propolis. He had caused the decor* 
ticated part of some tree to be covered with a cement 
composed of bees- wax and turpentine : finding this to 
their purpose, they attacked it, detaching it from the 
tree by their mandibles, and then, as usual, passing it 
from the first leg to the second, and so to the third. 
When one bee had thus collected its load, another 
often came behind and despoiled it of all it had col* 
lected ; a second and third load were frequently lost in 
the same manner; and yet the patient animal pursued 
its labours without showing any signs of anger', 



224 



sees in their excursions do not confine themselves to 
the spot immediately contiguous to their dwelling, but, 
when led by the 6cent of honey, Mill go a mile from it. 
Huber even assigns to them a radius of half a league 
I r6und their hive for their ordinary excursions ; yet from 
[-this distance they will discover honey with as -much 
[•certainty as if it 'was withi n their sjg htj' To prove 
that it is by their scent that bees find it out, he put 
*orae behind a window-6hutter, in a place where it could 
not be seen, leaving the shutter just open enough for 
II, 188" 
insects, if they liked, to get at it. In less than a quar- 
ter of an hour four bees, a butterfly, and some house- 
flies had discovered it. At another time he put some 
into boxes, with little apertures in the lid, into which 
pieces of card were fitted, which he placed about two'' 
hundred paces from his hives. In about half an hout 
the bees discovered them, and traversing them very in- 



dustriously, soon found the apertures, when, pushing 
in the pieces of card, they got to the honey. That 
contained in the blossom of many plants is quite as 
touch concealed, yet the acuteuess of their scout eiir 
ables them to delect it, 

These insects, especially when laden and returning 
to their nest, fly in a direct line, which saves both time 
and labour. How they are enabled to do this with 
such certainty as to make for their own abode without 
deviation, I must leave to others to expla in. fCon-^ 

/fleeted with this circumstance, and the acuteness of 
their smell, is the following curious account, given ia 
the Philosophical Transactions for 1721, of the method 
practised in New England for discovering where the 
wild hive-bees live in the woods, in order to get their 
honey. The honey-hunters set a plate containing ho- 

Iney or sugar upon the ground in a clear day. The 



bees soon discover and attack it : having secured two 
or three that have filled themselves, the hunter lets one 
go, which, rising into the air, flies straight to the nest: 
he then strikes off at right angles with its course a few 
hundred yards, and letting a second fly, observes its 
COurse by his pocket-compass, and the point where the 
tw o courses intersect is that where the nest is situated*. 

II, 189 

./low long our little active creattires repose beforeX 
(they 'take a Becond excursion I cannot precisely say, J 
^Ih a hive the greatest part of the inhabitants generally J 
/appear in repose, lying togeth er, says Reaumur, but / 
( jtbis probably for a short tim e.) Huber tells us, that 
bees may always be observed in a hive with the head 
-and thorax inserted into cells that contain eggs, and 
sometimes into empty ones; and that they remain i* 
4hi9 situation fifteen or twenty minutes so motionless, 
4hat did not the dilatation of the segments of the abdo- 
men prove the contrary, they might be mistaken for 
dead. He supposes their object is repose from their 
labours*. T t i an 



(Reaumur observes, that in a hive the population oi 
/Which amounts to 18,000, the number that enter, the 
/hive in a minute is a hundred; which, allowing four- 
teen hours in the day for their labour, makes 84,000: 
thus every individual must make four excursions daily, 
and some five. In hives where the population was 
smaller, the numbers that entered were comparatively 
greater, s o as to give six excursions or more to eachy 
bee*/ But in this calculation Reaumur does not seem 
to take into the account those that are employed within 
the hive in building or feeding the young brood ; which 
must render the excursions of each bee still more nu- 
merous. He proceeds further to ground upon this 
statement a calculation of the quantity of bee-bread 
that may be collected in one day by such a hive ; and 
he found, supposing only half the number tocollect.it, 
that it would amount to more than a pound ; So that in 
we season, one such hive might collect a hundred 

II, 191 
pounds*. '.What a wonderful idea does this give of th* 
industry and activity of these little useful creatures I 



II, 211 

The worker bees are annual insects, though the queen 
■will sometimes live more than two years; but, as every 
swarm consists of old _and young, this is no argument 
for burn ing themj It is a saying of bee-keepers in Hol-l 
land, that the first swallow and the first bee foretell! 
each other b . This perhaps may be correct there ; but I 
with us the appearance of bees considerably precedes I 
that of the swallow; for when the early crocuses open, 
if the weather b e warm, they may always be found busy/ 
in the blossom. ) 

The time that bees will inhabit the same stations is 
wonderful. Reaumur mentions a countryman w ho pre* 
served bees in the sa me hive for thirty years . fThor- 
ley tells us that a swarm took possession of a spot un-[ 
der the leads of the study of Ludovicus Vives in Ox-* 
ford, where they cont inued a hundre d and ten years, I 
from 1520 to 163Q J . \ These circumstances have led 
authors to ascribe to bees a greater age than they can 
claim. Thus Mouffet, because he knew a bees-nest 
which had remained thirty years in the same quarters, 
concludes that they are very long-lived, and very sapi- 
ehtly doubts whether they even die of old age at all e ! ! ! 

II, 220 

A numerous host of our little animals escape from 
birds and other assailants by imitating the colour of the 
plants, or parts of them, which they inhabit ; or the twigs 
of shrubs and trees ; their foliage, flowers, and fruit. 



225 



^jThe Spectre tribe (Pkasma, Lieut.) go still further 
in this mimicry, representing a small branch with its 
spray. , I have one from Brazil eight inches long, that, 
unless it was seen to move, could scarcely be conceived 
to be any thing else ; the legs, as well as the head, 
having their little snags and knobs, so that no imita- 
tion can be more accurate. Perhaps this may be the 
species mentioned by Molina c , which the natives of 
| Chili call the " The Devil's Hor sed ~ ' 

II, 228 

yThus the white froth often observable upon rose- 



bushes, and other shrubs and plants, called by the vul- 
gar frog-spittle,— but which, if examined, will be found 
to envelop the larva of a small hemipterous insect/ 
(Cicada spumaria, L,), from whose anus it exudes, al-j 
though it is sometimes discovered even in this con- 
cealment by the indefatigable wasps, and becomes their 
prey, — serves to protect the insect, which soon dies 
when exposed, not only from the heat of the sun and 
from violent rains, but also to hide it from the bir ds andy J 
|ts other foes.f— The cottony secretion that transpires 
through the skin of many species of Aphis, Chermes, 
and Coccus, and in which the eggs of the latter are often 
involved, may perhaps be of use to them in this view; 
either concealing them — for they look rather like little 
locks of cotton, or feathers, than any thing animated — 
or rendering iliem distasteful to creatures that would 
otherwise prey upon them. II, 250 

pThe acid of ants has long been celebrated, and^ 

f is one of their most powerful means of defence. When I 



the species that have no sting make a wound with their 
jaws, they insinuate into it some of this acid, whieh 
Fontana affirms is the acid of fixed concentrated air 
deprived of its elasticity and rendered liquid'. The 
effluvia produced by this acid are so subtile and pene- 
trating, that it is impossible to hold your head near the 
nest of the hill-ant (Formica rufa, L.), when the ants 
are much disturbed, without being almost suffocated; 
This odour thus proceeding from myriads of ants, is 
powerful enough, it is said, to kill a frog, and is pro- 
bably the means of securing the nest from the attack^ 
of many enemiesX-Dr. Arnold observed a species of 



bug (Scutcllera, F.) abundant upon some polygamous 
plant which he could not determine, and in all their 
different states. They were attended closely by hosts 
of ants, and when disturbed emitted a very strong 
smell. One of these insects ejected a minute drop of 
fluid into one of his eyes, which occasioned for some 
hours considerable pain and inflammation. In the 
evening, however, they appeared to subside ; — but on 
the following morning the inflammation was renewed, 
became worse than ever, and lasted for three days. 

II, 264 ___^ 



_jBut of all the contrivances by which insects in this 
state are secured from their enemies, there is none more 
ingenious than that to which the may-flies (Phrj/ganea, 
~Lt.) have recourse for this purpose. You have heard 
before that these insects are at first aquatic, and inha- 
bit curious cases made of a variety of materials, which 
are usually open at each end b . Since they must re- 
side in these cases, when they are become pupae, till 
the time of their final change approaches, if they are 
left open, how are the animals, now become torpid, 
to keep out their enemies ? Or, if they are wholly 
closed, how is the water, which is necessary to their 
respiration and life, to be introduced ? These saga- 
cious creatures know how to compass both these ends 
at once. They fix a grate or portcullis to eacli extre- 
mity of their fortress, which at the same time keeps out 
intruders and admits the water. These grates they 
weave with silk spun from their anus into strong threads, 
which cross each other, and are not so luble in water. 



II, 319 



ere is a tribe of] 
nd often under I 



f minute insects amongst the Aptera, fou 
bark, sometimes in the water, and in various other 
situations, which Linne' has named Podura, a term 
implying that they have a leg in their tail. This is 
literally the fact. For the tail, or anal extremity, of 
theseinsects is furnished with an inflexed fork b , which, 
though usuallv bent under the body, they have the 
power of unbending; during which action, the forked 
spring, pushing powerfully against the plane of posi- 
tion, enables the animal to leap sometimes two or three 
inches. What is- more remarkable, these little ani- 
mals are by this organ even empowered to leap upon 
water. There is a minute black species (P. aquatica,Jj.) 
which in the cpring is often seen floating on that con- 
tained in ruts, hollows, or even 'ditches, and in such 



226 



infinite numbers as to resemb le gunpowder strewed) 
upon thej urface-T"" ^ 334 

I dare say you are anxious to be told how any ani- 
mals c an fly without wings, and wish me to begin with 
thjgmjjAs an observer of nature, you have often, with- 
out doubt, been astonished by that sight occasionally 
noticed in fine days in the autumn, of webs— commonly 
called gossamer webs — covering the earth and, float- 
in" in the air ; and hare frequently asked yourself— 
What are these gossamer webs ? Your question has 
from old times much excited the attention of learned 
naturalists. It was an old and strange notion that 
these webs were composed of dew burned by the sun. 

«. The fine nets which oft we woven see 

Of scorched dew," 

says Spenser. Another, fellow to it, and equally &b-\ 
surd, was that adopted by a learned man and good na- 
tural philosopher, and one of the first fellows of the 
Royal Society, Robert Hooke, the author of Micro- 
graphia. " Much resembling a cobweb," says he, ■♦• or 
a confused lock of these cylinders, is a certain white 



II, 335 



Substance which, after a fogg, may be observed to fly* 



up and down the air : catching several of these, and ex- 
amining them with my microscope, I found them to be 
much of the same form, looking most like to a flake of 
worsted prepared to be spun ; though by what means 
they should be generated or produced is not easily ima- 
gined ; they were of the same weight, or very little 
heavier than the air; and 'tis not unlikely, but that 
those great white clouds, that appear all the summertime,] 
may beofthe same substance*." So liable are even the! 
wisest men to error when, leaving fact and experiment! 
they follow the guidance of fancy. Some French na- 
turalists have supposed that these Fils de la Vierge, as 
they are called in France, arc composed of the cot- 
tony matter in which the eggs of the Coccus of the vine 
(C, Vitis, L.) are enveloped\ In a country abound- 
ing in vineyards this supposition would not be absurd; 
butiin one like Britain, in which the vine is confined 
to the fruit-garden, and the Coccus seldom seen out of\ 
the. conservatory, it will not at all account for the 
phenomenon. — What will you say, if I tell you that 
these webs (at least many of them) are air-ball oons— -j 
and that th e aeronauts are no^ J 

" Lorers who may bestride the gossamer 

That idles in the wanton summer air, 

And yet not fall" — 

buttpiders, who long before Montgolfier, nay, ever since 

• Microxr. 208, It has been objected lo an excellent primitive writer 
(Clemens Romunui), that lie believed the absurd fable of the phcenu. 
But' iurefy thli may be allowed for in blin, who was no naturalist, wken 
ri scientific natural philosopher could believe that the clouds are made of 
widen web I * Utreille, Uitl. Naf. xik. 388. 



II, 336 

the creation, have been in the habit of" sailing 4li rough 
the fields of ellier fiii these air-li^hl chariots i| Tla a 
seems to have been suspected long u^o by Henry Moore, ) 
whosavs, ' 



" As light and lliin as cobwebs that doflf 
In (lie blew air, caus'd by the autumnal sun, 
That boils the dew that on the carlh doth lie, 
j\Iay seem this whitish rug then i.i the scuin; 

Unless thai wiser men rnahe'l the field-spider's loom' 




H» 339 The rapidity with which the 

9p{der vanishes from the sight upon this occasion and 
darts in to the air, is a problem of no easy solution. Can 
the'lerigth of web that they dart forth counterpoise the 
w*efght of their bodies ? Or have they any organ analo- 
gous to the- natatory vesicles of fishes*, which contri- 
butes^! their will to render them buoyant in the air ? 
Otf'do" they rapidly ascend their threads in their usual 
WSJ*, 1 arid gather them up, till having collected them 
into a biass of sufficient magnitude, they give themselves 
tothe" air; and are carried here and there in these cha- 
riots? jflmust here give you Mr . White's very curious] 
* Cavier, Jnat. Coma. i. 501. 

II, 340 

account. of a shower of these webs that he witnessed. 

( Qn, the 21st of September 1741, intent upon field di-j 
versions, he rose before day-break ; but on going out. \ 
he found the whole face of the country covered with a I 
thick coat of cobweb drenched with dew, as if two or 
^hree setting-nets had been drawn one over the other. / 
When his dogs attempted to hunt, their eves were so I 
bjinded and hood-winked that they were obliged to lie) 
down and scrape themselves. This appearance wast 
followed by a most lovely day. About nine A.M. a) 
shower of these webs (formed not of single floating) 
threads, but of perfect flakes, some near an inch broacj, 
and five or six long,) was observed falling from very 
©levated regions, which continued without interruption 
during the whoje of the day ; — and they fell with a ve- 
locity which showed that they were considerably hea- 
vier than the atmosphere. When the most elevated 
station in the country where this was observed was 
ascended, the webs were still to be seen descending 
from above, and twinkling like stars in the sun, so as 
to draw the attention of the most incurious. The flakes 
of the web on this occasion hung so thick upon the 
hedges and trees, that ba sket s-full mi ght have been/ 
k colle cted L J *No one doubts, he observes, but that these 
webs are the production of small spiders, which swarm 
in. the fields in fine weather in autumn, and have, # 
power of shooting out webs from their tails, so as to 
render th emselves bu oyant and lighter than the air*. 
In. Qermany these flights of gossamer appear so con-\ 
stantly in autumn, that they are there metaphorically I 
called " Der fliegender Sommer " (the flying or depart; { 
■Tngf suttinierj'T' "* 



II, 355 
Amongst the Neuropterous tribes the most conspi- 
cuous insects are the dragon-flies (LibeUulidce), which 
— their metamorphosis, habits, mode of life, and charac- 
ters considered — form a distinct natural order of them- 
selves. Their four wings, which are nearly equal in 
size, are a complete and beautiful piece of net-work, 
resembling the finest lace, the meshes of which are 
usually filled by a pure, transparent, glassy membrane. 
In two of the genera belonging to this tribe, the wings, 
when the animal is at rest, are always expanded, so 
that they can take flight in an instant, no previous un- 
folding of these organs being necessary. In Agrion, 
the other genus of the tribe, the wings when they re- 
pose are not expanded. I have observed of these in- 
sects, and also of several others in different orders, 
that (without turning they can fly in all directions — \ 



227 



"backwards, and to the right and left, as well as for- 
wards. This ability to fly all ways, without having to 
turn, must be very useful to them when pursued by a ( 
bird. Leeuwenhoek once saw a swallow chasing an 
insect of this tribe, which he calls a Mordella, in a me- 
nagerie about a hun dred feet long. \ The little crea- 
ture flew with such astonishing velocity — to the right 
-f-to the left — and in all directions — that this bird of 
rapid wing and ready evolution was unable to overtake 
and entrap it ; the insect eluding every attempt, and 
being generally six feet before it". Indeed, such is the 
power of the long wings by which the dragon-flies are 

II, 356 
distinguished, particularly in JEshna and Libellula, and 
such the force of the muscles that move them, that they 
seem never to be wearied with flying. I have ob- 
served one of the former genus sailing for hours over 
a piece of water — sometimes to and fro, and sometimes 
wheeling from side to side ; and all the while chasing, 
capturing, and devouring the various insects that came 
athwart its course, or driving away its competitors — ■ 
without ever seeming tired, or inclined to alight. 
II, 370 
Reaumur describes in a very interesting and lively 
way the gyrations of the Ephemerae before noticed*, 
round a lighted flambeau. It is singular, says he, 
that moths which fly only in the night, and shun the 
day, should be precisely those that come to see k the 
light in our apart ments, j it is still more extraordinary 
/that these Ephemerae — which appearing after sun-set, 
and dying before sun-rise, are destined never to behold 
the light of that orb — should have so strong an inclina- 
tion for any luminous object. ( To hold a flambeau 



when they appeared was no very pleasant office ; for 
he who filled it, in a few seconds had his dress covered 
with the insects, which rushed from all quarters to him. 
The light of the flambeau exhibited a spectacle which 
enchanted every one that beheld it. All that we're pre- 
sent, even the most ignorant aDd stupid of his domes- 
tics, were never satisfied with looking at it. Never had 
any armillary sphere so many zones, as there were here 
circles, which had the light for their centre. There 



was an infinity of them— crossing each other in all di- 
rections, and of every imaginable inclination — all of 
which were more or less eccentric. 
II, 373 



ilt is remarkable that the smaller 
(unwetted in a heavy shower of rain 



II, 374 



Tipulidce will fly) 
, as I have oftenl 



observed. How keen must be their sight, and how 
rapid their motions, to enable them to steer between 
drops bigger than their own bodies, which, if they loll 
k Upon them, must dash them to the ground (J 

Arnidst this infinite variety of motions, for purposes 
so numerous and diversified, and performed by such a 
multiplicity of instruments and organs, who does not 
discern and adore the Great Fjust Moveji ? 



II, 410 



LUMINOUS insects. 



jOf the insects thus singularly provided, the common 
'glow-worm (Lampyris noctiluca) is the most familiar 
instance. Who that has ever enjoyed the luxury of a 
summer evening's walk in the country, in the southern 
parts of our island, but has viewed with admiration 
these " stars of the earth and diamonds of the night?" 
And if, living like me in a district where it is rarely 
met with, the first time you saw this insect, chanced 
to be, as it was in my case, one of those delightful 
evenings which an English summer seldom yields, when 
not a breeze disturbs the balmy-air, and " every sense 
is joy," and hundreds of these radiant worms, studding 
their mossy couch with mild effulgence, were presented 
to your wondering eye in the course of a quarter of a 
mile,— you could not help associating with the name of, 



low-worm the most pleasing recollections. j No won 
der that an insect, which chiefly exhibits itself on oc- 
casions so interesting, and whose economy is so re? 
markable, should have afforded exquisite images and 
illustrations to those poets who have cultivated Natu- 
ral History. 

If you take one of these glow-worms home with you 
for examination, you will find that in shape it some? 
what resembles a caterpillar, only that it is much mor* 
depressed; and you will observe that the light pw 
ceeds from a pale-coloured patch that termina tes the 
underside of the abdomen, f jft is not, however,rtte9 
larva of an insect, but the perfect female of a winged 
l beetle, from which it is altogether so different, that 
I nothing but actual observation could have inferred the ) 

II, 411 



fact of their being the sexes of the same insect. In tbe?\ 
course of our inquiries you will find that sexual diffe-l 
rences even more extraordinary exist in the insect/ 
World. J 

It has been supposed by many that the males of the 
different species of Lampyrh do not possess the pro- 
perty of giving out any light; but it is now ascertained 
that this supposition is inaccurate, though their light, 
IB much less vivid than that of the female. Ray first 



pointed out this fact with respect to L. nociiluca*. 
Geoffroy also observed that the male of this species has, 
four small luminous points, two on each of the two last 
segments of the belly b : and his observation has been 
recently confirmed by Miiller. This last entomologist,. 
indeed, saw only two shining spots ; but from the in- 
sect's having the power of withdrawing them out of 
sight so that not the smallest trace of light remains, he 
thinks it is not improbable that at times two othe? 
points still smaller may be exhibited, as Geoffroy. 
has described. In the males of L. Splendidula and of 
L. hemiptera the light is very dis tinct, and maybe seen 
in the former while flying*.— ^The females have the' 
karae faculty of extinguishing or concealing their light 
I «ii-a very necessary provision to guard them from the 
(attacks of the nighti ngale and other nocturnal birds i 
hv White even thinks that they regularly put it out 
\between eleven and twelve every night d : and they have 
/also the power of rendering it for a while more vivid 
[than ordinary^! 



228 



• Hist. Tnj. 81. 
' Nat. Uitt. U. 8T9. 



' Hist, abrcg.i. 168. 



' Illiger Mag . iv. 195 



II, 413 

Besides the different species of the genus Lampyris, 
all of which are probably more or less luminous, an- 
other insect of the beetle tribe, Elatcr noctilucus, is'en- 
dowed with the same property, and that in a much 
higher degree. This insect, which is an inch long 
and about one-third of an inch broad, gives out its 
principal light from two transparent eye-like tubercles 
placed upon the thorax ; but there are also two lumi- 
nous patches concealed under the elytra, which are not 
visible except when the insect is flying, at which time 
it appears adorned with four brilliant gems of the most 
beautiful golden-blue lustre : in fact, the whole body is 
full of light, which shines ou t_between the abdominal 
seg ments when stretche djThe light emitted by the 
two thoracic tubercles alone is so considerable, that 
the smallest print may be read by moving one of these 
I insects along the lines : and in the West India islands, 
(particularly in St. Domingo, where they are very com- 
mon, the natives were formerly accustomed to employ 
I these living lamps, which they called Cucuij, insteadot 
I candles in performing their evening household occupa- 
I tions. In travelling at night they used to tie one to 
each great toe ; and in fishing and hunting required no 

II, 414 




other flambeauV— Southey has happily introduced tbii 
insect in his "Madoc" as furnishing the lamp bywhichi 
Coatel rescued the British hero from the hands of tin 
lyie xican priests/^ 

(i* She beckoned and descended, and drew out^ 
From underneath her vest a cage, or net i 
It rather might be called, so fine the twig* \ 
Which knit it, where, confined, two Fire-flies gSTQ^ 1 

jTheir lu»tre. By that light did Madoc first]" 

[Behol d the features of his lovely guide."/ 

Pietro Martire tells us that the Cucuij serve the naw 



tives of the Spanish West-India islands not only in- 
stead of candles, but as extirpators of the gnats, which 
are a dreadful pest to the inhabitants of the low grounds. 
They introduce a few fire-flies, to which the gnats are 
a grateful food, into their houses, and by meansiof 
these " commodious hunters" are soon rid of the in- 
truders. " How they are a remedy," says this authory 
"for so great a mischiefe it is a pleasant thing to hear. 
Hee who understandeth he hath those troublesome 
guestes (the gnattes) at home, diligently hunteth after 
the Cucuij. Whoso wanteth Cucuij goeth out of th» 
house in the first twilight of the night, carrying la 
burning fire-brande in his hande, and ascendeth the 
next hillock that the Cucuij may see it, and hee swingeth 
the fire-brande about, calling Cucuius aloud, and beat- 
eth the ayre with often calling out Cucuie, Cucaiei? 

j£* Pietro Marlire, Tht. Dt cades of fht N ew PTerU, gtgtej ip , JfaA q) 
p. 643. ,-— __— - - 

— ' II, 422 

JThis singular factj while it renders it > probable tNM 1 

some insects are luminous which no one has imagined f 
to be so j seems to afford a clue to the partial explana* / 
tion, at least, of the very obscure subject of tgwei'jft'fcrt, J 
and to show that there is considerable ground for* 'tbtff 
opinion long ago maintained by Ray and Willughby^ 
that the majority of these supp osed meteors i are 'floy 
other than luminous insects! 



II, 434 HYBERNATION OF INSECTS. 

the coincidence between the period of the hatching 
in spring of eggs deposited before winter, and of the 
leafing of the trees upon which they have been fixed, 
and on whose foliage the larva? are to feed : which two 
events, requiring exactly the same temperature, are 
always simultaneous. Of this fact I have had a striking 
exemplification the last spring (1816). On the 20th 
of February, observing the twigs of the birches in the 
Hull Botanic Garden to be thickly set, especially about 
the buds, with minute oval black eggs of some insect 
with which I was unacquainted, I brought home a 
small branch and set it in my study, in which is a fire 
daily, to watch their exclusion. { On the 28th ot March 1 \ 
observed that a numerous brood of Aphides (not A. Be~ 
tulce:, as the wings were without the dark bands of that 
species) had been hatched from them, and that two or 
three of the lower buds had expanded into leaves, upon 
the sap of which they were greedily feasting. This 
was full a month before either a leaf of the birch ap- 
peared, or the e gg of an Aphis was d isclosed in t he, 
open air./— To view the relation of which I am speak- 



mg with due admiration, you must bear in mind the 
extremely different periods at which many trees ac- 
quire their leaves, and the consequent difference de- 
manded in the constitution of the eggs which hyber- 
nate upon dissimilar species, to ensure their exclusion, 
though acted upon by the same temperature, earlier 
or later, according to the early or late foliation of these 
spjJcjes^JThere is no visible difference between tfie"| 
(conformation of the eggs of the Aphis of the birch and ' 



II, 435 



229 



those of the Aphis of the ash; yet in the same exposure 
those of the former shall be hatched, simultaneously 
with the expansion of the leav es, nearly a month ear* 
lier than those of the latter :/ thus demonstrably prov- 
ing that the hybernation of these eggs is not accidental, 
but has been specially ordained by the' Author of na« 
ture, who has conferred on those of each species a pe- 
culiar and appropriate organization. 

II, 442 HYBERNATION OF INSECTS. 

The first cold weather, after insects have entered 
their winter quarters, produces effects upon them sir 
milar to those which occur in the dormouse, hedgehog, 
and others of the larger animals subject to torpor. 
At first a partial benumbmeiit takes place ; but the in- 
sect if touched is still capable of moving its organs. 
But as the cold increases all the animal functions cease. 
The insect breathes no longer, and has no need of a 
supply of air c ; its nutritive secretions cease, and no 
more food is required ; the muscles lose their irritabi- 
lity d ; and it has 'all the external symptoms of death. 
In this state it continues during the existence of great 
cold, but the degree of its torpidity varies with the 
temperature of the atmosphere. The recurrence of a 
mild day, such as we sometimes have in winter, infuses 
a partial animation into the stiffened animal : if dis- 
turbed, its limbs and antennae resume their power of 
extension, and even the faculty of spirting out their de- 
fensive fluid is re-acquired by many beetles' 1 . But 

II, 443 
however mild the atmosphere in winter, the great 
bulk of hybernating insects, as if conscious of the de- 
ceptious nature of their pleasurable feelings, and that 
no food could then be procured, never quit their quar- 
ters, but quietly wait for a renewal of their insensibi- 
lity by a fresh accession of cold. 

On this head I have had an opportunity of making 
some observations which, in the paucity of recorded 
facts on the hybernation of insects, you may not be sorry 
to have laid before you. The second of December 1816 
was even finer than many of the preceding days of the 
season, which so happily falsified the predictions that 
the unprecedented d ismal summer would be followed 
by a sev ere winter. \ The thermometer was 46° in the, 
shade ; not a breath of air was stirring ; and a bright 
sun imparted animation to troops of the winter gnat 
( Trichocera hiemalis, Meig.), which frisked under every 
bush ; to numerous Psychodw ; and even to the flesh- 
fly, of which two or three individuals buzzed past me 
jvhile digging in my garden J Yet though these insects, 
which I shall shortly advert to as exceptions to the ge- 
neral rule, were thus active, the heat was not sufficient 
to induce their hybernating brethren to quit their re- 
treats. II, 444 

AH insects, however, do not undergo this degree of 

II, 445 

torpidity. In fact, there are some, though but few, 

which cannot, at least in our climate, strictly be said to 

hybernatc, understanding by that term passing the win* 



ter in one selected situation in a greater or less degree 
of torpor, without food. 

j Amongst perfect insects, troops of Trichocera 
'hlemalis, the gnat whose choral dances have been before 
described , may be constantly seen gamboling in the air 
in the depth of winter when it is mild and calm, accom- 
panied by the little Psychoda, so common in windows, 
several Muscidce, spiders, and occasionally some Jp'/io- 
dii and Staphylinidai -. and the societies of ants, as well 
as their attendant Aphides, are in motion and take 
more or less food during t he whole of that season when 
the cold is not intense. j 



II, 446 



("Lastly, there are some few insects which do no& 
seem ever to be torpid, as Podura nivalis, L., which 
runs with agility on the snow itself; and the common 
hive-bee ; though with regard to the precise state in 
which this last passes the winter, this part of its eco- / 
nomy has not been made the subject of such accurate j 

I investigation as is desirable. P" 

1 s ' II, 452 

But though many larva? and pupae are able to resist 
a great degree of cold, when it increases 10 a certain 
extent they yield to its intensity, and become solid 
masses of ice. In this.state we should think it impos- 
sible that they should ever revive. That an animal 
whose juices, muscles, and whole body have been sub- 
jected to a process which splits bombshells, and con- 
verted into an icy mass that may be snapped asunder 
like a piece of glass, should ever recover its vital 
powers, seems at first view little less than a miracle,; 
and, if the revi viscency of the wheel animal ( V.orliceUa 
rotatoria) and of snails, &c. after years of desiccation, 
bad not made us familiar with similar prodigies, might 
have been pronounced impossible ; and it is probable 
that many insects when thus frozen never do_revi.ve. 
Of the tact, however, as to several species, there js. n,o 
doubt. Jit was first noticed. by Lister, whorclajtesihat J 
II, 453 



he had found caterpillars so frozen, that wliendropped 
j into a glass they chinked like stones, which nevertlie- 
•Iess revived*. Reaumur, indeed, repeated tins expe- 
riment without success; and found that when the larvae 
\bT liombyx Pilyocampa, F. were frozen into ice by a 
'cold of 15° R. below zero (2° F. below zero), they 
i could not be made to revive b . But o ther trials have 
[ fu lly confirmed Lister's observations J J My friend Mr. 
Stickney, before mentioned as the author of a valuable 
Essay on the Grub (larva of Tipula okracea) — to ascer- 
tain the effect of cold in destroying this insect, exposed 
some of them to a severe frost, which congealed them 
into perfect masses of ice. When broken, their whole 
interior was found to be frozen. Yet several of these 
resumed their active powers. \ Bonnet had precisely 
f the same result with the pupa: of Papilio Brassteaj 
which, by exposing to a frost of 14° R. below zero 
YO* F.), became lumps of ice, and yet produ ced b u tter- 
^ flies'j Indeed, the circumstance that animals of a much 
more complex organization than insects, namely ser- 



pents and fishes, have been known to revive after being 
irozen, is sufficient to dispo l any doubts nn iriio rtpnd ■ 
John Hunter, though himself unsuccessful in his at- ' 
tempts to reanimate carp and other animals that had J 
been frozen, confesses that the fact itsel f is so well J 
(authenticated as t o admit of no question' 1 . ] 
'"~~~~ ""' i lt 458 



230 



Dhusilh the* early Bpring. of 1805 (to me.a 
"memorable one, since in it I began my entomological 
career, and had anxiously watched its first approaches 
! in order to study practically the science of wbichiha'd 
gained 8ome theoretical knowledge in the winter,) in*> 
sects were generally o ut by t he middle of March ; f and 
before the 30th, I find, on referring to my entomologi* 
cal journal, that 1 had taken and investigated (I scarcely 
need add, not always with a correct result) fifty-eight 
coleopterous species : while in the last untoward springl 
(1816) I did not observe even a bee abroad until, the^ 
20th of April ; and the fir st butterfly that I saw <lid 
not appear u ntil the 26th. / 



There are, however, circumstances connected with 
this revival, which seem to prove that something more 
than the mere sensation of warmth is concerned An 



causing it. I shall not insist uponf the remarkable fact 

( which Spallanzani has noticed, that insects reappear , 

Jin -spring at a temperature consider ably lower than 

{ that at which they retired in autumn ;( because it may 

be plausibly enough explained by reference to their in* 

creased irritability in spring, the result of soJong<an 

abstinence from food, and their consequent augmented 

sensibility to the stimulus of heat. But if the mere 

perception of warmth were the sole cause of insectsire*- 

laxing from a state of torpidity, then we might fairly 

infer, that species of apparently similar organization. 

and placed in similar circumstances, would. leave their 

winter quarters at the same time. This, howeveryfs 

far from being the case. 

II, 474 INSTINCT OF INSECTS. 

_Jlt is the instinct of Scarabceus vernalis to roll up pel-j 
[lets of dung, in each of which it deposits one of its) 
[ eggs ;| ~and in places where it meets with cow- or horse- 
dung only, it is constantly under the necessity of having 
recourse to this process. But in districts where sheep 
are kept, it wisely saves its labour, and ingeniously 

II, 476 

avails itself of the pellet-shaped balls ready made to its 

hands which the excrement of these animals supplies*. 

II, 600-301 Itiscleatfy 

tt rtwimos instinct ' whjohinsptrea bees with silchdreaid 

ofral n,' -that { even if a cloud pass before -theism, ttheji\ 

(ret urn to the hive in the greatest haste ^fo nd that seeing 

rrt 'me' not less soy which teaches them to fi nd their; way 

liafekitd their home after the most distant and intricate 

wanderings. When bees have found the direction 5« 

which their hive liesJHuber says they flyito>it<withJao\ 

J extreme rapidity,l»id as straight as a ball from aiuusr I 

itefiaTid if their hives were always in open situations, j 
one might suppose, as Hubcr seems inclined to thinkJ 



that it is by their sight they are conducted to tberai 
But hives are frequently found in small gardens ens- 
libWered in wood, and in the midst of villages, suc- 
Vodnded and interspersed with trees and buildings^ so 
as to make it impossible that they can be seed from* 
distance. llf Ba e-527 

This recognition of home seems clearly the result of 
memory ; and it is remarkable that bees appear to re- 
collect their own hive rather from its situation, than 
from any observations on the hive itself; just as a man 
js guided to his house from his memory of its position 
relative to other buildings or objects, without its being 
necessary for him even to cast a look at it. < If, after 
quitting my house in a morning, it were to be lifted 
•out of its- site in the street by. enchantment, and re- 
placed by another with a similar entrance, I should 
probably, even in the day time, enter it, without being 
struck by the change ; and bees, if during their absence 
their old hive be taken away and a similar one set in 
its place, enter this last, and if it be provided with 
brood comb contentedly take up their abode in it, never 
troubling themselves to inquire what has become of 
the identical habitation which they left in the morning, 
and with the inhabitants of which, if it be removed 
to fifty paces distance, they never resume their con- 
nexion r\ 

If, pursuing my illustration, you should object that 
no man would thus contentedly sit down in a new 
house without searching after the o]d one, you must 
bear in mind that I am not aiming to show that bees 
have as precise a memory as ours, but only that they 
are endowed with some portion of this faculty, which I 
think the above fact proves. Should you view it in a 
different light, you will not deny the force of others 
that have already been stated in the course of our cor- 
respondence ; such as the mutual greetings of ants of 
the same society when brought together after a separa- 
tion of four months*; and the return of a party of bees 

>' If a hive fie remoypd out uC its ordinary portion,, (hr lire! day aftor 



this removal, the bees do not fly to a distance witfcoat .ha»ii»g risite* all 



Tthe neighbouring objects. The queen does the same thing when flying , 
) into the air for fecundation. Huber, lUcherchet sur fe* Fourmii, 100. 




231 



JOURNAL 



or a 



NATURALIST. 



[John Leonard Knapp] 



— — " Plants, trees, and stones, we note, 
Birds, insects, beasts, and many rural things.' 



$f>UalrcIp5ia t 

CAREY & LEA— CHESTNUT STREET. 

1831. 



USES OF THE TEASEL. 



39 



I believe that the teasel affords a solitary instance of 
a natural production being applied to mechanical pur- 
poses in the state in which it is produced.* It appears, 
from many attempts, that the object designed to be 
effected by the teasel cannot be supplied by any con- 
trivance — successive inventions having been abandoned 
as defective" or injurious. The use of the teasel is to 
draw out the ends of the wool from the manufactured 
cloth, so as to bring a regular pile or nap upon the sur- 
face, free from twistings and knotlings, and to comb 
off the. coarse and loose parts of the wool. 



* Equigotum hyemale, the Dutch rush, or shave grass, is yot used 
iin its natural state for finishing fine models in wood, and in removing J 
Toughness in plaster casts. 




40 



BAD CUSTOM IN FARMING. 



This picking of the field was formerly very generally 
resorted to in the midland counties ; but the farmers at 
that time had a sufficient excuse in the scarcity of com- 



mon fuel. i Trio dropuings ot' the cows were collected 

fin heaps, and beaten into a mass with water ; then press- 
ed by the feet into moulds like bricks, by regular pro- 
fessional persons, called clatters (dodders); then dried 
in the sun, and stacked like peat, and a dry March for 
the clat-harvest was considered as very desirable. These 
answered very well for heating water for the dairy and 
uses of the farm back-kitchen, giving a steady, dull 
heat, without flame ; but navigable canals, and other 



41 



conveniences of a similar nature, have rendered the\ 
practice now unnecessary. With us this bad custom is] 
declining, artd probablyin time will cease altogether^j 



[Page 45 has the refer- 
ence to Oak-Bark.] 



TREES ATTRACTORS OF HUMIDITY. 



49 



ascending a hill in the month of March. The weather 
had previousl vjjeen vcrv fi" and dry, and the road in 
a dusty state { buLa fog coming on, an ash tree hanging 

Cover the road was dripping with water so copiously, 
that the road beneath was in a puddle, when the other 
' parts continued dry, and manifested no appearance of 
humidity. That leaves imbibe moisture by one set of 
vessels and discharge them by another, is well-known ; 
but these imbibings are never discharged in falling 
drops : the real mystery was, the fog in its progress was 
impeded by the boughs of the tree, and gradually col- 
lected on the exposed side of them, until it became , 
drops of water, whereas the surrounding country had J 
only a mist flying over it. f " Thus in fact the tree was 
no attractor, but a condenser ; the gate of a field will 
in the same manner run down with water on the one 
side, and be dry on the other; as will a stick, or a post, 
from the same cause. It is upon this principle that 
currents of air will be found under trees in summer, 
when little is perceived in open places ; and the under 
leaves and sprays will be curled and scorched at times, 
when the parts above are uninjured. The air in its 
passage being stopped and condensed against the foliage 
of the tree, it accordingly descends along its surface 
or front, and escapes at the bottom,where there are no 
branches or leaves to interrupt its progress. In winter 
there is little to impede the breeze in its course, and it 
passes through ; consequently at this season the air un- 
der a tree is scarcely more sensibly felt than in the ad- 
jo ining, field. , 

*tt may be observed, that in the spring of the yearN 

the herbage under trees is generally more vivid and/ 

{luxuriant, than that which is beyond the spread of the| 

[branches: this may be occasioned, in some instances, 

by cattle having harbored there, and the ground becom- 

i ing in consequence more manured ; but it will be found 

likewise manifestly verdant and flourishing where no 

such accessory could have enriched it, and is, I appre- 

Ihend, in general, chiefly owing to the effects of the 

/driving fogs and mists, which cause a frequent drip bc- 

^neath the tree, not experienced in other places, fin 



62 



THE DOCSBANF- 



f But Wc have one plant in our gardens, a native of North 
{America, than which none can he more cruelly destruc 



3 



232 



live of animal life, the dogsbane (.ipocynum androsee- 
mifolium), which is generally conducive to the death 
of every fly that settles upon it. Allured by the honey 
on the nectary of the expanded blossom, the instant the 
trunk is protruded to fev<] on it, the filaments close, 
and, catching the fly by the extremity of its proboscis, 
detain the poor prisoner writhing in protracted struggles 
till released by death, a death apparently occasioned by 
exhaustion alone ; the filaments then relax, and the 
body falls to the ground. The plant will at tim es be) 
tdusky from the numbers of imprisoned wretches. f "Tliis 
elastic action of the filaments may be conducive to the 
fertilizing of the seed by scattering the pollen from the 
anthers, as is the case with the berberry ; but we are not 
sensible that the destruction of the creatures which 
excite the action is in any way essential to the wants or 
perfection of the plant, and our ignorance favors the 
idea of a wanton cruelty in the herb; but how little of 
the causes and motives of action of created things do 
we know! and it must be unlimilablc arrogance alone 
that could question the wisdom of the mechanism of 
him "that judgeth rightly;" the operations of a simple 
plantconfound and humble us, and, like the hand-writing 
on the wall, though seen by many, can be explained 
but by ONE. 



142 



THE RED-START. 



>Vve nave - no bira more assiduous in attentions 
[young, than the red-start, (steort, Saxon, a tail,) 
I other of. the parents being in perpetual action, convey 
tin g food to the nest, or retiring in search of it ; 
they are active, quick-sighted creatures, .they seem to 
have constant success in their transits. They are the 
most restless and suspicious of birds during this season 
of hatching and rearing .their young; for when the 
female i3 sitting, her mate attentively watches over her 
safefy, giving immediate notice of the approach of any 
seemingly hostile thing, by a constant repetition -of one 
or two querulous notes, monitory to her or menacing to 
the intruder : but when the young are hatched, the very 
appearance of any suspicious creature sets the parents 
into an agony of agitation, and perching upon some 
dead branch or a post, they persevere in one unceasing 
clamor till the object of their fears is removed ; 



THE KITE. 



159 



I can confusedly remember a very extra ordinary cap^ 
ture of these. birds, when I waa a boy. | Roosting one 



'winter evening on some very lotty elms, a fog' came on 
during the night, which froze early in the morning, and 
fastened the feet of the poor kites so firmly to the 
boughs, that some adventurous you ths brought down, I. 

^think, fifteen of them so secured ! / Singular as the cap- 
ture was, t;he assemblage of so large a number was not 
less so, it being in general a solitary bird, or associating 
only in pairs. 



184 



VOICES OF BIRDS. 



We note birds in general more from their voices than 
their plumage ; for the carols of spring may be heard 
involuntarily, but to observe the form and decoration 
of these creatures, requires an attention not always 
given. Yet we have some native birds beautifully and 
conspicuously feathered; the goldfinch, the chaffinch, 
the wagtails, are all eminently adorned, and the fine 



gradations. x tf sober browns in several others are very 
pleasing. J Those sweet sounds, calTed the song of birclo 
f proceed only from the male ; and, with a few cxccp-J 
(tion s, o nly during the season of incubation.j Hence the 
compar'ahve quietness ot our summer months, when 
this care is over, except from accidental causes, where 
a second nest is formed ; few of our birds bringing up 
more than one brood in the season. The redbreast, 
blackbird, and thrush, in mild winters will continu- 
ally be heard, and form exceptions to the general 
procedure of our British birds ; and we have one little 
bird, the woodlark (alunda arborea), that in the early 
parts of the autumnal months delights us with its har- 
mony, and its carols may be heard in the air commonly 
during the calm sunny mornings of this season. 



THE GLOWWORM. 



207 



Ulow-worms emit light only for a short period in the\ 
year; and I have but partially observed ft after the! 



middle of July./ 1 have collected many of these pretty 
creatures on a bank before my house, into which they 
retire during the winter, to shine out again when re- 
vived by the summer's warmth; but in this latter sea- 
son, . I. have frequently missed certain of my little 
proteges, and have reason to apprehend that they form- 
ed the banquet of a toad, that frequented the same 
situation. 

Observing above, that the glow-worm does not emit 
light after the 14th of July, I mean thereby that clear, 
steady light, which, has rendered this creature so re- 
markable to all persons ;j for I have repeatedly noticed, 
deep in the herbage, a faint evanescent light proceeding' 
' from these creature s, even as late as August and Sep- 
tember. ; 'i'nis was particularly manifested September 
the 52Wth, 1826. The evening was warm and dewy,-and 
we" observed on the house-bank multitudes of these 
small evanescent sparks in the grass. 



208 



EGGS OF THE SNAKE. 



My laborer this day, July the 18th, in turn ing over 
some m anure, laid open a mass of snake's eggs|(coluber 
natrix) ^ fifteen only, and they must haye been recently 
ifted, the manure havi ng very lately been placed 



s 



mre navi ng very lately been 
where they were found. ( They were larger than the 
eggs ot a sparrow, obtuse at each end, of 'a very pale 
yellow color, feeling tough a nd_ soft like little bags of 
some gelatinous substance.J xne interior part consisted 
of a glareous matter like that of the hen, enveloping 
the young snake, imperfect, yet the eyes and form suffi- 
ciently defined. (Snakes must protrude their eggs singly,) 

209 



'out probably all at one time, a9 they preserve no regu- 
lar disposition of them, but place them in a promiscuous 
heap. At thq time of protrusion they appear to be sur- 
rounded with a clammy substance, which, drying in the 
air, leaves the mass of eggs united wherever they touch 
each other' I have heard of forty eggs being found in 

ithese deposits ;f yet, notwithstanding such provision lor 
multitudes, the snake, generally speaking, is not a very 
Common animal. The kite, the buzzard, and the raven,. 
which prey on it occasionally, are too seldom found 
greatly to reduce the race ; and its deep retirement in 
the winter seems to secure it from fatal injuries by the 
severity of the. weather : yet in the warm days of spring, 



233 



when it awakens from its torpidity and basks upon our 
sunny banks, the numbers that appear are not propor- 
tionate to what might be expected from the number of 
eggs produced. Few creatures can assail it in its dor- 
mitory, yet its paucity proves that it is not exempt from 
mortality and loss. 



THE COMMON NEVVTS. 



215 



Water, in a state of rest oyer decayed and putrescent 
vegetable matter, is peculiarly favorable for the resi- 
dence of many of the insect world. The eggs that are 
lodged there remain undisturbed by the agitation of the 
element, and the young produced from them, or de- 
posited there by viviparous creatures, remain in quiet, 
tolerably secure from accidental injuries ; but there are 
natural causes which render these apparent asylums the 
fields of ravenousness and of death. To these places 
resort many of those voracious insects and other crea- 
tures, which prey upon the smaller and helpless ; for all 
created things seem subordinate to some more powerful 
or irresistible agent, from the hardly visible atom that 
floats in the pool, to man, who claims and commands 
the earth as his own. But we have no animal that 
seems to commit greater destruction in these places 
than the common newt (lacertus aquaticus). In some 
of. these well-stored magazines this reptile will grow to 
a large size, and become unusually warty, and bloated 
with repletion ; feeding and fattening upon the unre- 
sisting beings that abound in those dark waters wherein 
it loves to reside. It will take a worm from the hook 
of those that angle in ponds ; and in some places I have 
seen the boys in the spring of the year draw it up by 
their fishing-lines, a very extraordinary figure, having a 
small shell-fish (tellina cornea) attached to one or all of 
its feet; the toes of the newt having been accidentally 
introduced into the gaping shell, in its progress on the 
mud at the bottom of the pool, or designedly put in for 
the purpose of seizure, when the animal inhabitant 
closed the valves and entrapped the toes. But from 
whatever causes these shells became fixed, when the 
animal is drawn up hanging and wriggling with its toes 
fettered all round, it affords a very unusual and strange 
appearance. 

Water, quiet, still water, affords a place of action to 
a very amusing little fellow (gyrinus natator), which 



216 



THE WATER-FLEA. 



several parties; yet they do not unite, or contend, but 
perform their cheerful circlings in separate family as- 
sociations. If we interfere with their merriment they 
seem greatly alarmed, disperse, or dive to the bottom, 
where their fears shortly subside, as we soon again see 
o ur little merry friends gamboling as before. 

^This lively little animal, arising irom its winter re- 
treat shortly after the frog, at times in March, continues 
its gambols all the summer long, remaining visible 
generally until the middle of October, thus enjoying a 
full seven months of being; a long period of existence 
for insects, which are creatures subject to so many con- 
tingencies, that their lives appear to be commonly but] 
brief, ana the race continued Dv successive Drodur.tinns. 



GLOSSOLOGY: 



BEING 1 TREATISE ON THE 



NATURE OF LANGUAGE 



AND ON THE 



about the month of April, if the weather be tolerably 
mild, we see gamboling upon the surface of the shel- 
tered pool; and every schoolboy, who has angled for a 
minnow in the brook, is well acquainte d_with this merry 
swimmer in his shining black jacket. ( Ketlring in the] 
autumn, and reposing all the winter in the mud at the 
bottom of the pond, it awakens in the spring, rises to , 
t he surface, and commences its summer sports. J U'hev 
associate in small parties of ten or a dozen, near the 
bank, where some little projection forms a bay, or ren- 
ders the water particularly tranquil ; and here they will 
circle round each other without contention, each in his 
sphere, and with no apparent object, from morning until 
night, with great sprightliness and animation ; and so 
lightly do they move on the fluid, as to form only some 
faint and transient circles on its surface. Very fond of 
society, we seldom see them alone, or, if parted by ac- 
cident, they soon rejoin their busy companions. One 
pool commonly affords space for the amusement of 



LANGUAGE OE NATURE. 



CHARLES KRAITSIR, M. D. 



NEW-YORK: 

PUBLISHED FOR THE AUTHOR. 

GEORGE P. PUTNAM, 10 PARK-PLACE. 
1852. 



234 



CONTENTS. 



- 21 



85 



b -6q 
o 



So; 



13 •" 

i i 



1 



fi a 



Introduction.— Philology ; Glossology; Grammnr; Bacon on Words ; Ap- "" d •» 

peal to study; Education of children ; Spelling-books; Study of Inn- '"S t£ .64 

guage; Aim of the work; Mission'of the English nations; Europco- C 

American language; J. Wallis; Lutin and German parents of English; ,3 

Universities; Excellence of the English language ; Radical reform of in- jj 

struction, of the so-called spelling ; Results of a sound system ; Espe- S3 

cial points aimed at; Babel, - -.- - - »- 9 ■<: 

Chap. I. Language. — The tongue the principal tool of expression ; Deflni- 8 

tions of language ; Language the highest of all human energies ; Speech 
a necessrfry function of rnaa'a, thoughts and sensations ; Extract from 
Humboldt's Kosmos ; Mankind divided into varieties, designated by the 
term ra'ce ; Human perfectibility, - - - - 

Chap. III. English Language. — Corruption of the Latin language; Reasons 
for learning Latin'; Its importance to Glossology ; Rev. E. N. Kirk's 
letter to S. P. Andrews on the merits of Phonography ; Advantages re- 
sulting from a correct pronunciation of Latin ; Language ought to be 
written in harmony with its sounds ; Importance of amending its pro- 
nunciation, - - 

Chap. III. Sounds and LETTEits.-r-Langnage analogous to mnsio ; Paramount 
importance of a correct beginning ; Elementary instruction in language 
should be given orally ; Division of speech-sounds; Organs of speech ; 
Table showing the means of producing the vowel sounds ; Scale of vow- 
els likened to colors, shapes and sensations j Vowel-elements of plasticity 
and of modifications ; Affinity of vowels to guttural consonants ; Neces- 
sity of a correct view of the Alphabet ; Alphabet as now used in writing 
the German, English, and with some slight omissions, the greatest num- 
ber of the European languages; Explanation of the Alphabet-table; 
Sxtccinct history ofipriting ; Egyptian : Images, Hieroglyphs as the mode 
of representation ; . Chinese iconography ; Sanskrita's Devanagart and 
importance of its arrangement ; Hindostanee and Persian ; Phoenician 
Alphabet ; Perfectharmony cf the present alphabet ; All Italic alphabets 
derived from ancient Greek; Roman alphabet ; The materials for wri- 
ting ; The Anglo-Saxon alphabet formed from the Latin; Pronunciation 
of the present modern Greek ; Russian alphabet formed under Peter I. ; 
Alphabet of the Armenians ; Alphabet of Georgia ; Two kinds of writ- 
ing in Media and Persia ; Ancient Hebrew; Ancient Aramaic; Sassanr 
idic ; Zend; Pehlvi; Alphabet called Estrangelo; The oyclo of alpha- 
betic writings closed with Sabacic ; Writing of the Arabs ; Celticgraph- 
io ; Synoptic resumS ; Concordance of writing the same sounds in Latin, 
German, English, French, Italian, Spauish and Portuguese ; The most 
remarkable discrepancies. atTcct tho most important elements of Lan- 
guage ; The dental sounds ; The liquid sounds, 63 

Chap, IV. Gekus and Roots.— Plato's Cratylus, and other philosophers of _ja; 'o 

antiquity— their view3 on language ; Elements of language ; Pure sylla- 
bles ; Roots ; Germs of all languages tho same ; Rationale of grammatic 
nomenclature ; Logic categories of a Bentenco or proposition the roal parts 
of speech ; Variations in the grammar of languages ; Examination of words ; 
Sanscrit roots ; Germs ; Sounds ; The alphabet ; Signification of tho organ- 
ic germ perceptible only in simple roots : gutturals, labials, dentals, Un- 
guals, nas-ality ; In words, five predicaments of Sounds and Letters : 
1. The logic— 2. The grammatic— 3. Tho euphonic; — i. The erroneous 
— 5. The superfluous ; Some nations prefer certain sounds to others, . 126 

Chap. V. Words and Idiohs. — In Chinese, tho name and root but one" ; Num- 
ber of so-called roots in German, French, Greek, etc.; Words framed 
by grouping the germs ; Conjugation of verbs, declension common to 
all languages ; Languages differ, not by roots, but by the use of roots *£ 

and words ; Common modes of derivation and composition ; Combin- • 

ation and inflection of vowels ; Source of variety in the Indo-Europ. 
languages ; Examples ; Certain words predominate in certain lan- 
guages J Shifting of sounds from the Latin forms in Italian, Spanish, 
Portuguese and French ; Table exhibiting the more important Latin 
combinations as altered in thoso Romanio languages ; French accent ; 
Examples of metamorphoses of words ; So-called irregularities ; Logic 
variation of words ; Idiosyncrasy of each language ; individualization 
and assimilation of the sense ; Original poetry of tho human mind ; 
Decay of Latin and riso of tho Romanic languages, - - - 179 

Conclusion, - - - -- - - -215 

Excursus. — A) History and Literaturo of Philology, - - - 218 

B) " '" Indo-European languages, 230 

C) Pronunciation of Latin, ----- 283 

D) Mathematic phraseology, - 239 






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Between the years 360-80 A. c, Bishop Ulpfiilas adapted the 
Greek alphabet to his translation of the Gospel, into the Gothic lan- 
guage, in Mcesia on the Lower Danube. Hence the name of MCESO- 
GOTIIIC. ,The principal manuscript written in silver-letters on a dark 
ground (Codex argenteus) is now preserved at Upsala in Sweden. 
The number of letters occurring in the original is 25, but some wri- 
ters add a kind of q before r. Junius, Hickes, and Bosworth agree 
as to their order and number ; Lye differs somewhat. The figures 
are, on the whole, so to say, half Greek half Latin; the o is repre- 
sented by an inverted u. There is a letter for cw, one for th, one for 
ch. 

In the opinion of Hask, the monumental RUNIR (from run, 
or ryn, G. Rinne, channel, spout, running, groove, according to Ol. 
Wormius ; from ge-ryne, G. ge-raune % whispering, mystery, as Spel- 
man believes) were introduced into Scandinavia before our era, and 
were continued there, as well as in the northern parts of Germany, 
for some centuries after Christ. We cannot enter upon details, and 
leaving the Celtic and ot her varieties used in Lombardy, etc., ou t of 
the ques tion,^ will suffice to enumerate the Norse Jiunes. They\ 
fwere originally 16 in number, in the following order, given here with/ 
[their names, the first sound of which is betokened by the respective 1 
[character. The numeric value is prefixed to each. ) 

1. Fie, fe ; L. pec-\is, cattle. 

2. Ur ; L. ur-us, wild bull ; also torrent, iron-sparks. 

8. £)it«; T/ior-u, mountain-spirit (comp. 12). 100 

4. Oys; L. os, oris; osti-am, and gulf, OSin. 

6. i?<SAr ; cavalry (ri/ler-y). carriage. 

6. Kaun andce/i;. boil, L. ulc-us, prurigo (comp. xava-is, burning). 

7. Hagl; hail, and liairy, angular. 

8. Saud ; need, fetters, 

9. Jis; icicle, Anglo-Saxon, ises-gcect, i. e., ice-(-cooled. 

10. Aar.; J-ear, L. ar-o, plough. 

11. Sdl ; sun. 

12. Tyr ; L. taur-us, bull; giant Thurs (comp. 3). 

13. Bjark&n ; birch. 

14. Lagur ; liqu-or, lak-e. 

15. Madur, mander ; man. looking at the stars. 

16. Yt ; L. arc-us, compare ar-row. 

To these were afterwards added 6 more, i. e., 5 from among the above, 
distinguished by inscribed dots, and hence called stungen, i. e., stung, viz., 
stungen Kaun or Knesol, to note our^, as in get; St. Jis. our e in end; st. 
birk, for our p; si. fie, for our v', and u in full \ st. ur (not admitted by all 
writers) for our u and y ; — and a combination of A with s. 

The ANGLO-SAXON alphabet was formed in our 6th century, 
from the Latin, as then shaped. It underwent several modifications 
which are denominated as follows : Roman-Saxon, found in the Dur- 
ham-book ; Set Saxon, from the middle of the 8th to that of the 
9th century ; cursive or running-hand, at the end of the 9th century, 
patronized by king. Alfred; mixed (with Roman, Lombardic), till the 
beginning of the 11th century; Elegant Saxon, used from the 10th 
to the middle of the 13th century. The schemes given by Hickes, 
Bernard, Lye, Bosworth and others, vary somewhat ; so that taking 
all things into consideration, we find, in reality, 25 letters, and, com- 
paring them with the present 26 English, the following discrepan- 
cies between both. There were 2 characters representing our soft 
th in rAe (D, $) and our harsh aspirated th in thick, (p, \>) ; but 
there were no letters answering to our present j, q, w. — As regards 
the shape of the characters, the following Anglo-Saxon differed 




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UAMERIQUE 

SEPTENTRIONALE, 

OU LA SUITE 

DES VOYAG ES DE Mr. LE 

BARON DE LA HONTAN: 

Qui conticnncnt laDefcriptiond'uncgmiide ctcnduc 

dc Pais decc Continent, l'intcrct des Franfots Scdcs 

t^n^ois, leurs Commerces, lcurs Navigations, 

les Mocurs 6c les Coutimics des Suuvngcs., 8cc. 

Avec w petit D I C T I O N A I R E de la Langue du Pais. 

Le tout enrichi dc Cartes & dc Figures. 

TOME SECOND. 

Secondc Edition , augmentie des Conversations de 
fjlutexr avec un Sauvagc dijimguc. 








A AMSTERDAM, 

Pour Jokas i'H on ore' a la Ha'yc. 
" M D C C V. 






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REL ATI O N 

DECE QVI S'ESTPASSE' 

DE PLVSREMAR <^V ABLE 

cs Miflions des Peres de I*^%. 
Compagniede Iesvs, tli/?/ 



EN LA 

NOVVELLE FRANCE, 

ES ANNEES 1^47. ^ i^ + 8. 

EnuoyccauR. P.Prouincial delaProuincc 
dc France. 

far Ic Supcricur des 24 if ions dc U me/me 
Qontpaonie. / 



/Jc 



<"■' r > > • <: 




C A PARIS, 

pSEBASTlEN CRAMOISY,^ 

1 Irapriincur ordinaire du Roy, | l ' Ue s * 
Chcz^ & dcla Rcync Rcgcntc, ! ,acc l u «» 
J it ^ aux Cu 

I. Gabriel C r amo! s y. J co S««. 



M. D C. XLIX. 
^tysc vRiyiiEGR oy nor. 






fM!$?&^&WW&<& 



flsnmtmfmf 




Table 
DES CHAPITRES 

CONTENVS EN CE 

Liure. 

f' E L A T 1 o N de ce qui s'eji 
pafte en la Nouuelle France 
? fur le grand Fleuue de Saint 
Laurent t en lannee mil fix cens qua- 
rante-buit. page 1 

Chap. 1. Del'arriuee des vaffeaux. 

II. De ce qui s eflpafie entre les Fran c ok 
ft) les Sauuages leurs alhe% 3 & les 
ffiroquois. 1 2. 

III. De I'arriuee des Ffurons >$) dela, 
deffaitc de quelques Hiroquois. 3 4 

IV. De quelques bonnes aclions & de 
quelques bons jentimens des Sauua- 
ges Cbreftiens. 47 



V. Continuation du mefme jujet. Ci 

VI. De quelques autres bonnes aclions 
des Satin ages. 7 9 

VH« De I'hyuernement du Pere Gabriel 
Druillctes aueclesSauuages. 94 

VIII. Des peuples nomme% les Atttgua- 
mcgues. hi. 

IX- De la AfiJJion de Sainte Croix a 
Tadoujjac. 130 

X. Diuerjes chojes qui n'ont pu eftre 
. rapportees Cous Ms Qhapitres prece- 
dent, 1 4 4 

R Elation de ce qui s'cfi pajie en la 
MiJJion des Peres dela Compagnie 
de I e s v s aux Hurons Pays de la 
Nouuclle France 3 is annees 1^47. & 
1^48. page 5 

CHAP. I. Situation, du Pays des f/u. 
rons, de leurs allien , £r de leurs 
ennemis. $ 

I I. De I'ejlat general de U Mijjiori, i q 

III. De noftre maijon de Sainte Marid 
pdg.14 

IV. De diuerjes deffaites de nos Hurons 
par leurs ennemis. '. 17 

V . Dela Trouidence de Dieufur quel- 
ques Chreflieni pris ou tue^par lei 
ennemis. 1 4 

VI. Des Baptefmes de quelques Hiro- 
quois pris en guerre par les Hurons, 
pageiz 

VII. Des pour-parlers de paix entre les 
Hurons & Onnontaeronnons. 41 

VIII. D'njn Ambajjade des Hurons i 
Andajloe. $0 

IX. De I'auancement du Chriflianifme 
dans les Miffions Hurones. 56 



238 



X. Des MiJJIons ^Algonquines. 6$ 
xi. Eons fentimens de quelques Chre- 
tiens. 72. 
jc. 1 \.T>es principals fuperjlitios quayent 
les Hurons dans leur infidelite, & 
premicremcnt leur fentimmt tou- 
chant lesfonges. 91 

XII I. Sentiment dcs Hurons touchant 
leurs maladies. 9 9 

XlV.D'vneefycce defortdont lesHurons 
fe feruent pourattirer lebon m heur. 
page 108 

XV. Sentiment qu'ont les F/urons des 
maladies qu'ils croyent *vcnir par 

fortilege. De leurs Deuinsft) Ma- 
gicicns. 1 1 1 

XV I. Quelle connoiffance auoient les 
Hurons infdeles de la r Diuinite t 

page mi 

XVI I . Du meurtre d'vn Franfois majjk- 
cre par les Hurons > & de la iujlke 
qui en a ejle faite. 1 1 o 



PermiJJion du R. P.ProumciaL 

NO vs Efticnne CharletProuincial 
dc la Compagnie de Le s v s en la 
Prouincc dc France, auons accorde pour 
l'aduenir au ficur Scbafticn Cramoify 
MarchandLibrairc,Imprimeur ordinaire 
du Roy& dc la Rcyne Regcntc, Bour- 
geois & ancicn Efcheuin dc ccttc Ville 
3e Paris, rimprcflion des Relations dela 
Nouuclle France. Faic a Paris cc30.Dc- 
ccmbre 1648. 

ESTIENNE CHAKLET. 



239 




RELATION 

DECE QVI S'EST 

PASSE 7 EN LA NO WELLE 
France svr le grand 
Fleuue de S. Laurent ,cn l'annec 
mil fix Ccns quarante-huir. 

AV R.P.ESTlENtfE CHARLt.T 

Provincial de U Compagnie ^IesvJ) 

t n la Prouincc de France, 




Voicy noftre tribut annuel, vn fsctic plus 
gros que ecluy dc l'annec paflee • audi 
l'auons-nous recucilly , non feulfcment 
des nations plus voifines t tails encore; 
4es plus eloignces. 



bien qu'a nous icy bas,de continucr quel- 
ques Millions que nous auions com- 
mencccs. 

Voila M. R. P. fommairement ce que 
voftrc R. vcrra plus en detail dans ces 
Relations, rcftc queie prictres-humblc- 
ment voftrc R.&tous nos Peres &Frc- 
res , de nous auoir pour rccommandcz a 
Icurs fain&s Sacrifices & pricrcs , a ce 
que nous foyons foigneux de nous main- 
tenir,dansla fidcle correfpondance de 
noftrc part,aux deueins adorablcs, de 
la Diuine Majcftc fur ces pauurcs pcu- 
ples. 

De Voftrc Rcucrence, 



De gvelec et if. 

tfQilobre X648. 



Seruitcurtres-humble Si 
1: tres-obciflane enN. S. 

HlEKOSME LaLEMANT. 



Voftre R. vcrra dans ces deux Rela- 
tions vnbonnombrede Sauuages bapti- 
zcz jdlc apprendra que la Foy iettc fes 
racines bien auanc dans 1c coeur des 
Croyans ; que ccux qui l'ont cmbraflce 
commenccnt a faire corps, & a. rcfifter 
aux Payens qui l'attaquent , tantoft a la 
fourdinc, tantoft a decouuere ; quelle a 
triomphc puiflamment dans les plus 
grands dangers; que les Hiroquois ennc- 
mis communsdes Francois, & des Sau- 
uages leurs allicz, ont plus perdu que ga- 
gnc ccttc anncc ; que mal-grc leurs em- 
bufches, &: leurs armes, nous auons fait 
pafTcr du fecours dans les contrees plus 
mutes; du moins croyons nous que qua- 
ere dc nosPercs qui frappoient a la portc, 
depuis vn an oudcux, font cntrez dans 
le pays des Hurons aucc vnc vingtainc 
de Francois- que ceux qui nous crioienc 
a l'aydc , &: que nous auons fecouru au- 
tane que nous auons pu , pour ne pas per- 
drevnc fi belle occafion que cclle qui Cc 
prefentoit , attendoicnt vn plus grand 
nombrc d'ouuriers Euangcliqucs : e'eft 
la feule chofe qu'ils defirent & fouhai- 
cent , & done le manquement leur fera 
perdre les occaflons de s'eftendre, aufti 






est 






De I'arriuee des <vaij[eaux. 

Chapitre I. 

"TTL fait beau voir deux pcrfonncs de 
_[ meritc & dc vcrtu dans vn combat de 
deference , lors principalcment qu'vne 
d'iccllcs met bas les intcrefts qui le por- 
teroient a s'en difpcnfer.s'il nc fortifioit 
fon courage par quclquc penfec plus 
haute & plus rcleueeque cellcsdu com- 
mun. Si toft que Monfieur 1c Chcua- 
licr de Montmagny , eut connoiftance 
des volontcz du Roy , & dc la Rcync , g£ 
qu'il cuft appris par l'arriucc des vaif- 
fcaux , que leurs Majeftez auoient pour- 
ueu Monfieur d'Aillcbouft du Gouuer- 
nement du pays en toutc 1'eftencLue du 
Fleuue de S. Laurent, non feulement ll 
rcceuft cet ordrc aucc honncur,&: aucc 
rcfpcct.raais dc plus ^ il fitparoiftre vnc 
gencreufc magnanimitc , faifant difpo- 
Fcr aucc apparcil , routes les chofes nc- 
ccflaires,pourla reception du nouueau 
Gouuerneur ., qui fut en fuite rcccu par 
tous ia ordres du pays , qui le compli- 



en I'annee 1648. j 

mcntcrcnt , & lcs Sauuagcs mcfmcs vou- 
lurenc eftrc dc la parcic,luy faifant vnc 
petite harangue, par labouched'vnRc- 
ligicux de noftic Coinpagnie , qui les 
conduifoit. Si l'vn emportcnos regrets, 
& nous laiflc vnc memoirc eternellc dc 
fa prudence , & dc (a fagefle; l'autre,donc 
la vertu defia connue , en ce nouueau 
mondc , nous donne , ic nc diray pas feu- 
lcment vnc cfpcrancc,mais commevne 
afieurancc,que les fruits defia bien auan- 
ccz mcuriront , & que le Royaumc dc 
Dieu continucra dc s'eftendre , &C de 
s'emplificr dans ccs contrees. II n'obmct 
ricn pour rendrclc rcciproquc a fon Prc- 
decefleur , nc pouuant trouuer afl*ei 
d'honncur pour reconnoiftrc le mcrite, 
& la vertu dccebraucCheualier. 

Mais pour nc mecarter de mon dif- 
cours , le premier vaifleau nous ayant 
confolepar le rctour du Pere Barthelc- 
my Vimont , &: par la venue dc trois 
bonnes Rcligicufes Hofpitalicrcs , qui 
lefiouircnt infiniment lcurmaifon,nous 
attrifta par le nombrc des perfonncs 
maladcs , qu'on fit porter en ccttc mai- 
fon dc chantc , &c dc mifcricordc. Ccft 
chofc rare que les maladies fc iettent 

6 Relation de la Nouuelle France} 
dans les vaiffcaux qui viennent en cc 
pays.fila trauerfee eft vn peu rude pour 
les mers,ellc n'a pas couftumc d'altcrer 
la fantc des corps. Quelque mauuais air 
pris en France , ou les grandes chaleurs 
qu'ils rcflcntirent approchansdes Affo- 
res, ou la corruption des viures mal clioi- 
fis,ou tout ccla cnfcmblc leur a caufe 
ie nc fjay quelle cpidimie, qui en a fait 
mourir quelques-vns,&: en a tourmen- 
te vn aflcz bon nombrc*. Monficur dc 
Rcpentigny fut enlcuc en moins dc dou- 
2e iours , mais auec vnc benediftion tou- 
tc particulicre , fa mprt , dit lc Pere , qui 
l'a afliftc iufque au dernier foufpir , a cftc 
preticufc dcuant Dicu.tantileftoitfoli- 
dement refignc a fes volontez. La plus 
icunc des trois Rcligicufes, nommee la 
Merc Catherine dc S. Auguftin , fut iuf- 
ques aux portcs de la fnort , ou pluftoft 
iufqucs aux portes duParadis^ mais fon 
Epoux la voulat eprouuer plus log-temps 
dans les fouffranccs luy rcnditla fantc, fa 
vocation en cc nouueau monde eft aflfez 
rcmarquablc, fonardeurluy faifoit fou- 



240 
haitcer les Croix auec amour, & fon pe- 
re craignant les hazards s'oppofa fi force* 
incrtt^fon depart qu'il prefentarcquc&o 

en I'annee 1648. 7 

au Parlement de Rouen , pour l'empcf- 
cherdc fortirdu Conuentde la Mifcri- 
corde de Bayeux, ou ellc eftoit R eligicu-- 
fc ; ccttc pauure petite Colombc cftant 
dans lcsgemifTcmcns,& fes parens dans 
la rcfiftance , il arriua que fon pere icttant 
lesyeux fur la Relation de l'anpailc.fut 
fi fortement touche en lifant les horri- 
bles tourmens que lc bon Pere Ifaac Io- 
gues a fouffcrc , que cela mefme qui fem- 
bloit le deuoir plus opiniatrcment con- 
firmer dans (es oppositions , luy fit laf- 
cher prife j Eft-il vray , dit-il , qu'on fouf- 
fre fi gencrcufement pour D : eu,cn ccs 
Contrees i Ic defire que mes deux fillcs y 
aillcntji'en refufois vnc,&icles donne 
routes deux , e'eft icy ou il y cut du cobat. 
Ces deux fceurs Religieufcs en mefmc 
maifon , fc vouloient toutcs deux facri- 
£er,& il n'en falloit qu'vnc, leS.Efprit 
fir tombcr le fort,&: la Croix fur la plus 
icunc , & les larmes , &: les regrets fur 
J'aifnee. 

.Les deux autrcs Religieufcs appellees 
la Mere Anne del* Aflbmption , &: la Me- 
rc:.Icanne de fain&c Agnes, font parties 
lvnedelaCommunautedes Meres Hof- 
fiqalicrcs dcla villc. de Dieppe, qui eft 

8 Relation de UNomeUe France, 
la pepiniere des autres maifons , & quv 
nous a donne les premieres Religieufcs 
de l'Hofpical dcQuebec^l'autre eft vcnuS 
de l'Hoftel Dieu de Vennes en Breta- 
gnc. Dieu a brife tous les obftaclcs qui 
leur empefchoit lc paftagc, &: les a rcn- 
dues faincs & fauues dans leur petite mai- 
fon ,qui attendoit ce fecours auec impa- 
tience. 

Lesnouuellcs qui fc debitcnt a la vc» 
nucdes vaifTcaux reflemblcnt alTezfou- 
uent aux iours &c aux annces dc Iacob; 
s'il y en a de bonnes, il y en a bien fouuent 
demauuaifes,nous en auonsappris vno 
trcs-fauorablc pour quantite* dc Sauua^ 
gesdes nations plus hautcs. Madame la 
Princefte refpandant les bonccz dc fort 
tocur iufquesauxderniers confins de c£ 
nouueau moi.de, s'eftdcclarce Merc & 
fondatricc dc la Million furnommcc dct 
Apoftrcs, en la nation vulgairomcnt ap« 



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• lean Amiof (c eft-celay qui pric 1'arv^ 
paflc vnHiroquois, lequel chancoic ccs! 
paroles dedans lbs feux , Antaiofc(c'cfl: 
ainfique les Hiroquois &: les Hurons lc 
nommoientjcftcaufcquc icvayauCiel, 
i ? en fuis bieii ai fe , ie luy en fcay bon grc ) 
defcendarte a ; CK^bcc qpclquc temps 
dcuant fa mortipour obteriir conge do 
Monfieur lciGouueTneui?,'de'incnervna 
efcoiiade dc Francois, concretes Hiro- 
quois ,*i prouoqua to'us les ieuncs gensa 
h' c o urfc j< -foic iauec dc* ra4uct « s •-• auxi 

io Relation de la NouueUe France, 
picds.foic fans raqucctcs,quelqucs-vns 
defcendirent en lice contrc luy; mais il 
remporca la vi&oirc,fon humeur cftoici 
C\ agreable, que les vaincus mefmes luy 
portoicnt dc l'amour &r du refpect. II 
eftoic adroit a deftourner les mauuais 
difcours.&areprendre auec grace ceux 
quiiuroienc, ou qui fe donnoienc des 
imprecations , &: par ce moyen empef- 
choit biendumalj&n'offcnfoit pcrfon- 
fc:car fon innocence , auec l'opinion 
qu'on auoit dc fon courage ,le mcttoita 
couuert. Ilauoit vnedcuotiontres-par- 
ticulierc & trcs-conftance a S. Iofcph, 
qu'il auoit prife en la maifon de Sainte 
Marie aux Hurons , ou il a cftc cleue. 
Cornme il fe icttoit a toutc heurc dans 
les dangers , aux alarmes que nous don- 
noienc les Hiroquois, il die a vnde nos 
Peres , S'il arriuc que ic meure , ic defire. 
que ccs bois&c les autrcs materiaux que 
ic difpofe pour me faire baffcir. vne mai-. 
fon , foient appliquez pour faire drefler 
vne petite GhappcUe a l'honneur dc S. 
Iofeph.il aubic fait vceu de jamais ne rien 
refufer dc tout cc qui luy fe<oit demandc 
au nom de ce grand Saint , il luy dedioil 
fes courfes , [q& voyages ^cs ct>rnbau,S£ 

en Xannh 1648. it 

comme on parloit d'vn camp volant con- 
trc les Hiroquois : S'il m'eftoit permis, 
difoit-il , de nommcr cctte petite armcc, 
ie l'appellcrois l'armce dc S. Iofcpli. Cc 
chaftc Epoux de la Vicrgc auoit obtcnu 
a cc ieunc gucrrier vnc purctc Angeli- 
que,ccux qui l'ont connu plusparcicu- 
liercmcnt affcurent que iamais il n'efl: 
tombc en aucune coulpe mortcllc, il s'eft 
trouuc dans millc dangers, il a cftc h for- 
tement follicitc , qu'il luy a fallu laiflcr la 
robe , ou lc mantcau auffi bicn que 1'an- 



241 
cien Iofcph , Dicu l'a voulu mettrc au 
rang des vicrgcs.il cftoit fur lc point dc 
fe marier quand il eft more } fes camara- 
des s'eftonnoient de fa rctenuc : car il 
faifoit l'amour en Angc , pour ainfi dire. 

Plufieurs ontcreu que Dicu l'auoit ra- 
uy en fa icunclTe , afin que lc credit Si 
l'cftimc dans lequcl il cntroit par fon 
courage &: par fon addrefle n'alccraflcnc 
fon innocence , &: nc fiflenc brefche a 
fa vcrtu. 

Ie luy ay oiiy raconter , qu'eftant alio 
certain iour a la cha : iTc v ouily auoit des 
H^Qquois en embufcadp , il fe feneir faifi 
<l'vnc grandc frayeur>",cc quinc luy,arri- 
tioitJanwis } car il cftoit, hardy au, dermic? 

Ir 1 Relation de la NouueUe France, 
point, prudent neantmoins fondantfon 
•courage fur 1'appuy qu'il auoit en Dieu. 
II s'eftorca plufieurs fois d'auanccr, mais 
il nc faifoit que tournoycr dans lcsbois, 
en forte qu'il ne put iamais paftcr outre, 
il s'addreflc a fon Pcrc S. Iofcph , &: a 
mefmc temps il dit a vn Huron qui 1'ac- 
compagnoir,retirons-nous d'icy , il n'y 
fait pas bon : lc lendemain quclques Al- 
gonquins allans en eclieu mefmc, tom- 
bcrcnt dans l'embufcadc des Hiroquois. 
Pour conclufion , cc brauc foldat de S. 
Iofcph a fait vingt-cinq outrcntc lieues 
dc chemin apres fa mort,poureftrc cn- 
terrccn larcfidcnce dcS. Iofcph. 



De ce qui s'eft pafle entre les Francois 
& les Sauuages leurs alliez^t & 
les Hiroquois. 

Chapitre II. 

LE dix-hui&icme dc May deux ca- 
nots d'Hiroquois ayans trauerfc lc 
grand Flcuuc a la veue du fort dc Monc- 
real'ife vindrcne froidemene dcfembai- 

enl'anneeid+.S. 13 

iqucr dedans riflc:&f»ns faire paroiftrc 
aucune apprchenfion , fepe ou huic dc 
Jeur bandc circrent droit au quarticr des 
Francois. Monfieur dc Maifon-neufuc 
Gouucrneur dc cctte Iflc , fit auanccr 
quclques foldats pour les reconnoiftre, 
ccs Barbarc* les ayanc apperceus,fircnc 
alte , be demandcrent par fignc a parle- 
mcnter.on leur enuoyc deux Truchemes 



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14+ Relation de la Nouucllc France ; 

•Diuerjes chofes qui n'ont pen cflre ntt>- 
forteesfoas les Chaj>itresf>rccedens. 

CHAPITRE X. 

VN Sauuageayanttuevn Lou'rre, : 
lemitencortout chaudal'entour 
du cold'vn Francois, 6c aufli-toft le 
Francois romba en fyncope , comme 
s'il eut efte more, lc Sauuage prcnanc 
ceLoutreparlespieds de derriere,en 
donne quelquescoupsfurle ventredu 
Francois, qui reuinc a Toy quafi en vn 
moment :ielaiffeauxMedecinsaiuger 
de la caufe, mais il eft: certain que ce 
<jue ie viensdedireaeftefair. 

Ce Chapitre feracompofede biga- 
reurcj. Il y a defiaaflez long- temps que 
deux Sauuages voulans paiFerlagran- 
deRiuierefurla findcrhyuer,6cn'aiae 
point de batteaude boisnyd'ecorce, 
ilscnfirent vndc glace enayant trou- 
uc vne aflez grande fur les bords , ils la 
font flotter, & s'eftans misdefTus, ils 
eftendent vnegradecouuerture, done 
ils faifirent les deux extremitcz , d'en 

en I'annee 1648. /.£/ 

basauecleurspieds,eleuantlereftcen 
l'airauecleursefpees, afindereceuoir 
vn vent fauorable qui les fit pafler ce 
grand fleuuealavoile,fur vnpontou 
fur vn battcau de glace. Ce jeueflvn 
jeu de hazard , fi quelqu'vn y gaigne, 
d'autresyperdenr. 

Voicy vne fimplicitc bien agreable 
a noftrc Seigneur , deux Sauuages fe 
trouua^s en danger , dont Tvn eftoic 
Chreftien 6cl'autre Catechumene, ce- 
luy-cycraignanrplus pour foname que 
pour Ton corps, die a Ton camarade,que 
reray-ie fiie mcurs,moyquinefuispas 
Chreftien-? ne pourrois. tu pas bien me 
baptifer ? fi tune le fais, iefuis perdu 
pourvn Jamais ? iene fcay pas bien ,re- 
partfoncamarade, commeilfautfaire, 
car l'cftois bien malade quand on me 
baptifa , ie me fouuiens neantmoins 
qu'on fit le fignede la Croix furmate- 
fte , & qu'on me dit que mes pechis 
eftoient effaces , 6c queien'iroispoinc 
au feu , fi ie ne me faliflbisderechef , h^ 
bien , dit le Catechumene , fais moy la 
mefme chofe, car ie c'afleure queie 



242 
croy tout ce qu'on nousaenfeigne,i'ea 
fuis concent! respond le Chreftien , 6c 

■146 Relation de la Nouuelle France , 
la-deffus il fait mettre fon profelitetl 
genoux,puis s'addrefTant aDieuilluy 
dit , toy qui as tout fait, empefchecet 
homme d'alleren Enfer, celaneferoit 
pas bien qu'il y allaft , efface tous fes 
pechez , &c le deftourne du mauuais 
chemin : il fit en fuittc Je figne de la 
Croix fur luy , 6c voila vn Bap tefme a la 
Sauuage. Dieupeutdonneraces bon» 
nes gens vn a&e d'vn vray an |1> or , en 
consideration de leur foy 6c de *eur fim- 
pl cite , ce qui n'empefebe pas qu'on 
ne leur confere par apres le veritable 
Sacrement. On dira qu'il feroit bien a 
propos,quequelques-vnsd'entreeux, 
fufient bien inftruits fur la forme du 
Baptefme : cela eft ainfi , en effet, 6c 
nousn'ymanquons pas: mais on n'ofe 
pas confier ces grands Myfteres a tou- 
tes fortes de perfonnes , plufieurs s'en 
feruiroicntfansdifcretion. 

Voicy vne reponfe prudente pour 
vn Sauuage,ceux deTadouftac s'eftans 
liesauec ceux de Kebec, vindrent fa- 
liier Mofieurnoftre Gouuerneur,pour 
decouurir quelleseftoient fes penlees, 
touchantles'prifonniersHiroquois,qui 
s'eftoien t venus ietter entrenos mains; 

en I'annee 164$. 147 

ilsappreliendoient que nous nefiffions 
la paix independamment d'eux:ilsal-. 
leguoient milleraifons,pourmonftrer 
laperfidiedecespeuples, 6c pour nous 
engager a continuer la guerre. Mon- 
fieurle Gouucrneur leur fit dire , qu'il 
.s'eftonnoit,commeilsvouloiententrcr 
danslaconoifiancede fespenfecs,eux 
qui fembloient cacher leurs defTeins; 
onvoit,adiouftail,arriucrtouslesiouri 
nombre de Sauuages ecrangers, qui de 
vous autres les a mandes fans m'en rien 
communiquer ? qui les doit comman- 
der? vnCapitainc reponditfortaddre- 
tement, ceux que vous voyez font des 
enfansfans peres,6cfans parens, {ans 
chefs, 6c fans conduite, leurs Capitai- 
nes qui leur fcruoient de Peres eftans 
morts 1'an paflc, ces paoures orphelinit 
fefont venus retirer vers leurs Alliez. 
Allons (cefc lt-ils dit les. vnsaux au- 
tres) allons voirnos Amis, on nous ap- 
prend qu'ils ont la guerre, allons gou- 



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&prendscellesdcquelqueSauuage,6c 
alorstum'entendras fort bien. 

Ie ne veux pas oublier vne gentille 
defaitte,accopagnecd'vne rodemon- 
tade,faiteparvnpolcron,danslecom* 
batcntreles Hurons 6c les Hiroquois, 
Vn Huron defia age-, ^pouuante a la 
veuc des feux , 6c au bruit dcs amies, 
s'enfuit fi a^iant dans Jes bois, qu'il fuc 
vn long-temps fansparoiftrctlcs vi&p- 
■fienjcnel'ayanspoint crouuccntrele* 

en I'annee 164.2. 1^ 

morts , & Ie voyant de retour, luy 
donnerent en riant quelque foubri- 
quet , luy voulant eluder leur gauffer 
rie , leur dit , mes neueux , vous n'a- 
uez pas fubjet devousrire, 6c de vous- 
gauffer de moy, fi bien de voftre laf- 
cliete : fi vous auiez autant de courage 
apourfuiure l'ennemy, comme enaeu 
voftre oncle , vous aunez plus de prf- 
fonniers que vousn'auez pas.I'aycou- 
ru fi loin, 8c fi fort, qu'enfinceuxqueie 
pourfuiuois m'ayans laffe , ie me fuis 
perdu, & fouruoye dansles bois,c'cffc 
pourqooy 1'ay ranttarde apres les au- 
tres. Les Sauuages fe payerentde cette 
raifon , non pas qu'ils ne viflent bien , 
que e'eftoit vne fauffe monnoye: mais 
ilsnefcauentquafiqueceft, decouurir 
dehonte, 8cdeconfufion levifaged'vn 
pauure homme , iamais ils ne ie pour- 
luiuent I'efpee dans les reins, pour fe 
confondrede parole, 8cpeurfemettre 
i non plus. 

Ieplaceray en ce lieu vneaction, qui 
doit eftre mile entrelesamitiez memo- 
rabies de 1'antiquite. Vn ieune Hiro- 
quoisagedei9.avingtans,s*eftantfau- 
uc dans la defai te de ces gens don t nous 

ijo Relation de la Nouuelle France, 
auons parle cy-deuant , mais en forte 
qu'il cftoit entierement liors de tout 
danger, voyant que fon frere aifne,au- 
qucl il auoit donne parole qu'il ne l'a- 
bandonneroit iamais , ne paroiffbit 
point, il s'en retournefroidementfur 
fespas, Scfedoutant bien que fonfrere 
eftoirpris,;illevieiitchcrcherentreles 
mains de fcsennemis:Il aborde les trois 
Riuiercs,ilpafTedcuantplufieursFran- 
c,oisquineluydjfentaucun mot,nele 
diftinguanspas dcs Hurons : il mcJre fur 
vnpetittertre,furlequeIleforteftba- 
%,& feva froidement affeoirau pied 



243 
d'vne croix, planteea la portedufort. 
Vn Huron 1'ayant apperceu ne fit pas 
comme les Francois, il Ie reconnut, 8c 
s'en fajfitauffi-toft,ledcpouillant 8c le 
garrottanr , 5c le faifant monter auec 
ion frere fur vn echaffaut ou eftoient 
jous lescaptifs. Ce pauure garcon in- 
jterrogepourquoyilfevenoitietterdas 
]es feux, dans les marmitres, 8c dans les 
eftomachs des Hurons fes ennemis, rc- 
pondit qu'il vouloit courir la mefme 
iortune que fon frere,&qu'il auoit plus 
d'amour pour luy, que de crainte des 
jourmens, -qu'il nauroitpeufoufFrir en 

en I'annee 2648. iji 

fon pais, le reprochede 1'auoirlafche- 
ment abandonne. Cetteamitic n'eft 
pas commune. 

II faut remarquer, icy en paflant la 
piere des Hurons Chreftiens. Quand 
ilsaborderct les trois Riuieres, & qu'ils 
vinrentapafTerdeuantcette croix po- 
fceai'enrreedufort,iIscommanderenc 
aleursprisoniersde flcchiraucc euxle 
genoiiil deuant cct arbre facre , voulac 
qu'ils reconuffciu par cctabaifiemet,la 
grandeur de celuy qui les aracheptez 
iur ce bois , 8cqu'ils luy Allen t amande 
honorable, pour auoirabbacuccllequi 
cftoj iplanreeprochede Richelieu. 
^_iCei que lesl'oiites out feint tin rapt 
deGanimedes,eftfondefurIahardieffe 
des Aigles, A n'y apaslong-tcmps,que 
Tvn de ces grands oifcaux,vintfondre 
fur vn ieune garcon age de neufans, il 
pofavnedefes pates lur fon ei'paule, 8c 
de l'aurre il le prit auec fesferrespar 
1'oreillcoppofce, ce pauure